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研究生:宋瑞文
研究生(外文):Song, Rui-Wen
論文名稱:於三維封裝技術中以鎳、鋅添加、晶粒改造及擴散控制強化電子構裝之機械可靠度
論文名稱(外文):Enhancing the Mechanical Reliability of Electronic Packaging via Ni, Zn Doping, Grain Modification and Diffusion Control in 3D-IC Technology
指導教授:杜正恭杜正恭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Duh, Jenq-Gong
口試委員:林光隆吳子嘉陳智宋振銘
口試委員(外文):Lin, Kwang-LungWu, Albert T.Chen, ChihSong, Jenn-Ming
口試日期:2021-06-10
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:材料科學工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:英文
論文頁數:164
中文關鍵詞:電子構裝低溫焊料三維封裝
外文關鍵詞:EBSDEPMAsolder3D package
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本研究之目標為探討強化三維封裝技術可靠度之方法;其中包含封裝之前段與後段製程。本研究包含透過元素添加以達成穩定的低溫銲料微銲點接合、以元素擴散控制減少接點缺陷、以熱壓接合進行精粒改造及強化。
透過鋅之添加,可透過晶粒改造,強化典型的銅/錫/銅熱壓接合之微銲點結構。另外,於未來之低溫接合方面,銅/錫鉍/銅之結構亦可透過鋅之添加達到抑制過度反應、保留錫相之效果。
於尺度較大之後段封裝中,本研究運用熱壓接合製程,達到晶粒結構之改變與銅核球銲點之強化。此方式與前段封裝中的微銲點熱壓接合強化具有高度相似之處。
最後,本研究透過添加元素,控制低溫微銲點之交互擴散,達到減少孔洞缺陷之效果。本研究中探討之方法分別包括透過製程與元素添加,進行擴散控制或晶粒控制。上述方法之整合運用可望進一步強化未來三維電子封裝之可靠度。
This work intends to explore possible methods to improve the overall 3D-IC and 3D packaging reliability, both at the front-end and back-end. The relating methods include stabilized low-temperature bonding via element doping, elemental diffusion control to decrease defects, and thermocompression for grain modification.
With the aid of Zn, the conventional Cu/Sn/Cu structure could be strengthened and utilized in near future. Moreover, Cu/Sn-Bi/Cu is another promising bonding structure. Through Zn doping, the low-temperature microbump bonding was achieved as well as retaining the compliant Sn after reaction.
In the back-end packaging domain, at the scale of BGA or micro-BGA, the implementation of Cu-core solder ball and pressurized bonding also increased mechanical strength and possibly electromigration resistance. Also, the tight space between Cu-core solder and substrate resembles that in microbumps.
Finally, methods to reduce the defects in microbumps via diffusion control was proposed in this work, while keeping the low-temperature bonding property of Cu/In/Cu. The inhibition of voids may increase conductivity and strength of microbumps. In the future, all the concepts in this study may be expanded or integrated for even better reliability in 3D electronic packaging.
摘 要 i
Abstract ii
Contents iii
List of Tables vii
Figure Captions viii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Motivations and objectives in this study 2
1.2.1 Suppressing interfacial voids in Cu/In/Cu microbump with Sn and Cu addition 5
1.2.2 IMC suppression and phase stabilization of Cu/Sn-Bi/Cu microbump via Zn doping 6
1.2.3 Increasing mechanical strength and refining grains of Cu-core solder joints with pressurized bonding 7
1.2.4 Enhancing mechanical strength of full intermetallic microbump via grain refinement by Zn in thermocompression bonding 8
Chapter 2 Literature Review 10
2.1 Electronic packaging 10
2.1.1 Flip-chip ball grid array 12
2.1.2 Three-dimensional integrated circuit 12
2.1.3 Molded core embedded package 13
2.2 Solder bumps 14
2.2.1 Lead-free Sn-based solders 15
2.2.2 Minor doping in SAC solders 16
2.2.3 Cu doping in solders 16
2.2.4 Zn doping in solders 17
2.2.5 Copper-core solder 18
2.2.6 Low temperature solders 18
2.3 Under bump metallization & General metallization 19
2.3.1 Organic surface preservative Cu (OSP Cu) & Cu-based metallization 20
2.3.2 Electroless nickel immersion gold 21
2.3.3 Electrodeposited Ni 21
2.3.4 Novel Cu-Zn metallization 22
2.4 Metallurgical reactions in solder joints 22
2.4.1 Metallurgical reactions between lead-free Sn-based solders and Cu-based UBM 23
2.4.2 Metallurgical reactions between lead-free Sn-based solders and Ni-based UBM 23
2.4.3 Effect of Ni on metallurgical reactions in lead-free tin-based solder joints 25
2.5 Crystallographic and grain structure of Cu6Sn5-based IMCs in Sn-based solders 27
2.5.1 Crystal structure of Cu6Sn5 27
2.5.2 Grain structure of Cu6Sn5 27
2.6 Microbump/ Transient-liquid-phase bonding 28
2.6.1 Interfacial reaction in microbump 28
2.6.2 Electromigration (EM) resistance 29
2.6.3 Thermomigration-assisted bonding 30
2.6.4 Thermocompression bonding (TCB) 30
2.6.5 Shear mechanical property 31
2.7 Reliability tests of solder joints 32
2.7.1 Solder ball shear tests 32
2.7.2 Die shear tests of micro-joints and full-intermetallic bonding 33
Chapter 3 Experimental Design 55
3.1 Suppressing interfacial voids in Cu/In/Cu microbump with Sn and Cu addition 55
3.2 IMC suppression and phase stabilization of Cu/Sn-Bi/Cu microbump via Zn doping 55
3.3 Increasing mechanical strength and refining grains of Cu-core solder joints with pressurized bonding 56
3.4 Enhancing mechanical strength of full intermetallic microbump via grain refinement by Zn in thermocompression bonding 57
Chapter 4 Result and Discussion 60
4.1 Suppressing Interfacial Voids in Cu/In/Cu Microbump with Sn and Cu Addition 60
4.2 IMC Suppression and Phase Stabilization of Cu/Sn-Bi/Cu microbump via Zn doping 69
4.3 Increasing Mechanical Strength and Refining Grains of Cu-core Solder Joints with Pressurized Bonding 78
4.4 Enhancing Mechanical Strength of Full Intermetallic Microbump via Grain Refinement by Zn in Thermocompression Bonding 95
4.4.1 Microstructure and Grain Structure 95
4.4.2 Mechanical Performance 98
4.4.3 Short Summary 102
Chapter 5 Conclusion 115
Appendix I Cu-Zn Electrodeposition 117
Appendix II The Inhibition of Large Primary Ag3Sn in Cu/Sn-3.5Ag/Ni-Au Microbump by Pd Addition 120
Reference 141
Publication List 162
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