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研究生:郭淑貞
研究生(外文):Kuo, Shu Chen
論文名稱:移民女性化:東南亞五國臺灣女性移民之研究
論文名稱(外文):Feminization of Migration: A Study on Overseas Female Taiwanese in Five South East Asia Countries
指導教授:關弘昌關弘昌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuan, Hung-Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:東亞學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:223
中文關鍵詞:東南亞臺灣女性移民移民女性化適應策略經濟性移民
外文關鍵詞:Southeast AsiaOverseas Taiwanese FemaleFeminization of MigrationAcculturation StrategiesEconomic Migrant
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傳統移民研究認為男性在遷徙過程裡扮演主導角色,女性移民的角色屬於「附屬的」,亦經常處於弱勢處境;但在「移民女性化」成為近來國際移民重要趨勢後,女性移民的角色宜從不同面向深入觀察。本研究目的在透過問卷調查資料與深入訪談,從臺灣女性遷移至東南亞五國的經驗進行探討,研究發現在臺灣人向東南亞拓展的過程中,女性確實逐漸佔有重要角色。首先,本研究發現多數前往東南亞的臺灣女性屬於經濟性移民或社會性移民(結婚),普遍具有高學歷背景及自主追求發展機會的特質,更發現,這些女性移民以個人移民型態居多,即她們是自己決定遷移;而從反向跨國遷移觀點切入,東南亞的臺灣女性移民在具有相對優勢下,就業與經濟發展程度較佳,進而站上更高的社會階層位置。
其次,從「就業與經濟」、「社會與文化」、「政治與國家」三個面向歸納東南亞臺灣女性移民的適應策略與同化脈絡,本研究發現她們採取「有利於己」的彈性策略在移居國生活與生存,而在追求穩定生活與工作下,她們不會費力尋求改變移居國社會的秩序,即使不喜歡或不滿意,仍舊尊重主流價值與社會制度。另一方面,她們距離真正「入境隨俗」仍有一段距離,與母國仍舊保持緊密的臍帶關係,經常流轉於母國與移居國之間,多數人亦沒有打算永久定居,心裡認為自己是客居他鄉,未來還是要「落葉歸根」。
最後,本研究觀察東南亞臺灣女性移民透過群體的共同活動建立在移居國的社會網絡,發現不僅陸續出現以女性為主體的社團,不再只有附屬於傳統社團裡的婦女部門外,擔任重要社團領導者的女性也漸漸增多;同時,她們更發展出網路社群,透過虛實互補方式,擴大臺灣女性移民的群體力量,顯示在個人、家庭與工作以外更多的自我能力展現。
Traditional migration research showed that men play a leading role in the migration process, while the role of female migrants was more “subordinate” and often in a disadvantaged situation. However, since the “feminization of migration” has become an important trend in international migration recently, there are needs for in-depth research on roles of female migrants from different perspectives. This research aimed to explore the experiences of Taiwanese women emigrating from Taiwan to five Southeast Asia countries. Through analyzing data collected from survey and in-depth interviews, this study found that Taiwanese women have gradually played a more important role in the process of emigrating to Southeast Asia. Firstly, Taiwanese female migrants mostly belong to economic and social (through marriage) migrants. They generally made their own decisions to emigrate and were highly educated and independent. With comparatively advantages, the Taiwanese female migrants in Southeast Asia had better opportunities in job market and might get higher social economic status.
Secondly, this research found that Taiwanese female migrants in Southeast Asia took "benefit to themselves" as their principle to live and survive in the country of migration after summarizing their acculturation strategies and assimilation context from the three aspects of "employment and economy," "society and culture," and "politics and country." They would not tend to change the social order of the emigrated country in order to pursuit a stable life and work; instead, they would respect and follow the mainstream values and social systems no matter like or dislike. On the other hand, since most of them did not plan to permanently settle in the emigrated countries; they normally kept certain distance from the local society and cultures, but maintained a close relationship with their home country. They often moved between their home country and the country of emigration, and believed that eventually they would go back to Taiwan.
Finally, by observing the social networks of Taiwanese female migrants in Southeast Asia, this study found that instead of the traditional female branches affiliated to male-dominated social groups, the female migrants had established more and more female-dominated groups. Female migrants not only gradually took the leading roles in the social groups, but also developed virtual network system to enhance the power of Taiwanese female migrants. This indicated that Taiwanese female migrants had strong abilities in not just their personal life, family and work but also many other aspects.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 研究範圍與研究架構 5
第四節 研究途徑與研究方法 9
第五節 名詞解釋與界定 20

第二章 移民理論對女性遷移之解釋 23
第一節 女性與跨國遷移 23
第二節 反向的跨國遷移 28
第三節 全球流動時代的移民在地發展 30
第四節 移民的適應模式與同化脈絡 36
第五節 小結 44

第三章 臺灣民眾移居東南亞五國之背景環境 45
第一節 戰後臺灣民眾向外移居之影響因素 45
第二節 東南亞五國接受外來移民之政策 52
第三節 臺灣人在東南亞五國發展概況 62

第四章 東南亞五國臺灣女性移民經驗之比較分析 75
第一節 跨越國界的流動 75
第二節 移民趨勢與變化 85
第三節 移民不同國家之探析 91
第四節 與故鄉聯繫之持續性 98
第五節 小結 100

第五章 東南亞五國臺灣女性移民發展面貌探析 103
第一節 就業與經濟 103
第二節 社會與文化 114
第三節 政治與國家 127
第四節 小結 135

第六章 個人與群體:互動與關聯 139
第一節 以臺灣女性移民為主體的社團組織 139
第二節 臺灣女性移民參與社團/社區情形 151
第三節 臺灣女性移民與母國的臍帶關係 161
第四節 小結 168

第七章 結論 169
第一節 研究發現 169
第二節 研究限制與展望 176

參考文獻 179
附錄一 199
附錄二 205
附錄三 209
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Colombo Process,網址:https://www.colomboprocess.org/about-the-colombo-process(2020年2月8日檢索)。
Singapore population in brief 2019. 網址:https://www.strategygroup.gov.sg/media-centre/publications/population-in-brief(2020年6月25日檢索)。
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