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研究生:王嘉瑜
研究生(外文):Wang, Chia-Yu
論文名稱:文本架構之視覺呈現對於讀後記憶與閱讀感想之成效
論文名稱(外文):Training on Text Structure Visual Display: Effects on Reading Recall and Reading Response
指導教授:朱錫琴朱錫琴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chu, Hsi-Chin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系英語教學碩士在職專班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:英文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:文本架構視覺呈現讀後記憶閱讀感想文本強化文本架構圖
外文關鍵詞:text structurevisual displayreading recallreading responsetextual enhancementgraphic organizer
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本研究旨在探討「文本架構之視覺呈現」(Text Structure Visual Display)的教學是否對於以英文作為外語學習的高中學生在讀後記憶與閱讀感想上有所成效。
研究對象為兩個班級共六十九位台灣高中一年級學生,其中37位為控制組,32位為實驗組。兩個班參加了為期八週共五篇課文的閱讀課程。控制組與實驗組的課程皆包含單字、文法重點與文章意義探討等,而實驗組再額外增加文本架構的教學,透過文本強化(Textual Enhancement),產出文本架構圖(Graphic Organizer)。整體課程開始的前一堂課與結束的後一堂課實施讀後記憶和閱讀感想之前測與後測,實驗組另於後測結束後進行問卷調查。從中收集的資料依性質進行量化和質性的分析,研究項目包含讀後記憶回想、文本閱讀感想、文本訊息推測和對此閱讀策略之態度。
研究結果顯示,在讀後記憶方面,由於其他因素影響,整體學生在後測填寫的回應數量相較於前測少,因此在量化統計的顯示上結果是不顯著的甚至有退步情形。控制組雖於前測時表現優於實驗組,後測時實驗組則相對表現較好,可以發現實驗組退步情形相較控制組少了許多。在文本訊息推測部分,兩組間並無差異,未顯示在正確或錯誤的訊息推論上有所影響。在閱讀感想方面,學生產出的回應依據思考層次由低至高共歸為五個類型:文本訊息(Textual)、個人經驗(Personal)、文章理解(Intellectual)、內容評論(Critical-content)、與形式評論(Critical-rhetoric)。其中,形式評論與文本架構之視覺呈現的教學有直接相關,此項在結果上呈現顯著的效果,控制組在前測表現優於實驗組,後測中實驗組的表現則高於控制組。最後,問卷資料顯示學生對此閱讀策略之態度大部分皆持正面看法。
本研究發現文本架構之視覺呈現在英語閱讀教學上有可行性,期許能提供教師作為英語閱讀策略教學之參考。
The present study aims to explore whether text structure visual display makes a difference in EFL high school students’ reading recall, reading response, inference, and perceptions toward this reading strategy.
Two classes of tenth graders, assigned to a control group (37 students) and an experimental group (32 students), participated in this study in eight weekly sessions which involved learning of five passages. Both groups were given instruction including vocabulary, grammar, and textual meaning. The experimental group was given additional treatment of text structure visual display for each of the five passages. Students had to identify the text structure in a text and fill in the graphic organizer with the support of textual enhancement. The pretest and the posttest of reading recall and reading response, conducted respectively in one class period before and after the entire treatment, were compared between groups. The task perceptions were drawn from the experimental group after their posttest. Analyses were conducted on the collected data to explore the effects of text structure visual display on students’ reading recall, reading response, inference, and perceptions of this reading strategy.
The major findings are summarized as follows: First, the effect of the training was not significant on reading recall and it showed a general regress. While the control group recalled more than the experimental group in the pretest, the latter outperformed the former in the posttest, with the regress comparatively smaller. Second, for correct and incorrect inference, no significant effect was found between groups and between the pretest and the posttest. Third, in terms of reading response, five types of response emerged from students’ response writings, listed according to its thinking level hierarchically from low to high as follows: Textual, Personal, Intellectual, Critical-content, and Critical-rhetoric. Among them, Critical-rhetoric response, which relates to text structure, revealed significant training effect. While the control group performed better in the pretest, the experimental group outperformed the control group remarkably on this type of response in the posttest. Finally, the data on the questionnaire revealed that most students held a positive attitude toward text structure visual display.
Overall, the findings in the present study suggest the feasibility and practicality of text structure visual display in English reading instruction. The findings may serve as references for incorporating text structure visual display as a reading strategy in high school English class in the future.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i
摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background and Motivation 1
Research Questions 4
Definition of Key Terms 5
Text Structure 5
Graphic Organizer 5
Recall 6

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 7
Theoretical Framework 7
Dual Coding Theory 7
The Noticing Hypothesis 8
Visual Input Enhancement 9
Visual Aids in Language Learning 10
Studies on the Effects of Text Structure Visual Display and its Training on Reading Comprehension and Recall 12

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 17
Pilot Study 17
Main Study 20
Participants 20
Treatment 21
Treatment Materials 21
Treatment Procedure 23
Data Collection 26
Data Collection Materials 26
Reading Passages for the Pretest and Posttest 26
Recall and Response Sheet 27
Perception Questionnaire 29
Data Collection Procedure 29
Data Analysis 30
Scoring 30
Scoring of Written Recall 30
Scoring of Inference 31
Scoring of Written Response 32
Scoring of Perception Questionnaire 34

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 35
Analyses of the Results of Recall, Inference, Response, and Perception 35
RQ1: Does the training of text structure visual display make a difference in high school students’ written recall of text at three levels of textual importance? 36
RQ2: Does the training of text structure visual display make a difference in high school students’ inference making in written recall? 39
RQ3: Does the training of text structure visual display make a difference in high school students’ five types of written response to the text? 41
RQ4: How do high school students perceive text structure visual display in reading? 44

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 52
The Effect of Text Structure Visual Display on Recall and Inference 52
The Effect of Text Structure Visual Display on Response 54
Students’ Perceptions of Text Structure Visual Display 56
Pedagogical Implications 58
Limitations and Implications for Future Studies 60
Conclusion 61

REFERENCES 62

APPENDIXES 72
Appendix A. Example Passage for Treatment (Partially-completed) 72
Appendix B. Example Passage for Treatment (Without clues) 74
Appendix C. Recall and Response Sheet 76
Appendix D. Perception Questionnaire (Chinese Version) 78
Appendix E. Questionnaire for Disrupting Memory Before Recall Test 82
Appendix F. Passages for Pretest and Posttest 83
Appendix G. Pausal Units of Passages for Pretest and Posttest 85
Appendix H. Weighted Pausal Unit System for Coding 87
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