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研究生:邱怡婷
研究生(外文):Chiu, I-Ting
論文名稱:國小中年級閱讀理解困難學童口語理解能力之探討
論文名稱(外文):The study of oral language comprehension abilities in middle graders with poor reading comprehension
指導教授:劉惠美劉惠美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu, Huei-Mei
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:152
中文關鍵詞:閱讀理解困難口語理解基礎語言能力高階語言能力詞彙語法推論文本結構理解監控
外文關鍵詞:reading comprehension difficultiesoral language comprehensionlower-level language skillshigher-level language skillsvocabularysyntaxinferencecomprehension monitoringtext structure
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本研究的主要目的為探討國小中年級閱讀理解困難學童與一般學童在多項口語理解能力,包括基礎語言能力與高階語言能力上的差異,以及多項口語理解能力與閱讀理解能力之間的關聯性。同時,也探討多項口語理解能力對閱讀理解能力的解釋力。最後,基於口語理解與閱讀理解在篇章層次皆有相似處理歷程,研究也探討使用口語敘事聽理解能力對區別閱讀理解困難學童的預測力。

研究對象為61名國小中年級學童,包括27名閱讀理解困難學童,以及34名對照生理年齡的一般學童。所有受試者皆以非語文智力測驗、標準化識字測驗及標準化閱讀理解測驗,排除識字與智力問題,作為篩選和分組之依據;以標準化語言測驗測量兩組學童的詞彙與語法能力;並以自編的高階語言能力相關測驗測量推論理解、文本結構與理解監控能力。

本研究的主要發現包括:
一、 國小中年級學童在不同詞彙、推論理解、理解監控能力的表現有難易度之差異。
二、 閱讀理解困難學童與一般生理年齡學童在多項口語理解能力上有顯著差異,包括在基礎語言能力與高階語言能力上均表現較一般對照組學童差,且閱讀理解困難學童於口語理解能力上缺陷並未侷限在單一的口語理解能力向度。
三、 在控制學童之生理年齡、非語文智力、工作記憶與識字能力的影響後,口語理解能力仍然與閱讀理解能力有關。基礎語言能力與高階語言能力對閱讀理解能力具獨立的變異解釋量,其中語法能力與文本結構能力能對閱讀理解能力有直接的影響,而詞彙能力與推論理解能力能對閱讀理解能力有間接的影響效果。
四、 國小中年級學童依閱讀理解能力高低進行分類的組別,可由學童的推論理解與文本結構的口語敘事聽理解能力加以預測與區分。

總結而言,本研究發現國小中年級閱讀理解困難學童的口語理解能力有缺陷,且同時出現在不同的口語理解能力上,研究結果支持閱讀理解困難學童的困難是同時涵蓋閱讀與口語理解能力的領域一般缺陷。研究也發現學童的基礎語言能力與高階語言能力可以預測閱讀理解能力,且分別對閱讀理解能力有直接與間接效果,支持閱讀簡單觀點的理論,口語理解能力為閱讀理解能力之必要成份,同時也支持口語理解能力為多向度而非單向度的觀點。本研究對未來學齡兒童閱讀與口語能力研究,以及閱讀理解困難學童的臨床介入與教學提出相關的建議。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the oral language comprehension ability in Mandarin-speaking middle-grade students with poor reading comprehension. The study examined the oral language comprehension ability in different dimensions, which included the language abilities at both lower-level and higher-level skills. This study also explored the relationship between oral language comprehension and reading comprehension. The predictive power of oral language comprehension to reading comprehension was examined.

This study recruited 61 middle graders, including twenty-seven students with reading comprehension difficulties (RD) and 34 chronological age (CA) controls. All the participants have typical nonverbal intelligence and do not have word recognition difficulties. The abilities of vocabulary, syntax, inference, text structure and comprehension monitoring were assessed by standardized tests and self-designed computerized tasks. The performances of the two groups of students were compared. The results showed that middle-grade students performed differently on each of the oral language comprehension measures. The oral language comprehension deficits were shown in the RD group compared to their peers. RD groups performed poorly in all oral language comprehension measures, including lower-and higher-level language skills. In addition, after control of the effects of age, nonverbal IQ, working memory, and word recognition ability, oral language comprehension abilities were significantly correlated with reading comprehension ability. Furthermore, the performance of individuals’ oral narrative comprehension can significantly predict the students being categorized into the TD or RD groups.

The results confirmed that Mandarin-speaking middle graders with reading comprehension difficulties also exhibit oral language comprehension deficits. Their difficulties are not limited to the reading process but might be also in oral language comprehension. In addition, individuals’ lower-level and higher-level language skills demonstrated different contributions to reading comprehension with direct or indirect effects, which provides supportive evidence to the theory of simple view of reading, and the viewpoint that there are multidimensional components in oral language comprehension. The suggestions and implications for future related researches, clinical assessment, and intervention for students with reading comprehension difficulties were discussed.
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的與研究問題 5
第三節 名詞釋義 7

第二章 文獻探討
第一節 閱讀理解困難學童的特性 10
第二節 口語理解與閱讀理解的關聯性 18
第三節 閱讀理解困難學童的口語理解能力研究 33

第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究設計與架構 40
第二節 研究對象 42
第三節 研究工具 48
第四節 研究程序 75
第五節 資料處理與分析 78

第四章 結果與討論
第一節 不同閱讀能力學童的口語理解能力表現 81
第二節 口語理解與閱讀理解能力間的關係 95
第三節 口語理解能力對閱讀理解能力的解釋力與區別力 103
第四節 綜合討論 112

第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論 122
第二節 研究限制 124
第三節 建議 126

參考文獻 130
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