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研究生:黃盈晨
研究生(外文):Huang, Ying-Chen
論文名稱:格鬥與生存─身體面向的勇氣現象學
論文名稱(外文):Fighting and Survival: Phenomenology of Courage in the Body Dimension
指導教授:劉一民劉一民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu, I-Min
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:體育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文出版年:2020
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:418
中文關鍵詞:存在的勇氣身體主體矛盾結構在世存有格鬥選手
外文關鍵詞:courage of existencebodily subjectcontradictory structurebeing-in-the-worldfighting player
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格鬥是一個相當隨機且極具傷害的地運動,格鬥選手在擂台上時,常常會遭遇到種種失敗、痛苦與傷害的威脅,導致其陷入嚴重的恐懼與焦慮當中,甚至有時會出現許多失常或脫序的行為。然而,亦有許多的選手,在面對這種艱困的處境或強大的敵人時,仍舊能不怕打擊與受傷,縱使傷痕累累,也能繼續面對攻擊而勇往直前。本研究嘗試探究這種不畏威脅而繼續向前的勇氣,並且試圖找到一種能讓選手勇往直前的方法。故我們首先梳理了當代與勇氣相關的討論,試圖釐清勇氣一詞的意涵,在琳瑯滿目的各種勇氣的一般定義中,發現其基底為主動態的欲求與選擇,以及被動態的堅毅,然而縱使如此,當代的勇氣討論仍與我們有些距離與應用上的困難。之後我們透過轉向田立克 (Paul Tillich, 1886-1965) 與羅洛梅 (Rollo May, 1909-1994) 的討論,對更深層的存在勇氣,及與其相對的焦慮進行探討,發現勇氣須回到個人的存在層次上進行處理,同時勇氣在這裡被認為是一種具有「不顧」性質的自我肯定,我們在這基礎上更進一步地將其推論為,一種存在的向前推進的行動。雖然這些討論相較於一般勇氣而言,更貼近個人的處境,但由於其過度偏向精神性的討論,進而也忽略了身體的向度,導致我們在面對格鬥選手處境的了解上仍有一定的難度。為了補足身體的向度,我們轉向從梅洛龐蒂 (Maurice Merleau-Ponty, 1908-1961)《知覺現象學(Phenomenology of Perception)》,與Arthur Frank (1946-)《受傷的說故事的人 (The Wounded Storyteller: Body, Illness, and Ethics)》的觀點中進行補充,並透過與當代的疼痛研究,以及現今流行的格鬥訓練思維的對話,進而發現了格鬥選手置身的矛盾處境及與其相對應的勇氣。在這裡我們發現,作為一個身體主體,當其走向格鬥世界時,將不可避免地遭受到世界的吸引與種種的威脅,同時由於其身體作為各種運動相互綜合與衝突的場所,使得這一身體主體終將不斷地遭受到矛盾與衝突的騷擾,故其作為一種在處境下的「有限的自由」,最終,僅能在與世界的「召喚─回應」結構中,擺出姿勢繼續掙扎著。格鬥主體本身就處在這一矛盾與衝突的處境中,繼續在充滿著失敗、痛苦與傷害的環境中繼續掙扎,問題不在於不顧威脅,而是面對威脅時,透過行動去解答:我該怎麼辦?此一生存問題。勇氣體現在於這種格鬥主體為了他的計劃而不願離開時,所採取的一系列行動,這種行動通常以一種掙扎的樣態進行表達,而勇氣就在這種掙扎當中被揭示。因此,縱使格鬥世界如何地殘酷與艱難,但由於格鬥主體始終在形成與轉變中,並且能介入自己的形成,因此只要格鬥主體抱著他的計劃不放,繼續在種種的矛盾與衝突中,以及面對著種種的威脅與攻擊,卻仍繼續朝著計劃與世界走去。當我們放下一種普遍勇氣的追求,而轉向個人存在時,最終無論其表現是好或壞、光榮與難堪,這種掙扎都表達了一種格鬥的勇氣。最後,我們發現,無論是當代人亦或是選手,就其處境而言,勇氣體現在這一句話當中:想辦法,活下去。
Fighting is a sport which is random and harmful. When fighting in the arena, players often encounter a variety of threats and failures, agony and injuries, which lead to serious fear and anxiety, and even abnormal or unusual behaviors. However, many players, in the face of such a difficult situation or a powerful opponent, are still not afraid of blows and injuries. Though wounded, the fighting player still unflinchingly continues to face the attack. This dissertation attempts to explore the unyielding and unflinching courage to keep moving forward, despite threats, and tries to find a way to make the player move forward audaciously. We begin by examining contemporary discussions of courage in an attempt to clarify the meaning of the word “courage.” In the wide variety of definitions of courage, we can find that the active desire and choice are its essence on the one hand and the passive persistence on the other hand. However, the contemporary discussion on courage is somewhat distant and difficult to apply. Then the discussion turns to Paul Tillich (1886-1965) and Rollo May (1909-1994) in order to examine the deep courage of existence and its anxiety. The dissertation finds that courage must be dealt with the dimension of individual existence; courage is in this context regarded as a kind of self-affirmation with the nature of “in spite of.” Based on the above contention, we further extend our discussion that the action of moving forward in existence. Although these discussions are closer to the individual’s situation than to general definition of courage, they fail to discuss the bodily dimension by focusing heavily on the spiritual dimension. This becomes more difficult for us to understand the situation of the fighting players in the arena. To patch the discussion of bodily dimension, the dissertation turned to Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s (1908-1961) Phenomenology of Perception and Arthur Frank’s (1946- ) The Wounded Storyteller: Body, Illness, and Ethics. Through the contemporary research on pain and the training concept of fighting, the dissertation discovers that the contradictory situation and corresponding courage amidst the fighters. The researcher discovers that as a body subject, it will inevitably be subjected to the attractions and threats of the world when it enters the world of fighting. Meanwhile, as a place where various movements mingle and collide with one another, the body subject will be constantly harassed by collisions and conflicts. In this regard, it can be regarded as a “limited freedom” in this situation. In the end, it can only continually strive and struggle by posing in the “calling and response” structure with the world. The fighting subject itself is in this situation of contradiction and conflict, continually struggling in the environment full of failures, agony and injuries. However, the question does not rely on whether one disregards the threats, but whether one responds through action: What should I do? This is a question that concerns existence. Courage shows that the fighting subject in the series of actions taken when he or she does not want to leave his plans. This action as such is often expressed in the form of a struggle from which courage is revealed. Thus, no matter how cruel and difficult the fighting world can be, the fighting subject is always forming and transforming, and it can intervene itself in its own formation. As long as the fighting subject sticks to its plan, it can still go on the plan and the world, even though in the face of contradictions and conflicts, threats and attacks. When one drops the pursuit of a universal courage and turn to his/her individual existence, the struggle expresses the courage of combat after all, whether its performance be good or bad, glorious or embarrassing. In a nutshell, the dissertation discovers that courage, both for the current generation and for the players, can in their situation embodies this statement: Let’s find a way to survive and thrive.
謝辭 i
中文摘要 ii
英文摘要 iv
目次 vi

第壹章緒論 1
第一節研究背景 3
一、何為格鬥 3
二、格鬥的可怕 7
三、格鬥的勇敢 10
第二節研究課題與目的 14
第三節研究限制與研究範圍 25
一、研究限制 25
二、研究範圍 25
第四節研究的重要性 27
第五節名詞解釋 28


第貳章核心思想探討 32
第一節勇氣的追問 32
一、東方的勇氣 32
二、西方的勇氣 38
第二節存在的勇氣 53
一、恐懼與焦慮 54
二、一般勇氣的問題 60
三、存在的勇氣 65
第三節另一條路 83


第參章存在、身體與運動 86
第一節勇氣與梅洛龐蒂 88
第二節梅洛龐蒂與現象學 90
第三節核心概念的探索 103
一、知覺 103
二、身體 109
三、在世界中存在的運動 115
四、他人 128
五、自由 132
六、勇氣 138


第肆章直接性的可怕- 159
第一節傷害與痛苦 159
一、傷害與痛苦前延 159
二、痛苦的身體 164
三、在世之痛 175
第二節痛苦敘事 188
一、一般的痛苦敘事 189
二、身體所說出的故事 200
第三節格鬥的痛苦 210
一、格鬥的疼痛敘事 210
二、格鬥的難受敘事 219
三、格鬥的痛苦敘事與直接性的可怕 230
四、格鬥的後退運動 248


第伍章格鬥的勇氣 295
第一節格鬥與勇氣 297
一、訓練與勇氣 299
二、對打與勇氣 312
三、生存與勇氣 322
四、風格與勇氣 332
五、意義與勇氣 348
六、真正的勇氣 357
第二節如何勇敢 365
一、定位與責任 366
二、存在訓練 372
三、計劃與劇本 378
四、風格與信念 383


第陸章結語 392
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網路資料

中國哲學書電子化計劃,ctext.org/confucianism/zh?searchu=%E5%8B%87,2019年12月15日讀取。
中國哲學書電子化計劃,ctext.org/school-of-the-military/zh?searchu=%E5%8B%87&page=4,2019年12月15日讀取。
台灣師大圖書館【寒泉】古典文獻全文檢索資料庫,skqs.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/dragon/?fbclid=IwAR2H0v_FetD4lY_Wihce5EslC_RwoRFaP999ds8Btv96acMsdgbLEYAohik,2019年12月15日讀取。
衛爾良:〈【跆拳道】從功夫時代、踢王決、武跆王、PRO-TKD看職業化可能〉,武備誌,2018年3月1日www.hk01.com/%E6%AD%A6%E5%82%99%E5%BF%97/164229/%E8%B7%86%E6%8B%B3%E9%81%93-%E5%BE%9E%E5%8A%9F%E5%A4%AB%E6%99%82%E4%BB%A3-%E8%B8%A2%E7%8E%8B%E6%B1%BA-%E6%AD%A6%E8%B7%86%E7%8E%8B-pro-tkd%E7%9C%8B%E8%81%B7%E6%A5%AD%E5%8C%96%E5%8F%AF%E8%83%BD,2020年11月15日讀取。
關鍵時刻,〈從太極到詠春 碰上MMA跟泰拳完全一個大悲劇!關鍵時刻20180321-6朱學恒〉,Youtube,2018年3月21日,www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_00jeDFFqo,2020年11月15日讀取。
Joe W,〈被KO太極大師雷雷:如果我真用内力,可能就出人命了〉,Youtube,2017年5月3日,www.youtube.com/watch?v=eJfy1Egtm9o,2020年11月15日讀取。
Purported land,〈MMA vs Wing Chun Kung fu 徐曉東與丁浩比賽的高清視頻回放〉,Youtube,2018年7月26日,www.youtube.com/watch?v=O3UzahOPhI0,2020年11月15日讀取。
Purported land,〈熊呈呈KO詠春余昌華 (高清) Chinese MMA guy VS. Wing Chun Kung-Fu master〉,Youtube,2018年3月18日,www.youtube.com/watch?v=vm-8jBN4V0M,2020年11月15日讀取。
Sunnybrook Hospital,〈How using a mirror can relieve phantom pain〉,Youtube,2020年4月15日,www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Vkb2iz5Ue0,2020年11月15日讀取。
TK4 Finals : Buakaw Banchamek VS Khayal Dzhaniev,Youtube,2015年8月5日 www.youtube.com/watch?v=j7JCYMxsDdc, 2019年11月15日讀取。
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