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研究生:鍾嘉怡
研究生(外文):Chong, Kah-Yee
論文名稱:動物同理心課程成效之研究–以臺北市立動物園黑猩猩戶外教學為例
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Empathy for Animal Education: Chimpanzees at Taipei Zoo
指導教授:王順美王順美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang, Shun-Mei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:環境教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:動物同理心動物園國小戶外教育黑猩猩
外文關鍵詞:empathy for animalzoo educationoutdoor educationchimpanzee
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本研究探討臺北市立動物園合作研究計畫中所研發的「黑猩猩同理心課程」是否有效培養學生對黑猩猩的同理心,深化其對動物的理解與關懷。研究採用混合設計方法,研究工具參考使用測量動物同理心計畫(MECAP)所研發的問卷和觀察單(Jackson, Owen, Khalil, & Wharton, 2015),再加上學生的觀察記錄、學習單與教師訪談分析。研究對象為131名臺北市及新北市國小三年級學生。

研究結果發現,黑猩猩同理心課程有效培養學生對黑猩猩的認知移情、情感移情和同理關懷。學生能夠視黑猩猩為個體,以黑猩猩的角度進一步深入理解其需求與感同身受。課程中學生對黑猩猩非常好奇與興趣,而課程前後對黑猩猩的態度與感知都有顯著差異。在認知移情部分,學生能夠正確辨識黑猩猩與其生理特徵、了解黑猩猩的行為動作與情感表現、理解黑猩猩的需求、將動物園環境與野外做對比以及比較自己與黑猩猩的差異。情感移情部分,學生能夠感知及預測黑猩猩的情緒,進行換位思考與感同身受。在量化問卷中,學生對其他動物的情感移情也有顯著差異。而同理關懷的部分,學生對黑猩猩及其他動物都表現愛惜與尊重。學生的自我效能感及同理關懷行為意圖也都達到顯著差異。課程結束後,學生參訪動物園期間,對其他動物持續保持友善的態度與行為。學生對黑猩猩的同理心不只是能夠延伸至其他動物,也可以運用在自身生活,協助理解他人及改善人際關係。

在培養同理心的過程中,課程的設計尤其故事教學、實地觀察體驗以及教學者的引導與言行合一,扮演非常重要的角色。在參訪動物園之前,可以透過故事教學的行前教育發展對動物的認知移情,更能深入培養情感移情與同理關懷。這動物同理心課程可能可以協助減少學生因為對動物認知不足或缺乏情感連結,而對動物產生負面的態度和行為。
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the Empathy for Chimpanzee Program, developed in a collaborative research project with Taipei Zoo. 131 third grade students participated in this study. In a mixed methods approach, a quantitative pre-post survey, developed by Measuring Empathy: Collaborative Assessment Project, MECAP and modified by the researcher, was conducted together with qualitative observation, analysis of learning sheets and interviews of teachers in order to evaluate the students’ expressions of empathy. The results of the study found that the Empathy for Chimpanzee Program was effective in fostering students’ cognitive empathy, affective empathy and empathic concern towards animals. Students showed strong interest and curiosity towards the chimpanzees. They could recognize chimpanzees as individuals, and were able to take on their perspective and understand their needs. There are significant differences in the students’ perception of chimpanzee before and after the program. In regards to cognitive empathy, students were able to identify chimpanzees and understand their needs and behaviors. They could even compare the living environment in zoo versus the wild, and the differences between chimpanzees and themselves. As for affective empathy, students were able to perceive and predict chimpanzees’ emotions. There were also significant differences in students’ affective empathy with other animals. Regarding empathic concern, students showed positive attitudes, and behaviors especially love and respects for chimpanzees. Significant differences were also spotted in students’ self-efficacy in supporting positive behavior. The students maintained positive attitudes and behaviors towards other animals even after the program. Students’ empathy for chimpanzee can be extended not only to other animals, but also in their own lives, especially in understanding others and improving social skills. The research concludes that story teaching, field observation experience, and the guidance and modeling of the teacher play a vital role in promoting empathy towards animals. Storytelling programs that aim to develop cognitive empathy, before visiting the zoo, can increase affective empathy and empathic concern in greater measures. Empathy for Animal program may help to reduce students’ negative attitudes and behaviors due to insufficient cognition or lack of emotional connections at the zoo.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
謝誌 v
目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 x

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機 1
第三節 研究目的與研究問題 3
第四節 名詞界定 4

第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 動物園的保育教育角色與現況議題 7
第二節 動物同理心 13

第三章 研究方法 31
第一節 研究場域與黑猩猩同理心課程 31
第二節 研究架構與設計 36
第三節 研究工具 41
第四節 資料蒐集 44
第五節 資料分析 48
第六節 研究限制 52

第四章 結果與討論 55
第一節 學生的黑猩猩經驗、感知與態度 55
第二節 學生在課程中的學習表現 60
第三節 學生對黑猩猩的同理心 63
第四節 綜合討論 80

第五章 研究結論 85
第一節 研究發現 85
第二節 研究建議 89

參考文獻 95
附錄一 動物同理心課程內容 106
附錄二 問卷 108
附錄三 學生觀察記錄單 110
附錄四 學習心得 111
附錄五 研究觀察記錄 112
附錄六 黑猩猩同理心課程照片 115
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