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研究生:梁月美
研究生(外文):NOPPADOLSATHAN KAMOLWAN
論文名稱:泰籍華語學習者說話清晰度與聲學分析
論文名稱(外文):Acoustic Analysis and Speech Intelligibility in Thai Mandarin Learners
指導教授:徐東伯徐東伯引用關係劉惠美劉惠美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dong-Bo HsuHuei-Mei Liu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:華語文教學系
學門:人文學門
學類:中國語文學類
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:199
中文關鍵詞:泰國人華語語音教學語音產生外語口音二語習得
外文關鍵詞:ThaiTCLspeech productionforeign accentsecond language acquisition
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本研究針對泰籍華語學習者的口語進行評估,以說話清晰度和聲學分析為測量方法,了解泰籍華語學習者在聲學訊號和說話清晰度的表現。同時,探討聲學特徵和清晰度兩者間的關聯,找出影響清晰度主要的聲學參數,以探知造成學習者清晰度降低的因素。
本研究以二十名在台灣學習華語之泰籍學習者為研究對象,二十名母語者為參照組,再由六十名母語者進行聽知覺評分,採項目辨識法作為詞語清晰度的評分方式,語句和短文清晰度以視覺類比結合直接大小估計法作為清晰度的評估方式。以十二項最小語音對比的雙音節語詞,作為說話清晰度與聲學分析的材料。雙音節語詞包括「前後元音」、「展圓唇元音」、「高低元音」、「送氣與否塞擦音」、「送氣與否塞音」、「擦音與塞擦音」、「擦音與塞音」、「舌尖前音與舌尖後音」、「塞音部位」、「平調與升調」、「平調與降調」及「二聲及三聲」華語語音對比。此外,也以十個語句和一篇短文作為不同層次口語溝通的說話清晰度材料,測量其語句和短文清晰度。
研究結果顯示泰籍華語學習者在三個不同語言層次的說話清晰度表現,在語詞清晰度表現最佳,而短文和句子清晰度表現較差。學習者清晰度和聲學特徵與母語者相似為:「前後元音」、「高低元音」、「擦音與塞音」。影響清晰度之聲學特徵為:圓唇元音/y/的F2偏差將被判斷為/i/或者/u/;送氣塞擦音的噪音時長較長將被判斷為擦音;轉折點偏差會影響二聲和三聲的清晰度。期許透過本研究之清晰度及聲學分析結果,能對如何提升華語學習者口語溝通能力提供參考。
In this study, the spoken language of Thai Mandarin learners was evaluated. Speech intelligibility and acoustic analysis were used as measurement methods to understand the performance of acoustic signals and speech intelligibility of Thai Mandarin learners. At the same time, the correlation between acoustic parameters and intelligibility is tested to find out the main acoustic parameters that affect intelligibility, so as to detect the factors that cause the learner's intelligibility to decrease.
The sample participants tested in this study included twenty Thai learners who study Mandarin in Taiwan. Then, twenty native speakers served as the reference group, and the auditory perception scores were provided by sixty native speakers. Item identification method was used to evaluate word intelligibility. Then, the intelligibility of sentences and passages was determined by the combination of a visual analogue scale and a direct magnitude estimation method. Moreover, two-syllable words with twelve minimum phonetic contrasts were used as materials for speech intelligibility and acoustic analysis. The two-syllable words included: front-back vowel, rounded-unrounded vowel, high-low vowel, aspirated-unaspirated affricate, aspirated-unaspirated stop, fricative and affricate, fricative and stop, retroflex and nonretroflex, place of stop articulation, flat and rising tone, flat and falling tone, and contrasts between tone two and tone three. In addition, ten sentences and a short essay were used as the speaking intelligibility materials for measuring the intelligibility of the sentences and phrases of different levels of oral communication.
The study showed that Thai Mandarin learners performed the best in word intelligibility at three different language levels, while they performed quite poor in short passages and sentences. The learners’ intelligibility and acoustic characteristics that are similar to those of native speakers are front-back vowel, high-low vowel, and friction and stop. Moreover, the acoustic characteristics that affect intelligibility are: the F2 deviation of the round-lip vowel /y/ being judged as /i/ or /u/, longer noise duration of the aspiration affricate being judged as a fricative, and the turning point deviation that affects the intelligibility of tone two and tone three. It is hoped that by taking into account the intelligibility and acoustic analysis results of this research, the effectiveness of Chinese learners' oral communication ability will be improved.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究範圍與名詞解釋 4
壹、 華語 4
貳、 泰籍華語學習者 5
參、 說話清晰度 6
肆、 外語口音 7
伍、 聲學分析 7
第二章 文獻探討 9
第一節 說話清晰度的概念與測量 9
壹、 清晰度的定義 9
貳、 清晰度的測量 13
第二節 影響說話清晰度與口音測量的變項 17
壹、 說話者的特質 17
貳、 聽話者的特質 19
參、 說話材料的特性 21
第三節 第二語語音習得的理論與假說 24
壹、 學習者母語之影響 24
貳、 自然語言語音學之普遍特質 30
第四節 華泰語聲韻調語音系統對比 35
壹、 華語輔音的語音特徵 35
貳、 泰語輔音的語音特徵 36
參、 華語和泰語之輔音對比 37
肆、 華語元音的語音特徵 38
伍、 泰語元音的語音特徵 39
陸、 華語和泰語之元音對比 39
柒、 華語聲調的語音特徵 40
捌、 泰語聲調的語音特徵 40
玖、 華語和泰語的聲調對比 41
第五節 泰籍華語學習者的說華語特性 42
壹、 元音常見的語音偏誤 44
貳、 輔音常見的語音偏誤 45
參、 聲調常見的語音偏誤 46
第六節 華語主要的聲學特徵 47
壹、 元音的聲學特徵 48
貳、 輔音的聲學特徵 49
參、 聲調的聲學特徵 53
第三章 研究方法 55
第一節 語言樣本的採集 56
壹、 研究對象 56
貳、 語音材料 58
參、 錄音程序 64
肆、 言語樣本處理 66
第二節 說話清晰度的測量 67
壹、 評分者 67
貳、 評分方法與步驟 67
參、 資料分析 70
第三節 語音聲學分析 71
壹、 分析者 71
貳、 測量方法 71
參、 聲學參數的統計分析 76
肆、 信度考驗 76
第四章 結果與討論 77
第一節 清晰度評量結果 77
壹、 整體清晰度 77
貳、 語詞清晰度 83
參、 句子清晰度 90
第二節 聲學測量結果 94
壹、 前後元音 95
貳、 展圓唇元音 96
參、 高低元音 98
肆、 送氣與否塞擦音 99
伍、 送氣與否塞音 103
陸、 擦音與塞擦音 106
柒、 擦音與塞音 110
捌、 舌尖前音與舌尖後音 112
玖、 塞音內不同發音部位 118
壹拾、 平調與升調 121
壹拾壹、 平調與降調 124
壹拾貳、 二聲和三聲 126
第三節 清晰度與聲學特徵之關聯 132
壹、 學習者清晰度佳,且聲學參數與母語者相似 132
貳、 學習者的清晰度佳,但聲學參數與母語者偏差 133
參、 學習者的清晰度低,且聲學參數與母語者偏差 135
第四節 綜合討論 152
壹、 語詞的清晰度低於句子和短文的清晰度 152
貳、 影響圓唇元音/y/清晰度的因素 153
參、 影響塞擦音清晰度的因素 154
肆、 影響「二聲與三聲」清晰度的因素 156
伍、 學習者年齡因素 157
第五章 結論 161
第一節 主要發現 161
壹、 學習者輔音清晰度最低,短文和句子較語詞清晰度差 161
貳、 學習者清晰度佳,且聲學參數與母語者相似 162
參、 學習者的清晰度佳,但聲學參數與母語者偏差 162
肆、 學習者的清晰度低,且聲學參數與母語者偏差 162
第二節 未來研究方向 163
第三節 華語學習者應用上的意涵 167
參考文獻 169
附錄 182
附錄一、 說話者材料的華語語詞 182
附錄二、 說話材料的華語句子 186
附錄三、 說話材料的華語短文 187
附錄四、 華語句子的聲韻調分布 188
附錄五、 華語短文的聲韻調分布 189
附錄六、 評分者基本資料及語言背景資料調查表 190
附錄七、 語詞評分單 193
附錄八、 句子、短文清晰度評分單 194
附錄九、 語句清晰度得分 194
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