跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.84.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/05 01:12
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李旻學
研究生(外文):Li, Min-Xue
論文名稱:探索工作壓力對幸福感之影響,休閒調適、知覺組織支持與知覺主管支持之調節效果—以臺灣連鎖咖啡廳為例
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Job Stress on Well-being, and the Moderating Effects of Leisure Coping, Perceived Organizational Support, and Perceived Supervisor Support: The case of branded coffee chains in Taiwan
指導教授:麥康妮
指導教授(外文):Athena H.N. Mak
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:運動休閒與餐旅管理研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:運動休閒及休閒管理學類
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:144
中文關鍵詞:工作壓力休閒調適知覺組織支持知覺主管支持幸福感
外文關鍵詞:Job StressLeisure CopingPerceived Organizational SupportPerceived Supervisor SupportWell-being
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:43
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
根據行政院主計處於2019年在受雇員工薪資調查資料顯示,餐飲業員工每月平均薪資在所有產業之中偏低,但平均工時與離職率卻皆為所有產業中較高的指標。本研究以臺灣地區連鎖咖啡廳從業人員為對象,探討其工作壓力、休閒調適、知覺組織支持、知覺主管支持與幸福感之影響,採立意抽樣方式進行問卷調查,受測對象為現職三個月以上之正式員工,並以多元線性迴歸分析探討其工作壓力、休閒調適、知覺組織支持、知覺主管支持與幸福感之影響程度。本研究之正式問卷透過實體與網路方式進行發放,共計發放392份,有效問卷為319份,有效樣本率為81.4%,研究工具為工作壓力量表、休閒調適量表、知覺組織支持量表、知覺主管支持量表與幸福感量表,並以敘述性統計、獨立樣本t檢定、單因子變異數分析與多元線性迴歸分析進行資料處理與分析。研究結果顯示:工作壓力當中的四個構面對幸福感皆有顯著的負向影響,其中以角色衝突的負面影響最為明顯,而在休閒調適的三個構面當中,以友伴式休閒的調節效果最為明顯,且知覺組織支持與知覺主管支持,皆對工作壓力影響幸福感具有正向的調節效果。本研究之結果建議管理者與員工可透過降低雙方之間做事原則相互衝突的情況,以及員工可嘗試將自身人格特質與公司理念相互結合,以降低工作壓力當中角色衝突與角色模糊的負面影響,同時也建議員工可適時透過休閒參與來減輕工作壓力以達到舒緩身心的效果,而在管理者方面亦可透過來自組織或主管的支持以協助提升員工在工作中整體的幸福感受。
Taiwan’s coffee market has been booming over the last decade. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Finance, the number of coffee beans imported has grown 2.1 times from 2008 to 2018. The import volume of coffee beans is estimated to reach new heights in the future. The Ministry of Economic Affairs has also indicated that there were more than 3,403 coffee shops in Taiwan as of March 2019. However, in the coffee shop industry, especially branded coffee chains, the working environment is often characterized by irregular and long working hours, high level of role pressure, and frequent work overload. When an employee faces such a stressful situation, he or she may easily become anxious, which in turn leads to dissatisfaction and negative emotions towards work, and eventually a decreased sense of well-being. Previous studies have identified a negative relationship between work-related stress and employees’ well-being in other industries. Moreover, some research has showed that leisure coping, and higher levels of perceived organizational support and perceived supervisor support may have positive moderating effects on the relationship between job stress and well-being both in and outside of work. Nonetheless, these relationships and effects have not been empirically investigated in the coffee shop industry context. To reduce this research gap, this study attempts to examine the effect of job stress on the well-being by using the employees of branded coffee chains in Taiwan, and to explore the moderating effects of leisure coping, perceived organizational support, perceived supervisor support on the relation between job stress and well-being. A quantitative survey approach has been adopted. The measuring instruments were developed based on a comprehensive literature review and were further validated by eight experts in the hospitality field. A purposive sampling was used to recruit eligible respondents in this study. The respondents were full-time employees who have been employed for more than three months in branded coffee chains. A total of 392 responses were received, and 319 valid responses was obtained, with a response rate of 81.4%. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship among job stress, leisure coping, perceived organizational support, perceived supervisor support, and well-being. The results showed that all the four dimensions of job stress (i.e., workload, utilization of skills, role conflict, and role ambiguity) have significant negative effects on well-being. Among these dimensions, the negative impact of role conflict was found to be the most significant., Among the two dimensions of leisure coping (i.e., leisure palliative coping, and leisure companionship), leisure companionship has the most significant moderating effect. The results also indicated that both perceived organizational support and perceived supervisor support have a significant positive moderating effect on well-being. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that employees may try to adjust their mindset to the company's philosophy to reduce the negative effects of role conflicts and job stress. Moreover, employees may participate in leisure activities, especially leisure companionship to reduce job stress. Finally, branded coffee chains managers may also increase the level of organization or supervisor support as a means to enhance employee’s overall well-being.
謝辭 i
中文摘要 iii
英文摘要 iv
目次 vi
表次 ix
圖次 xi

第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 研究重要性 6
第四節 名詞解釋 6

第貳章 文獻探討 9
第一節 連鎖咖啡廳 9
第二節 工作壓力 13
第三節 休閒調適 18
第四節 知覺組織支持 21
第五節 知覺主管支持 25
第六節 幸福感 26
第七節 工作壓力、休閒調適、知覺組織支持、知覺主管支持與幸福感之關係 33
第八節 本章總結 37

第參章 研究方法 39
第一節 研究架構 39
第二節 研究步驟與流程 41
第三節 研究場域與對象 44
第四節 研究工具 47
第五節 資料蒐集 61
第六節 內容效度 62
第七節 資料處理分析之統計方法 62
第八節 預試分析結果 64
第九節 研究倫理 70

第肆章 分析與討論 71
第一節 連鎖咖啡廳從業人員之人口特性 71
第二節 工作壓力、休閒調適、知覺組織支持、知覺主管支持與幸福感之現況分析 76
第三節 工作壓力、休閒調適、知覺組織支持、知覺主管支持與幸福感之分析結果 84
第四節 人口統計變項對工作壓力、休閒調適、知覺組織支持、知覺主管支持與幸福感之差異情形 90
第五節 研究假設結果摘要 111

第伍章 結論與建議 113
第一節 研究結論 113
第二節 管理意涵 116
第三節 研究貢獻 118
第四節 研究限制與後續研究建議 120

參考文獻 123

附錄 136
附錄一 專家效度問卷 136
附錄二 內容效度檢驗題項修正列表 140
附錄三 正式問卷 141
小花平台保險 (2021,1月9日)。主計處統計:全臺過半受僱勞工年薪未達50萬元。中時新聞網。取自https://reurl.cc/NXpNV5。
今周刊 (2020,1月5日)。咖啡館密度全球第一、超商每秒賣 13 杯!直擊臺灣年產值 800 億的「黑金」傳奇。科技新報。取自https://reurl.cc/Xk39qa。
王恩普、賴世國 (2016)。觀光餐旅科系校外實習生工作壓力與幸福感之關係—以工作滿意為中介變項。觀光旅遊研究學刊,11,59-74。
王雯宗、朱盈蒨、蔡智勇、王念慈 (2010)。休閒參與介入工作壓力對幸福感之影響:以高壓力族群為例。稻江學報,5(1),3-16。
石安伶、郭曼忻 (2019)。產業分析:餐飲業發展趨勢 (2019年)。臺灣趨勢研究網。取自https://reurl.cc/x0XgWz。
朱瑞年 (2019)。企業福利制度與工作壓力對員工幸福感與離職傾向之相關研究—以中油第一線員工為例 (未出版碩士論文)。淡江大學,新北市。
余家茵 (2019)。對應分析應用於平價連鎖咖啡廳 (未出版碩士論文)。嶺東科技大學,臺中市。
吳秀麗 (2008)。護理人員職業倦怠,休閒調適及休閒效益之研究 (未出版碩士論文)。亞洲大學,臺中市。
吳季倫 (2010)。同性戀員工的工作壓力與留任意願之研究—以餐飲業為例 (未出版碩士論文)。國立高雄餐旅大學,高雄市。
吳宗立、林保豊 (2003)。國民小學教師工作壓力與組織承諾關係之研究。國教學報,15, 193-229。
吳明標 (2010)。以社會認知理論觀點探討社會資本與組織支持對知識分享行為之影響—以臺灣製造業為例 (未出版碩士論文)。國立成功大學,臺南市。
吳淑禎、周翠薇、謝辰昕、劉俊億 (2010)。餐飲外場從業人員的社會支持,情緒勞務與工作表現之研究。人類發展與家庭學報,12,1-30。
呂崇銘,呂適仲,王于寧 (2010)。企業員工工作效能與附設運動休閒設施使用之相關性研究。運動休閒餐旅研究,5(4),17-34。
李君如、陳凱文 (2010)。女性休閒體驗與幸福感之研究—以 SPA 體驗為例。健康管理學刊,8(2),163-182。
李佳怡 (2000)。知覺組織支持對員工工作態度影響之研究 (未出版碩士論文)。國立中山大學,高雄市。
李佳勳 (2008)。情緒勞動,情緒耗竭,工作滿意度與職業承諾—以工作投入,知覺主管支持為調節變項 (未出版碩士論文)。國防大學,桃園市。
李孟熹 (1999)。連鎖店發展加盟必備實戰技術。臺北:群泰。
李靜芬 (2020)。情緒勞務對服務導向組織公民行為的影響—工作滿意的中介角色與知覺組織支持的調節效果 (未出版碩士論文)。中國科技大學,臺北市。
沈昭吟、留偉民 (2013)。軍訓教官之工作壓力, 逆境商數與幸福感關係之研究—以雲嘉南地區高中職學校為例。國防管理學報,34(2),19-38。
周子敬、彭睦清 (2005)。國內大專院校教師工作壓力及工作滿足感模式。教育心理學報,46(3),201-219。
周碩雄 (1997)。中式冷凍調理菜餚於咖啡館之應用探討 (未出版碩士論文)。東海大學,臺中市。
東方線上 (2018,11月4日)。連鎖咖啡品牌大評比:哪家的咖啡香最能留住消費者。SmartM 新網路科技。取自https://reurl.cc/m9ezjW。
林文政、沈紀宏 (2016)。個人職涯目標取向與傳統與無疆界職涯成功的關聯性—以主管支持為調節變項。中原企管評論。14(1),55-84。
林芝瑩 (2017)。餐飲服務業奧客行為會影響員工服務績效嗎?臺灣雲嘉南 D 連鎖店之實証 (未出版碩士論文)。長榮大學,臺南市。
林倩如、鄧之卿 (2012)。空服員情緒智力對情緒耗竭關係之研究:以休閒調適策略與知覺上司支持為調節變項。輔仁民生學誌,18(2),63-85。
林惠彥、陸洛、吳珮瑀、吳婉瑜 (2012)。快樂的員工更有生產力嗎?組織支持與工作態度之雙重影響。中華心理學刊,54(4),451-469。
林聖薇 (2009)。知覺組織支持、生涯自我效能與主觀幸福感關係之研究:以因應策略為中介變項 (未出版碩士論文)。國立高雄應用科技大學,高雄市。
林耀南 (2010)。餐飲第一線服務人員幽默感量表之建構與發展。觀光休閒學報,16(2),139-164。
邱皓政 (2006)。量化研究與統計分析。臺北市:五南。
邱皓政 (2019)。量化研究與統計分析:SPSS 與 R資料分析範例解析。臺北市:五南。
姜永杰、陳佩詩、張庭彰 (2017)。餐廳內場人員工作壓力與休閒,離職意圖調適之研究。休閒與遊憩研究,9(2),147-165。
張哿端 (2016)。臺灣連鎖餐飲業第一線服務人員工作滿意度之研究 (未出版碩士論文)。臺中科技大學,臺中市。
張書豪、程國展 (2015)。中央行政機關職員工作壓力,休閒調適對幸福感之研究—以外交部為例。休憩管理研究,2(2),1-23。
莊惇量 (2018)。人力訓練設計與綠色服務行銷對組織績效的影響:以柏揚系統科技股份有限公司為例 (未出版碩士論文)。國立清華大學,新竹市。
許昌平 (2021,1月26日)。不敵疫情!餐飲業營業額年減4.2%,19年來首負成長。中國時報。取自https://www.ctwant.com/article/98602。
許義忠、余緒德 (2005)。休閒,壓力與調適研究:以中華航空女性空服員爲例。戶外遊憩研究,18(2),1-24。
陳村河 (2001)。國營事業民營化留用員工工作壓力之研究:以臺肥公司員工為例 (未出版碩士論文)。國立中山大學,高雄市。
陳秉宏 (2018)。實施一例一休之企業員工幸福感與工作績效關係之研究 (未出版碩士論文)。國立暨南國際大學,南投縣。
陳建和、張詠涵 (2012)。實習壓力、休閒因應、休閒參與及身心健康關係之研究—以大專飯店實習生為例。觀光旅遊研究學刊,7(2),41-57。
陳朝鍵、湯大緯、陳兆南、林妙笠 (2015)。主題餐廳員工工作壓力對幸福感之影響:以休閒調適策略為干擾變項。運動休閒餐旅研究,10(2),18-39。
陳綉香、許志賢、黃于庭 (2013)。國民小學教師工作壓力與休閒調適之研究。運動與遊憩研究,7(4),138-159。
陳聖明、林顯輝 (2008) 航空地勤人員工作壓力與因應策略關係之研究—以高雄國際機場為例。美容科技學刊,5(1),193-220。
陳福才 (2017)。高科技產業員工工作壓力,休閒調適與生活品質之研究—以新竹臺積電員工為例 (未出版碩士論文)。國立屏東大學,屏東縣。
陳銘嘉、黃汶達、蔡馨瑩 (2017)。餐旅業從業人員之心理資本類型之初探性研究。明道學術論壇,10(3),19-40。
陳寬裕、簡翊芬、顏良謀 (2013)。休閒調適策略於角色間衝突與幸福感關係的緩衝效果。人文社會科學研究,7(1),27-49。
陳慧芳、李安明 (2015)。桃竹苗地區國民小學代理代課教師知覺組織支持,心理契約與組織公民行為之相關研究。學校行政,100,238-261。
陸洛 (1998)。中國人幸福感之內涵,測量及相關因素探討。人文及社會科學,8(1),115-137。
創新拿鐵 (2017,3月13日)。「員工」和「營收」哪個更值得重視?星巴克 CEO 的 4 個管理哲學。經理人月刊。取自https://reurl.cc/Z7Y83A。
彭豐裕 (2016)。刑事警察生涯發展策略對其工作壓力影響之研究—以知覺組織支持為調節變項 (未出版碩士論文)。淡江大學,新北市。
黃任閔、謝文偉、陳文蘭 (2014)。屏東縣國小教師工作壓力,休閒調適策略與身心健康之研究。彰化師大體育學報,13,93-108。
經理人月刊編輯部 (2007,1月31日)。服務顧客的第一步:先讓員工滿意。經理人月刊。取自https://reurl.cc/MdnWxW。
鄒家芸 (2010)。國小教務主任工作壓力,復原力及幸福感之研究—以桃竹苗四縣市為例 (未出版碩士論文)。國立政治大學,臺北市。
劉翠華、李銘輝、余守媚 (2009)。溫泉旅館員工作壓力,性別歧視知覺與生涯轉換傾向關係之研究。臺灣觀光學報,6,47-64。
蔡旻秀、杜文禮 (2013)。知覺主管的支持對員工自我發展之影響。華人前瞻研究,9(2),29-51。
蔡界勝 (1996)。餐飲管理與經營。臺北:五南。
鄭元富 (2014)。開發人員工作壓力對幸福感之影響:休閒調適策略為調節變項 (未出版碩士論文)。國立中興大學,臺中市。
蕭晴宜 (2001)。咖啡連鎖店業者與消費者商店形象認知之比較研究-以臺北縣市為例 (未出版碩士論文)。淡江大學,新北市。
駱俊賢、劉長敏 (2014)。利用教育訓練推動內部行銷與工作表現提升之關聯性—以餐飲業為例。管理實務與理論研究,8(3),91-105。
謝文亮 (2014)。資源,能力與藥業員工幸福感的關聯:知覺組織支持的調節作用 (未出版碩士論文)。國立交通大學,新竹市。
羅新興、周慧珍 (2006)。組織成員知覺主管支持對其離職傾向之影響—探討工作負荷與成就動機之干擾作用。人力資源管理學報,6(4),67-80。
Andrew, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social Indicators of Well-being. New York, NY: Plenum.
Argyle, M. (2013). The psychology of happiness (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Argyle, M., & Crossland, J. (1987). The dimensions of positive emotions. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26(2), 127-137.
Argyle, M., & Hills, P. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1073-1082.
Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., Smith, R. M., & Palmer, N. F. (2010). Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(1), 17-28.
Beckman, T. N., & Nolen, H. C. (1938). The chain store problem. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 33(203), 639-642.
Beehr, T. A., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (1990). Social support and occupational stress: Talking to supervisors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36(1), 61-81.
Blau, P. M. (1964). Justice in social exchange. Sociological inquiry, 34(2), 193-206.
Brady, M. K., & Cronin Jr, J. J. (2001). Customer orientation: Effects on customer service perceptions and outcome behaviors. Journal of Service Research, 3(3), 241-251.
Caplan, R. D., Cobb, S., & French, J. R. (1975). Relationships of cessation of smoking with job stress, personality, and social support. Journal of applied psychology, 60(2), 211-236.
Carman, J. M. & Kenneth P. (1973). Marketing Principles and Methods. (7th ed.). Chicago, IL: Richard Irwin.
Chen, Z., Sun, H., Lam, W., Hu, Q., Huo, Y., & Zhong, J. A. (2012). Chinese hotel employees in the smiling masks: Roles of job satisfaction, burnout, and supervisory support in relationships between emotional labor and performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(4), 826-845.
Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological bulletin, 98(2), 310-322
Coleman, D. (1993). Leisure based social support, leisure dispositions and health. Journal of Leisure Research, 25(4), 350-361.
Coleman, D., & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1993). Leisure and health: The role of social support and self-determination. Journal of Leisure Research, 25(2), 111-128.
Cordes, K. A., & Ibrahim, H. M. (1979). Applications in recreation & leisure: for today and the future (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Cordes, K. A., & Ibrahim, H. M. (1999). Applications in recreation & leisure: Fortoday and the future (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1980). Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: happy and unhappy people. Journal of personality and social psychology, 38(4), 668-676
Davis, K., & Newstrom, J. W. (1987). Human Behavior at Work: Organizational Behavior, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542-575.
Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276-287
Eisenberger, R., & Stinglhamber, F. (2011). Perceived organizational support: Fostering enthusiastic and productive employees. Washington, DC: APA Books.
Eisenberger, R., Cummings, J., Armeli, S., & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived organizational support, discretionary treatment, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(5), 812-825.
Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 51-68
Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500-507.
Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I. L., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 565-573.
Ensel, W. M., & Lin, N. (1991). The life stress paradigm and psychological distress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32(4), 321-341.
Fox, M. L., Dwyer, D. J., & Ganster, D. C. (1993). Effects of stressful job demands and control on physiological and attitudinal outcomes in a hospital setting. Academy of Management journal, 36(2), 289-318.
French, J. R. P., & Kahn, R. L. (1962). A Programmatic Approach to Studying the Industrial Environment and Mental Health. Journal of Social Issues, 18(3), 1-47.
Ganster, D. C., Fusilier, M. R., & Mayes, B. T. (1986). Role of social support in the experience of stress at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(1), 102-118.
Gilbert, C., De Winne, S., & Sels, L. (2011). The influence of line managers and HR department on employees' affective commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(8), 1618-1637.
Godbey (1994). Leisure in your life: An exploration. State College, PA:Venture Publishing.
Greller, M. M., & Herold, D. M. (1975). Sources of feedback: A preliminary investigation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13(2), 244-256.
Hair, J. E., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall International Editions.
Heady, B., & Wearing, A. (1989). Personality, life events, and subjective well-being: Toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 731–739.
Hill, C. A. (1987). Affiliation motivation: People who need people… but in different ways. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(5), 1008-1018.
Hill, D. B. (1981). Attitude generalization and the measurement of trust in American leadership. Political Behavior, 3(3), 257-270.
Houston, J. P. (1981). The pursuit of happiness. Glenview IL: Scott, Freshman.
Hull IV, R. B., & Michael, S. E. (1995). Nature‐based recreation, mood change, and stress restoration. Leisure Sciences, 17(1), 1-14.
Iso-Ahola, S. E., & Park, C. J. (1996). Leisure-related social support and self-determination as buffers of stress-illness relationship. Journal of Leisure Research, 28(3), 169-187.
Ivancevich, J. M., & Matteson, M. T. (1980). Optimizing human resources: a case for preventive health and stress management. Organizational Dynamics, 9(2), 5-25.
Iwasaki, Y. (2003). The impact of leisure coping beliefs and strategies on adaptive outcomes. Leisure Studies, 22(2), 93-108.
Iwasaki, Y., & Mannell, R. C. (2000). Hierarchical dimensions of leisure stress coping. Leisure Sciences, 22(3), 163-181.
Iwasaki, Y., Mannell, R. C., Smale, B. J., & Butcher, J. (2002). A short-term longitudinal analysis of leisure coping used by police and emergency response service workers. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(3), 311-339.
Iwasaki, Y., Zuzanek, J., & Mannell, R. C. (2001). The effects of physically active leisure on stress-health relationships. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92(3), 214-218.
Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S. (1985). A meta-analysis and conceptual critique of research on role ambiguity and role conflict in work settings. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36(1), 16-78.
Karatepe, O. M. (2011). Do job resources moderate the effect of emotional dissonance on burnout? A study in the city of Ankara, Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(1), 44-65.
Karatepe, O. M. (2013). High-performance work practices and hotel employee performance: The mediation of work engagement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32, 132-140.
Kazlauskaite, R., Buciuniene, I., & Turauskas, L. (2012). Organisational and psychological empowerment in the HRM‐performance linkage. Employee Relations, 34(2), 138-158.
Kotler, P. (1993) Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and control. (11th ed.). New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Kottke, J. L., & Sharafinski, C. E. (1988). Measuring perceived supervisory and organizational support. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48(4), 1075-1079.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46(8), 819-843.
Leather, P., Lawrence, C., Beale, D., Cox, T., & Dickson, R. (1998). Exposure to occupational violence and the buffering effects of intra-oranizational support. Work & Stress, 12(2), 161-178.
Levinson, H. (1965). Reciprocation: The relationship between man and organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 9, 370-390.
Lim, V. K. (1996). Job insecurity and its outcomes: Moderating effects of work-based and nonwork-based social support. Human relations, 49(2), 171-194.
Lowe, R., & Bennett, P. (2003). Exploring coping reactions to work‐stress: application of an appraisal theory. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(3), 393-400.
Lu, L., & Argyle, M. (1994). Leisure Satisfaction and happiness as a function of leisure activity. Journal of Medical Sciences, 10, 89-96.
Lu, L., & Shih, J. B. (1997). Personality and happiness: Is mental health a mediator?. Personality and Individual Differences, 22(2), 249-256.
Mannell, R. C., & Kleiber, D. A. (1997). A social psychology of leisure. State College, PA: Venture.
Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and personality. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Michalos, A. C. (1985). Multiple discrepancies theory (MDT). Social Indicators Research, 16(4), 347-413.
Nair, P., & Kamalanabhan, T. J. (2010). The impact of cynicism on ethical intentions of Indian managers: The moderating role of seniority. Journal of international business ethics, 3(1), 14-29
Neves, P., & Eisenberger, R. (2012). Management communication and employee performance: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Human Performance, 25(5), 452-464.
Northcraft, G. B., & Neale, M. A. (1986). Opportunity costs and the framing of resource allocation decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 37(3), 348-356.
O’neill, J. W., & Davis, K. (2011). Work stress and well-being in the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), 385-390.
Omodei, M. M., & Wearing, A. J. (1990). Need satisfaction and involvement in personal projects: Toward an integrative model of subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(4), 762-773.
Patterson, I., & Coleman, D. (1996). The impact of stress on different leisure dimensions. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 21(3), 243-263.
Pearson, L. C., & Moomaw, W. (2005). The relationship between teacher autonomy and stress, work satisfaction, empowerment, and professionalism. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(1), 37-53.
Ragheb, M. G. (1993). Leisure and perceived wellness: A field investigation. Leisure Sciences, 15(1), 13-24.
Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698-714.
Riddick, C. C., & Stewart, D. G. (1994). An examination of the life satisfaction and importance of leisure in the lives of older female retirees: A comparison of blacks to whites. Journal of Leisure Research, 26(1), 75-87.
Rim, Y. (1993). Values, happiness and family structure variables. Personality and Individual Differences, 15(5), 595-598.
Rissa, K., & Kaustia, T. (2007). Well-being creates productivity: The Druvan Model. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki Centre for Occupational Safety.
Ross, R. R., & Altmaier, E. M. (1994). Intervention in occupational stress. London, LDN: Sage.
Rothbard, N. P. (2001). Enriching or depleting? The dynamics of engagement in work and family roles. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(4), 655-684.
Roysamb, E., Harris, J. R., Magnus, P., Vittersø, J., & Tambs, K. (2002). Subjective well-being. Sex-specific effects of genetic and environmental factors. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(2), 211-223.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-83.
Sawang, S. (2012). Is there an inverted U‐shaped relationship between job demands and work engagement: The moderating role of social support? International Journal of Manpower, 33(2), 178-186.
Schiffrin, H. H., & Nelson, S. K. (2010). Stressed and happy? Investigating the relationship between happiness and perceived stress. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(1), 33-39.
Schneider, B. (1990). The climate for service: An application of the climate construct. Organizational Climate and Culture, 1, 383-412.
Selmer, J., & Fenner, C. R. (2009). Spillover effects between work and non‐work adjustment among public sector expatriates. Personnel Review, 38, 366-379.
Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R. C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader–member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3), 219-227.
Smith, M. J., & Selye, H. (1979). Stress: Reducing the negative effects of stress. The American Journal of Nursing, 79(11), 1953-1955.
Stones, M. J., & Kozma, A. (1985). Structural relationships among happiness scales: A second order factorial study. Social Indicators Research, 17(1), 19-28.
Tsaur, S. H., & Tang, Y. Y. (2012). Job stress and well-being of female employees in hospitality: The role of regulatory leisure coping styles. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(4), 1038-1044.
Tuner, J. H. (1986). The Structure of sociological Theory. Chicogo, IL: The Dorsey Press.
Van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1228-1261.
Varca, P. E. (2009). Emotional empathy and front line employees: Does it make sense to care about the customer?. Journal of Services Marketing, 23(1), 51-56.
Veenhoven, R. (1994). Is happiness a trait: Tests of the theory that a better society does not make people any happier. Social Indicators Research, 32, 101–160.
Waters, E. J. (1999). The impact of work resources on job stress among correctional treatment staff. Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling, 20(1), 26-34.
Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 82-111.
Witt, L. A. (1991). Exchange ideology as a moderator of job attitudes‐organizational citizenship behaviors relationships. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21(18), 1490-1501.
Witt, L. A., & Carlson, D. S. (2006). The work-family interface and job performance: Moderating effects of conscientiousness and perceived organizational support. Journal of occupational health psychology, 11(4), 343-367.
Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (2004). The role of psychological well-being in job performance:: a fresh look at an age-old quest. Organizational dynamics, 33(4), 338-351.
電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20260220)
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top