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研究生:陳婕昕
研究生(外文):Chieh-Hsin Chen
論文名稱:利用多層合金為ITO-Free陽極之高效率深紅光有機發光二極體
論文名稱(外文):High efficiency and deep red Organic Light Emitting Diodes employing multilayered alloy as ITO-Free anode
指導教授:李志堅李志堅引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Chien Lee
口試委員:劉舜維范慶麟張志豪
口試委員(外文):Shun-Wei LiuChing-Lin FanChih-Hao Chang
口試日期:2021-07-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:有機發光二極體ITO-Freeexciplex磷光發光體醫療光源深紅光有機發光二極體
外文關鍵詞:organic light emitting diodephotobiomodulationITO-Freeexciplexphosphorescentdeep red emission OLEDwearable electronics
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本論文旨在於將有機發光二極體(organic light emitting diode, OLED)導入醫療光源的應用上,為了使光源能夠均勻的照射於肌膚,我們勢必將做成可撓式的元件,而要達成此一目的需要替換掉傳統的銦錫氧化物(indium tin oxide, ITO)陽極,取而代之的是多層合金(Al/ Al:Ag)陽極結構,以便我們在未來能實現此結構於可撓式的parelyne基板。由於金屬優異的導電特性,可大幅提升元件的電流並提高亮度,此外使用P型金屬氧化物摻雜的電洞注入層,可克服因離子化能量大而導致的電洞注入問題。利用激發錯合物(exciplex)的共主體系統可提高元件效率,exciplex主體能提高三重態激子的使用效率,實現高效率的主-客體間能量轉移。最終此ITO-Free元件之放光波長為628 nm,在此波長下的光源可促進頭髮生長並加速傷口癒合,亮度為100 cd/m2時驅動電壓為2.7 V,最大外部量子效率、電流效率及功率效率分別為17.1%、21.4 cd/A和25.3 lm/W,目前的研究成果已將此結構成功實現於發光區為20 × 20 mm的大面積玻璃基板上。OLED元件其具重量輕以及可撓性的特質,在穿戴式電子裝置的應用上,是極具發展潛力的前瞻技術之一。
The purpose of this thesis is to introduce organic light emitting diode (OLED) into photobiomodulation (PBM) applications. In order to make the light source irradiate evenly on the skin, we must make a flexible component. To achieve this goal, we replace the traditional indium tin oxide (ITO) anode with a multilayer alloy (Al/ Al:Ag) anode structure, so that we can realize this structure in the flexible parelyne substrate in the future. Due to high conductivity as well as low sheet resistant of metals, the current and brightness of our ITO-Free device can be greatly increased. In addition, the use of a hole injection layer doped with P-type transition metal oxide can overcome the problem of hole injection induced by high ionization energy. An exciplex cohost system is employed to utilize both singlet and triplet excitons to achieve high efficiency. Under the positive bias, carriers accumulate at the interface between donor and acceptor due to the different energy gap, and then directly combine with the red phosphorescent with almost zero energy loss. The obtained results of this ITO-Free device can achieve low turn-on voltage of 2.7 V at 100 cd/m2, and highly efficient of 17.1%, 21.4 cd/A and 25.3 lm/W corresponding to external quantum efficiency, current efficiency and power efficiency. Moreover, because of strong microcavity effect in this device, we can adjust the emission region to the specific wavelength by subtly tune the optical thickness. Finally, the emission wavelength peak is positioned at 628 nm, the emission within this range can have great benefit on hair growing and wound healing. The recent progress of this work already realized this structure based on a large area (20 × 20 mm) glass substrate. OLEDs with their properties of light weight, flexibility and high water vapor resistance of encapsulation, it is none doubt to be one of the most potential candidate for wearable electronics.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IV
目錄 VI
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 介紹 1
1.3 研究動機 4
第二章 理論基礎 8
2.1 電洞注入材料 8
2.2 半穿透OLED電極選擇 10
2.3 高效率元件 11
2.3.1 主客發光機制 14
2.3.2 電荷轉移機制 16
2.3.3 螢光/磷光exciplex 18
2.4 微共振腔的理論及應用 22
2.5 ITO-Free 紅光元件 23
第三章 實驗流程與量測設備 25
3.1 製程設備 25
3.1.1 超音波震盪清洗機 (ultrasonic vibration) 25
3.1.2 溫控加熱板 (hot plate) 25
3.1.3 旋轉塗布機 (Spin coating) 26
3.1.4 紫外光曝光機 26
3.1.5 雷射雕刻機 (laser cutting) 27
3.1.6 高真空熱蒸鍍系統 (thermal evaporation) 27
3.1.7 氮氣循環手套箱系統 (nitrogen glovebox) 28
3.2 量測儀器 29
3.2.1 探針式膜厚儀 (α-step) 29
3.2.2 橢圓偏振儀 (ellipsometry) 30
3.2.3 分光式輝度計 (spectrophotometer) 30
3.2.4 光致發光光譜儀 (photoluminescence spectrometer) 31
3.2.5 紫外光-可見光光譜儀 (UV-vis spectrometer) 31
3.2.6 表面凱爾文探針掃描光譜儀 (scanning kelvin probe spectroscopy) 32
3.2.7 四點探針 (four-point probe) 32
3.2.8 變溫量測系統 33
3.2.9 原子力顯微鏡 (atomic force microscope, AFM) 33
3.3 製程前置作業 34
3.3.1 有機材料純化 34
3.3.2 黃光微影製程 35
3.4 製程步驟 36
3.4.1 基板清洗 36
3.4.2 高蒸空熱蒸鍍製程 36
3.4.3 元件封裝 37
第四章 結果與討論 38
4.1 電洞傳輸材料之選擇 38
4.2 主體材料之選擇 39
4.3 陽極之特性分析 41
4.3.1 金屬薄膜的表面型態 41
4.3.2 陽極厚度對於元件的影響 42
4.3.3 表面電阻及功函數分析 44
4.4 ITO-based和ITO-Free紅光OLED的電致特性 51
4.4.1 暫態EL (transient EL)特性 51
4.4.2 電容-電壓(capacitance-voltage, C-V)特性 52
4.4.3 阻抗-電壓(impedance-voltage, Z-V)特性 52
第五章 結論 54
參考文獻 55
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