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研究生:林劭儒
研究生(外文):LIN, SHAO-LU
論文名稱:雙邊平台生態圈建立之研究-以共享經濟平台為例
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Two-Side Ecosystems on Sharing Economy Platform
指導教授:李亭林李亭林引用關係
指導教授(外文):LEE, TING-LIN
口試委員:李亭林翁銘章翁興利
口試委員(外文):LEE, TING-LINWENG, MING-JANGWENG, SENG-LEE
口試日期:2017-07-31
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄大學
系所名稱:國際高階經營管理碩士在職專班(IEMBA)
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:共享經濟閒置產能商業模式圖
外文關鍵詞:Sharing EconomyIdle CapacityBusiness Model Canvas
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近十年隨著智慧型手機的發展,誕生了,也結束了許多透過網路運作的「共享經濟平台」這一新型商業模式,因此本研希望透過個案分析去拆解「雙邊生態圈之共享經濟平台」從創立、成長到結束之關鍵影響要素,其中研究問題包含(1)平台創辦之初應先建立供給端或是需求端? (2)共享經濟平台創辦成功與失敗之要素為何?(3)如何維持共享經濟平台雙邊生態圈的發展?

本研究首先進行共享經濟文獻、商業模式之探討,並挑選4個共享經濟平台個案: Uber、呼叫阿福、Homejoy、摩拜單車等,以視覺化的九大畫布圖呈現其商業模式,再搭配本研究所拆解整理之「共享經濟策略」及「平台策略」,整合建構出理想之共享經濟平台策略模型。此種創新之研究方式可以一目了然的呈現出共享經濟策略或是平台策略的改變對於整個商業模式所造成之影響,並用以完成靜態分析,隨後,在靜態的「商業模式圖」基礎上,本研究更進一步完成共享經濟平台在「初創期」、「擴張期」、「壟斷期」三個不同階段的動態分析,並得出結論:1.「共享經濟平台」在初創期應著重共享經濟策略,應先發掘需求端,再找出足夠價值且能共享之閒置產能或勞務導入供給端,以確保最初的商業模式可行性;2.擴張期應著重平台策略,平台追求跨邊網路效應之策略,如降價或補貼等方式,最終必須在商業模式畫布之收益與成本至少達成平衡才能維持平台擴張與成長。假若平台自行花費成本創造新產能或新勞務去建立供給端生態圈,將容易使平台在達到規模經濟前耗盡資源而終止;3.最後之壟斷期應著重跨平台競爭,因實體資源與勞務之共享不同於單純的資訊交換可以無遠弗屆,也不像網路巨擘大者恆大,實體資源和勞務交換容易受到地域的限制,進而被當地同平台或跨平台輕易挑戰之,此外還有外部因素如政府與法規之影響。

本研究首創「共享經濟平台理想模型」,將有助於視覺化、公式化的推演平台發展走向,將為後續共享經濟平台研究者提供參考。共享經濟平台為追逐無專屬性、各平台皆能取用之近似「公共財」的閒置產能或勞務,政府之管理政策亦值得後續研究。

The web-based "sharing economy platform" is a new business model that sprung from the development of the smartphone. Many businesses have been created or shut down as a result over the past decade. The goal of this study is to use the analysis of past cases to dissect key factors that influence the "sharing economy platform of bilateral ecosystems" from their creation and growth to the end. Questions asked by this study include (1) Should priority be given to establishing supply or demand at the founding of the platform? (2) What are the key factors that determine the success or failure of a new sharing economy platform? (3) How can the development of the sharing economy platform's bilateral ecosystem be sustained?

This study began by reviewing past literature and business models related to sharing economy. Four sharing economy platform cases were also selected for analysis: Uber, Alfred, Homejoy, and Mobike. Their business models were visualized through the nine blocks of the Business Model Canvas. "Sharing economy strategy" and "platform strategy" were also dissected and compiled as part of this study to construct an ideal strategy model for sharing economy platforms. This innovative approach provided a clear picture of how changes in sharing economy or platform strategies affected the entire business model. Static analysis was then performed, with the fixed "business model canvas" used to conduct dynamic research of the sharing economy platform during the "startup," "expansion," and "monopoly" phases. Based on these three phases, this study concluded that (1) "sharing economy platforms" should focus on the sharing economy strategy during the startup phase. Priority should be given to establishing demand before finding idle assets or services of sufficient value. These need to be shareable through the supply-side to ensure the feasibility of the original business model; (2) emphasis should be placed on platform strategy during the expansion phase. Platform strategies aimed at achieving cross-side network effects such as price reductions or subsidies must ultimately achieve a balance between income and cost in the business model canvas for platform expansion and growth to be maintained. If a platform spends its own resources on establishing the supply-side ecosystem through the creation of new capacity or new labor, this increases the risk of the platform running out of resources and going out of business before economies of scale can be achieved; and (3) finally, the monopoly phase should focus on cross-platform competition because there is a finite limit to the sharing of physical resources and labor unlike the pure exchange of information. There is a limit to their size as well, so they can't grow without limitations like online tycoons. The exchange of physical resources and labor is vulnerable to geographic constraints that open them up to competition from similar local platforms or cross-platform competition. External factors such as governments and regulations also play a role.

The "ideal model for the sharing economy platform" pioneered in this study can help with making visualized and equation-based projections on platform development and offer a reference for future researchers of sharing economy platforms. Sharing economy platforms are based on the pursuit of idle capacity or labor that are non-exclusive and almost similar to "public property" that all platforms can access. Future research should therefore also look at related government management policies.

目錄
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的與研究問題 1
1.3 研究流程 2
第2章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 網路經濟理論 3
2.2 平台策略下的商業模式(Business Model) 7
2.3 共享經濟 10
第3章 研究方法 15
3.1研究架構 15
3.2研究設計 15
3.3個案研究法與個案之選取 16
3.2商業模式畫布 17
第4章 個案研究 21
4.1 Uber 21
4.2呼叫阿福 31
4.3 Homejoy 36
4.4摩拜單車 41
4.5個案綜合歸納與分析 46
4.6小結 71
第5章 結論 77
5.1研究發現 77
5.2 管理意涵 78
5.3 研究限制 78
5.4 未來研究建議 79
參考文獻 80
附錄 論文比對結果 89

表目錄
表2- 1共享經濟之定義及原因彙整表 10
表4- 1 各共享單車市佔率 42
表4- 2 理想共享經濟發揮閒置產能策略與理想平台策略 46
表4- 3 Uber 策略歸納表 53
表4- 4 「呼叫阿福」策略歸納表 59
表4- 5 「HomeJoy」策略歸納表 64
表4- 6 各共享單車市佔率 66
表4- 7 2018年9月美團點評招股書 234頁 67
表4- 8 「摩拜單車」策略歸納表 71

圖目錄
圖1- 1 研究流程圖 2
圖2-1 規模經濟與規模不經濟 4
圖2- 2邊際效用與邊際成本 5
圖2- 3同邊網路效應與跨邊網路效應 6
圖2- 4平台模式 7
圖2- 5共享經濟範疇圖 11
圖3- 1 研究架構圖 15
圖3- 2 商業模式圖 17
圖3- 3 價值主張與目標客群 19
圖3- 4 商業模式圖含「目標客群」與「價值主張」 20
圖4- 1 Uber 叫車使用介面圖一 (2017/07/23拍攝) 22
圖4- 2 Uber 叫車使用介面圖二 (2017/07/23拍攝) 23
圖4- 3 美國Uber Black與Uber X司機數量發展圖 25
圖4- 4 Uber全球使用人次顯示圖 26
圖4- 5 Uber商業模式九大畫布圖 28
圖4- 6 Uber共享經濟策略、平台策略與商業模式九大畫布關係圖 29
圖4- 7 呼叫阿福商業模式九大畫布圖 33
圖4- 8 呼叫阿福共享經濟策略、平台策略與商業模式九大畫布關係圖 34
圖4- 9 Homejoy商業模式圖 39
圖4- 10 Homejoy共享經濟策略、平台策略與商業模式九大畫布關係圖 39
圖4- 11 摩拜單車商業模式圖 44
圖4- 12 摩拜單車共享經濟策略、平台策略與商業模式九大畫布關係圖 45
圖4- 13 平台網路結構圖 48
圖4- 14 Uber 用戶成長圖 52
圖4- 15 UBER策略歸納表與九大畫布圖 54
圖4- 16 呼叫阿福策略歸納表與九大畫布圖 59
圖4- 17 HomeJoy策略歸納表與九大畫布圖 64
圖4- 18 摩拜單車策略歸納與九大畫布圖 71


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