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研究生:孫瑤
研究生(外文):SUN, YAO
論文名稱:探究嘉寶果皮水萃物對中式香腸品質的影響
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of the Effects of Jaboticaba (Myrciaria Cauliflora) Peel Water Extract on the Quality of Chinese-style Sausage
指導教授:林國維林國維引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIN, KUO-WEI
口試委員:鍾雲琴林聖敦
口試委員(外文):CHUNG, YUN-CHINLIN, SHENG-DUN
口試日期:2021-06-04
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:嘉寶果中式香腸保水性變性肌紅蛋白百分比質地剖面分析TBARS值
外文關鍵詞:JaboticabaChinese sausagewater holding capacitypercentage myoglobin denaturationtexture profile analysisTBARS
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嘉寶果(Myrciaria cauliflora, jaboticaba),原產地為巴西,台灣則種植於中部居多。成熟果實的表皮為紫色,富含花青素,具抗氧化能力。本研究目的為將嘉寶果皮水萃物以不同的比例加入中式香腸中,於4 ℃冷藏條件下儲存9週,探討中式香腸之理化性質、質地特性和儲藏安定性等。
本實驗第一部分先是取不同比例嘉寶果皮與水(w/ v =1: 2、1: 6),在不同溫度(80 ℃、100 ℃)和不同時間(30 min、60 min)組合下進行萃取,再對萃取液進行色澤、pH值、總多酚含量、DPPH自由基清除能力和花青素含量測定。結果顯示,各萃取液之pH值相似,其色澤隨著稀釋倍數增加而變淺,隨著加熱時間和加熱溫度的升高而變深。總多酚含量和DPPH自由基清除能力皆隨著稀釋倍數降低而增加,但隨著加熱時間和加熱溫度的增加而增加。花青素含量隨著稀釋倍數的降低而增加,在80 ℃條件下隨著加熱時間的增加而增加,然而在高溫(100 ℃)下則相反。綜上所述,再基於加熱耗能與加熱時間的成本考量,最後選擇了嘉寶果皮與水比例1: 2、加熱時間30 min、加熱溫度100 ℃的組合萃取,再添加萃取液製成中式香腸。
第二部分將上述條件組合得到的嘉寶果皮水萃液,以不添加嘉寶果皮水萃液之對照組(CONT)、添加6 %嘉寶果水萃液之實驗組(J6)和添加12 %嘉寶果皮水萃液之實驗組(J12)三組,製成中式香腸冷藏後於第0、3、6、9週進行各項分析,並於第0週時進行喜好性分析。在冷藏儲存期間,各實驗組之組成分、水活性變化不大。pH值隨著冷藏儲存時間和添加的嘉寶果皮水萃液含量的增加呈現顯著下降(p< 0.05)的趨勢。CIE L*、CIE a*、CIE b*值均隨著儲藏時間的增加呈現上升趨勢,而保水性則隨著冷藏時間增加而上升(亦即WRI值下降)。TBARS值、VBN值和總生菌數顯示了含不同比例嘉寶果皮水萃液之中式香腸在冷藏儲存期間有良好的安定性。未烹煮之各實驗組中式香腸質地剖面分析之回復性值(resilience)與內聚性值(cohesiveness)有顯著差異(p< 0.05)。烹煮後之各實驗組之硬度與剪切值皆隨著冷藏時間的增加而有顯著上升的趨勢(p< 0.05)。實驗組間肌紅蛋白含量與變性肌紅蛋白百分比無顯著差異(p> 0.05)。
綜上所述結果,添加嘉寶果皮水萃液所製成的中式香腸,在理化性質、質地特性與儲藏安定性皆與對照組相似,因此開發具特色的中式香腸是可行的。
Jaboticaba (Myrciaria Cauliflora), a native produce of Brazil, is mostly grown in central Taiwan. The ripe fruit has purple skin which is rich in anthocyanins and possesses antioxidant capacity. The purposes of this study were to investigate the physicochemical properties, texture characteristics and storage stability of Chinese-style sausage containing different concentrations of jaboticaba water extract which was stored at 4 ℃ for 9 weeks.
In the first part of this experiment, different proportions of jaboticaba peel to water (w/ v = 1: 2, 1: 6) were extracted at different temperature (80 ℃, 100 ℃) and time (30 min, 60 min). Then the CIE color, pH value, total polyphenols and anthocyanin contents, and DPPH free radical scavenging ability of the extracted solution were determined. The results showed that the color became lighter with increased dilution ratio and darker with increased heating time and temperature. The content of total polyphenols and DPPH radical scavenging ability increased with the decrease of dilution ratio, and increased with the increase of heating time and temperature. The anthocyanin concentration increased with the decrease of dilution factor and increased with extended of heating time at 80 ℃. When temperature rose to 100 ℃, anthocyanin level declined with heating time. Considering the high heating temperature and long heating time, combinations of jaboticaba peel to water ratio of 1: 2, heating for 30 min at 100 ℃ were finally selected.
In the second part, different amounts of jaboticaba water extract obtained from above-mentioned combination were added in three groups as follows: control group without jaboticaba water extract (CONT), experimental group with 6 % jaboticaba water extract (J6) and experimental group with 12 % jaboticaba water extract (J12). The analytic samples were randomly taken at 0, 3, 6 and 9 weeks under refrigeration. During refrigeration, the proximate composition and water activity of each experiment group did not change much. The pH value decreased significantly (p< 0.05) with the increase of storage time and the added amount of jaboticaba water extract. The values of CIE L*, CIE a * and CIE b * all showed an upward trend with increasing time. Water holding capacity increased with the increase of storage time, i.e., WRI decreased. The results of TBARS, VBN, and total bacterial count revealed that the Chinese sausage containing different levels of jaboticaba water extract had good stability during refrigeration. The resilience and cohesiveness values of the uncooked Chinese sausage of each group were significantly different (p< 0.05). Following cooking, the textural hardness and shear force values of all treatment significantly (p< 0.05) increased with ascending time. There was no significant difference in the myoglobin and percentage of denatured myoglobin among experimental groups (p> 0.05).
In conclusion, Chinese sausage with the addition of jaboticaba aqueous extract was parallel to the control in physicochemical and textural characteristic and microbial stability. Therefore, manufacture of such innovative Chinese sausage is feasible.
中文摘要I
AbstractIII
謝誌VI
目錄VII
表目錄XII
圖目錄XIV
第一章緒言1
第二章文獻回顧3
一、中式香腸3
(一)中式香腸定義3
(二)中式香腸品質3
(三)肉製品醃漬使用之食品添加物3
1、食鹽(氯化鈉,NaCl)4
2、結著劑4
3、保色劑4
4、抗氧化劑5
5、葡萄糖與砂糖5
二、嘉寶果5
(一)嘉寶果簡介6
(二)嘉寶果保存6
(三)嘉寶果品種7
(四)嘉寶果生長特性7
(五)嘉寶果營養成分8
(六)嘉寶果藥用價值10
(七)嘉寶果成分及生理功能10
(八)嘉寶果之應用13
(九)嘉寶果在肉製品的應用14
第三章 研究目的15
第四章 材料與方法16
一、嘉寶果皮水萃液之製備及化性分析16
(一)實驗材料16
(二)嘉寶果皮水萃液之製備16
(三)儀器設備16
(四)分析方法16
1、色澤16
2、酸鹼值(pH value)17
3、總多酚類化合物含量測定17
4、DPPH自由基清除能力測定18
5、花青素含量20
6、統計分析21
二、含嘉寶果水萃液之中式香腸製備與分析22
(一)實驗材料22
(二)含嘉寶果皮水萃液之中式香腸製備22
(三)儀器設備23
(四)分析方法27
1、製成率27
2、水分27
3、粗脂肪28
4、粗蛋白28
5、粗灰分31
6、水活性 (water activity, Aw)32
7、酸鹼值 (pH value)32
8、保水性 (Water Holding Capacity, WHC)32
9、油脂氧化酸敗值 (TBARS value)33
10、揮發性鹽基態氮 (VBN value)35
11、質地剖面分析 (TPA)37
12、剪切值(shear force value)38
13、肌紅蛋白含量38
14、色澤40
15、生菌數40
16、喜好性品評分析41
17、統計分析41
第五章 結果與討論42
一、嘉寶果皮水萃液之化性分析結果42
(一)色澤42
(二)酸鹼值(pH value)46
(三)總多酚類化合物含量46
(四)DPPH自由基清除能力46
(五)花青素49
二、含不同比例嘉寶果皮水萃液之中式香腸52
(一)製成率52
(二)組成分52
(三)水活性(water activity, Aw)54
(四)酸鹼值(pH value)54
(五)保水性(Water Holding Capacity, WHC)57
(六)油脂氧化酸敗值(TBARS value)59
(七)揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN value)60
(八)質地剖面分析(TPA)62
(九)剪切值(shear force value)67
(十)肌紅蛋白含量67
(十一)色澤72
第六章 結論77
第七章 參考文獻79
第八章 附錄92
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