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研究生:李宥萱
研究生(外文):LEE, YU-HSUAN
論文名稱:從線上社會支持、社會比較探討成年人Instagram使用模式與心理適應的關係
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship Between Instagram Usage and Psychological Adjustment in Adults:From the Perspective of Online Social Support and Social Comparison
指導教授:徐儷瑜徐儷瑜引用關係
指導教授(外文):SHYU, LI-YU
口試委員:林旻沛王韋婷
口試委員(外文):Lin, Min-PeiWang, Wei-Ting
口試日期:2021-04-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:心理學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:Instagram使用模式表達性社會支持社會比較憂鬱主觀幸福感
外文關鍵詞:Instagram usageexpressive social supportsocial comparisondepressive symptomssubject well-being
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研究背景與目的
Instagram為2010年創立的社群網站,近年使用人數增加,為熱門的社群網站之一。社群網站和人際互動息息相關,使用臉書能獲得情感支持(Emotional Support)降低大學生知覺的生活壓力(Wright, 2012);但同時塑造「別人的生活看似很美好」的環境,提升社會比較(Social Comparison)機會而引起負向情緒(DeAndrea, & Walther, 2011 ; Vogel et al., 2015)。不同社群網站使用行為可能對心理適應有不同影響,一對一交流使用方式的人,感受到較多社會支持、提升快樂程度(Kraut, & Burke, 2015);臉書被動使用(Passive usage)則透過社會比較傾向導致憂鬱(黃珮淇,2018)。由於發布(Broadcasting)與一對一交流兩種使用行為似乎不同(Burke et al., 2011),因此,本研究擬重新編修Yang(2016)Instagram使用模式量表並建立信效度,並從表達性社會支持、社會比較探討三種Instagram使用模式與心理適應之間的關係。

研究方法
正式收案對象為687位20歲以上、自評「幾乎每天都會使用Instagram」之成人,其中53.1%為女性。本研究透過探索性因素分析、驗證性因素分析建立台灣版Instagram使用模式量表信效度,並以此量表及社會比較傾向量表(Social Comparison Orientation Scale)、表達性支持量表(Expressive Support Scale)、流行病學研究中心憂鬱量表(The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale)、主觀幸福感量表(Subject Well-being Scale)進行相關分析,使用拔靴法探討表達性社會支持、社會比較對Instagram使用模式與心理適應之中介效果。

研究結果
台灣版Instagram使用模式量表具有良好信效度,適配度指標 ????2=154.77 ( p<.001)、????2/ df = 6.45、GFI= .95、TLI= .90、CFI= .93、SRMR= .05、RMSEA= .09;信度方面,Instagram互動型Cronbach’s α值 .73、Instagram瀏覽型 .86、Instagram發布型 .82。本研究發現,表達性社會支持對Instagram互動型與主觀幸福感具有完全中介效果(a × b= .08),Instagram互動型使用程度越高,透過獲得表達性社會支持提升主觀幸福感;社會比較對Instagram互動型與主觀幸福感具有部分中介效果(a × b= -.03),Instagram互動型使用程度越高,透過社會比較使得主觀幸福感降低。

研究結論
本研究發現使用Instagram與人互動,會透過社會比較而降低主觀幸福感,但也能獲得表達性社會支持提升主觀幸福感。本研究嘗試將使用模式更詳細做區分,在預試階段亦顯示Instagram發布型和Instagram互動型使用為不同的使用方式;然Instagram發布型與表達性社會支持、社會比較及心理適應沒有顯著關聯,未來可針對Instagram發布型使用行為,以及發布型和其他心理適應(如:孤獨感)之關係做探討。

Background
Instagram, founded in 2010, is quickly increasing in popularity with young people and becomes one of the most popular social networking sites. Research suggests that college students who use Facebook perceived lower life stress by receiving emotional support (Wright, 2012) ; while other research found that “feeling others live better life than me” when using social network sites, causing social comparison and negative consequences (DeAndrea, & Walther, 2011 ; Vogel et al., 2015). However, social network usages influence well-being differently, more online communication with friends and family was associated with greater feelings of social support and declines in depression (Kraut, & Burke, 2015) ; while passive Facebook usage leads to depressive symptoms through social comparison (Huang, 2018). Since Broadcasting and Directed communication are different type of usages, we revised Instagram active scale by Yang (2016) then translated into Chinese, and we examined construct validation and internal consistency of the scale. Moreover, this study tried to explore the relationship between Instagram usages and psychological adjustment through the mechanism of expressive social support and social comparison.

Method
687 participants over 20 year-olds completed online questionnaires containing demographics, frequency of Instagram use, Social Comparison Orientation Scale, Expressive Support Scale, The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Subject Well-being Scale. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were used to examine validity and reliability of Chinese Instagram usage scales. Data were analyzed by Pearson’s Correlation , also , Bootstrapping was used to explore the relationship between Instagram usages and psychological adjustment through the mediation effect of expressive social support and social comparison.

Results
Chinese Instagram usage scales showed good validation and internal consistency, most of the indices provided a good fit to the data: ????2=154.77 ( p<.001)、????2/ df = 6.45、GFI= .95、TLI= .90、CFI= .93、SRMR= .05、RMSEA= .09. Coefficient alphas were .73 for Instagram directed interaction, .86 for Instagram browsing, .82 for Instagram broadcasting. We found that both expressive social support and social comparison mediated the link between Instagram directed interaction and subject well-being, expressive social support is associated with more subject well-being while social comparison decreased subject well-being.

Discussion
This study found that using Instagram to interact with people decreases subjective well-being through social comparison, however, it also increases subjective well-being through receiving expressive social support. Pilot test showed that Instagram broadcasting and Instagram directed interaction were different type of usage as we predicted. However, Instagram broadcasting was not significantly associated with expressive social support, social comparison and psychological adjustments. The relationship between Instagram broadcasting behaviors and other psychological adjustments (e.g., loneliness) can be explored in the future.

第一章、緒論......................................................................................................................1
第二章、文獻回顧...............................................................................................................4
第一節 社群網站..................................................................................................................4
壹、 社群網站–Instagram....................................................................................................4
貳、 社群網站使用模式........................................................................................................6
第二節 社群網站使用與心理適應.........................................................................................9
壹、 社群網站使用與憂鬱...................................................................................................9
貳、 社群網站使用與幸福感................................................................................................11
第三節 社群網站使用模式、線上社會支持與心理適應........................................................13
壹、 社群網站與線上社會支持...........................................................................................13
貳、 社群網站使用模式、線上社會支持與幸福感...............................................................15
參、 社群網站使用模式、線上社會支持與憂鬱..................................................................16
第四節 社群網站使用模式、社會比較與心理適應..............................................................18
壹、 社群網站與社會比較..................................................................................................18
貳、 社群網站使用模式、社會比較與憂鬱.........................................................................20
參、 社群網站使用模式、社會比較與幸福感......................................................................21
第五節 研究目的與假設.....................................................................................................23
第三章、研究方法.............................................................................................................27
第一節 研究對象................................................................................................................27
第二節 研究工具................................................................................................................30
第三節 研究程序................................................................................................................33
第四節 統計分析...............................................................................................................34
第四章、研究結果............................................................................................................36
第一節 台灣版Instagram使用模式量表之信效度............................................................37
壹、 台灣版Instagram使用模式量表的內容修訂...............................................................37
貳、 台灣版Instagram使用模式量表的探索性因素分析....................................................40
參、 台灣版Instagram使用模式量表之驗證性因素分析....................................................42
第二節 Instagram使用模式與心理適應之關係..............................................................45
壹、 描述統計量與相關分析............................................................................................46
貳、 表達性社會支持在Instagram互動型與主觀幸福感之中介效果分析...........................51
參、 社會比較在Instagram互動型與主觀幸福感之中介效果分析.....................................52
研究結果整理..................................................................................................................53
第五章、討論..................................................................................................................57
第一節 台灣版Instagram使用模式量表之信效度..........................................................57
第二節 表達性社會支持對Instagram使用模式與心理適應間的關係之中介效果.............60
第三節 社會比較對Instagram使用模式與心理適應間的關係之中介效果........................64
第四節 研究貢獻...........................................................................................................70
第五節 研究限制與未來研究方向...................................................................................72
參考文獻...........................................................................................................................73
附錄 ..................................................................................................................................87
附錄一、Instagram使用模式量表 ....................................................................................87
附錄二、線上社會支持量表-表達性社會支持子量表..........................................................89
附錄三、社會比較傾向量表...............................................................................................90
附錄四、流行病學中心憂鬱量表(游森期、余民寧)........................................................91
附錄五、主觀幸福感量表..................................................................................................92
附錄六、知情同意.............................................................................................................93
附錄七、與Instagram使用量表原作者通訊信件.................................................................94
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