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研究生:Monica Ongkowidjaja
研究生(外文):Monica Ongkowidjaja
論文名稱:影響使用線上旅行社的購買意願因素之研究
論文名稱(外文):What factors influence the purchase intention toward Online Travel Agent?
指導教授:黃永強
指導教授(外文):Wing-Keung Wong
口試委員:黃永強張曼玲穆馬速
口試委員(外文):Wing-Keung WongChang, ManlingMassoud Moslehpour
口試日期:2021-01-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:亞洲大學
系所名稱:經營管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:英文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:在線旅行社購買意願相對優勢感知印度尼西亞結構方程模型(SEM)
外文關鍵詞:Online Travel AgentIntention to PurchasePerceived Relative AdvantageIndonesiaStructural Equation Modeling (SEM)
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研究目的–本文的目的是研究影響印尼旅行者對在線旅行社購買意向的因素。

研究設計/方法–本文使用定量方法來檢驗所有假設。本文研究, 使用因果關係得研究設計來分析變量之間的因果關係。該調查表使用在線調查表向337名印度尼西亞旅行者分發。為了分析結果,研究人員使用SEM和自舉方法。
研究結果–結果表明,相對優勢會影響購買意願。為了增強購買意向,在線旅行應考慮對購買意向的態度。但是,我們發現信任並不能調解感知的相對優勢影響購買意願之間的關係。
研究局限性–該研究的局限性是僅填寫印尼旅行者問卷調查的人。對於不同文化背景的深度研究成果,可以作為兩國之間的比較研究。其次,僅使用問卷作為定量方法進行數據收集。最好將定性和定量方法相結合,以獲得更深的結果。第三,關於框架,也許可以使用或添加另一個變量。
研究實際意義-研究结果對為消費者提供服務的在線旅行社具有隱含的意義。在線旅行社應利用技術來增強優勢,並應將態度消費者作為有利於積極購買意願的中介變量。
研究原創性/價值–使用在線旅行社檢查了購買意願的一般構造的研究使的有限。在不同國家/地區與消費者群體進行的研究用作該研究的基礎。因此,本研究可以通過影響的感知相對優勢,更好地了解影響印尼消費者購買意向在線旅行社的關鍵因素。

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the factor influencing Indonesian travelers to the purchase intention at Online Travel Agent.
Design/methodology/approach – This paper usesa quantitative approach to examine all of the hypotheses. Researchers use causal research design to analyze the causal relationship between the variable. This questionnaire was distributed to 377 Indonesian travelers using an online questionnaire. For analysis of the result, the researcher uses SEM and bootstrapping methodology.
Findings – The results show that perceived relative advantage influence the purchase intention. For enhancing the purchase intention, online travel should consider attitude to the purchase intention. However, we find that trust does not mediate the relationship between perceived relative advantage influence the purchase intention
Research Limitations –The limitation of this research is people who fill questionnaires only from Indonesian travelers.It can be a comparison study between two countries for the depth results with a different culture. Second, the method collection of data just using a questionnaire as a quantitative method. It betters a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods for getting a deeper result. Third, it is about the framework, maybe could use or add another variable.
Practical Implications - This research's findings give managerial implications for Online Travel agents who provide consumer service. Online travel agents should enhance the advantage by utilizing the technology and should pay attention to the attitude consumer as a mediation variable with advantage to the positive purchase intention.
Originality/value –Limited studies have examined a general construct of purchase intention using an Online Travel Agent. Studies conducted in different countries, with consumers group, is used as the base for this study. Therefore, this study provides a better understanding of key factors that influence Indonesian consumers’ to purchase intention Online Travel Agent (OTA) by an influenced perceived relative advantage.

TABLE OF CONTENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i
ABSTRACT ii
摘要 iv
TABLE OF CONTENT v
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES ix
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Research Background 1
Statement of the Research Problem 5
Research Objectives 6
Research Questions 6
Definition of Terms and Abbreviation 7
Chapter 2 Literature Review 9
Online Travel Agent 9
Innovation Diffusion Theory 10
Perceived Relative Advantage 10
Enjoyment 11
Time Saving 11
Financial 12
Convenience 12
Product Variety 13
Trust 14
Attitude 14
Purchase Intention 15
The interrelationship between Perceived Relative Advantage to the Trust 18
The interrelationship between Perceived Relative Advantage to the Attitude 20
The interrelationship between Perceived Relative Advantage to the Purchase Intention 21
The interrelationship between Trust to the Attitude 22
The interrelationship between Attitude to the Purchase Intention 23
Mediating effect between Exogenous Variable and Endogenous Variable 24
Chapter 3 Methodology 33
Research Methodology 33
Research Framework 34
Variable 34
Research Hypotheses 35
Measurement and Scaling 36
Data Collection 38
Sample Selection 38
Data Analysis Procedure 39
Descriptive Statistical Analysis 39
Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis 39
Reliability Analysis/ Cronbach’s Alpha 39
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) 40
Bootstrapping 40
Chapter 4 Results and Finding 42
Demograhic Characteristics 42
Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) 44
Reliability Test 46
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) 47
Convergent and Discriminant Validity 49
Reliability and Validity Summary 51
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) 52
Test of Mediating Variable 55
Bootstrapping 56
Post Hoc Analysis 60
Summary of Mediation Analysis Result 64
Summary of Hypotheses Result 65
Chapter 5Discussion and Conclusion 66
Summary and Discussion of the Findings 66
Implication of the Study 72
Limitation and Suggestion for Future Research 74
REFERENCES 76
APPENDICES 84
Appendix A 84
Appendix B 87
Appendix C 90



LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1Number of outbound travelers from Indonesia from 2013 to 2017 2
Figure 2Online Travel Sales 2014-2020 4
Figure 3Online Travel Sales vs. Offline Travel Sales 4
Figure 4 Research Model 34
Figure 5 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Framework 48
Figure 6The result of SEM path analysis 53
Figure 7The Result of Structural Equation Model (SEM) testing 54
Figure 8Regression analysis model without mediating variable 55
Figure 9Regression analysis model with mediating variable 56
Figure 10First Step of Mediation Analysis58
Figure 11Second Step of Mediation Analysis 59
Figure 12ThirdStep of Mediation Analysis 59
Figure 13Result of SEM testing with TST and ATT as mediation variable 59
Figure 14Mediation Analysis for PRA, ATT, and PI 62
Figure 15Mediation Analysis for PRA, TST, and ATT 63




LIST OF TABLES
Table 1Summary of Variables 16
Table 2Summary Table of Hypotheses 25
Table 3Summary Table of Questionnaire 36
Table 4 Demographic of Respondents43
Table 5Deleted Questionnaire Items and Reason 45
Table 6 Exploratory Factor Analysis 46
Table 7Reliability of Each Variables 47
Table 8 CFA Goodness of Fit Test 49
Table 9Test of discriminant validity,convergent validity,and composite reliability 50
Table 10 Summary of Reliability and Validity 51
Table 11The result of SEM Goodness-of-Fit Statistic 53
Table 12Result of the Hypotheses testing using Standardized Estimates 54
Table 13Four steps method 56
Table 14 Result from test mediation analysis 60
Table 15Testing mediating effect of ATT on predictor PRA and outcome PI 61
Table 16The Effect Size Measure of ATT on PRA and PI 62
Table 17Testing mediating effect of TST on predictor PRA and outcome ATT 63
Table 18The Effect Size Measure of TST on PRA andATT 64
Table 19Summary Table of Mediation Analysis Result 64
Table 20Summary Table of Hypotheses Result 65
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