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研究生:王曉華
研究生(外文):WANG, HSIAO-HUA
論文名稱:無人的遺物:波東斯基作品中的物條件
論文名稱(外文):Relics of No One: The Conditions of Things in Christian Boltanski’s Work
指導教授:楊凱麟楊凱麟引用關係
指導教授(外文):YANG, KAILIN
口試委員:陳愷璜陳貺怡黃建宏陳文祺
口試委員(外文):CHEN, KAI-HUANGCHEN, KUANG-YIHUANG, CHIEN-HUNGCHEN, WEN-CHI
口試日期:2021-01-18
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺北藝術大學
系所名稱:美術學系碩(博)士班
學門:藝術學門
學類:美術學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:148
中文關鍵詞:遺物載體數量檔案記憶波東斯基
外文關鍵詞:reliccarrieramountarchivememoryChristian Boltanski
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波東斯基曾說過,作為物件在其創作中大量出現的黑白照片、舊衣服與各類檔案文件,僅僅就只是無人的物。然而,這些物件之所以能在他的作品中成為無人之物,是因為它們早都皆已是一件件無人的遺物。對波東斯基的評論者與觀眾們而言,這種遺物說或許並不算太唐突新鮮。因為身為猶太人,並且是在二次大戰結束前一年出生的猶太人,很難不讓在他作品當中的「無人」之物不進入「這是誰的物件?」的指認工程,並毫不令人意外的在這個誰的缺位上,補上一個又一個的大屠殺受難者。黑白照片、舊衣服、檔案文件,或用波東斯基自己的話來說,無人之物,在這位猶太裔藝術家的作品中,遂得其別名,或它真正的名字,即大屠殺的遺物。只是,這種借物(件)再現人物的觀點在關於波東斯基的作品評論中雖不少見,卻仍然像是短少了一項最關鍵的論據,而無法充分解釋作品當中所出現的物,為何總比起觸動故人已矣這種普遍之感更教人揮之不去?何以它們竟還能夠激起我們更多的感覺?除非,在這裡的「無人」之物所欲凸顯的,並不只是它過去曾經「有人」所屬。一件件攤在我們眼前的無人物,若不再再現出使用或穿戴過它的主人公形象,那麼要我們看的究竟是什麼?在波東斯基的作品中,無非就是物在時空之中的唯物性。是以,我們將看到,比起定睛觀看照片中的人物影像,看波東斯基作品中的任何一張照片,同時更意味著看見作為物的那一張照片本身;比起實際得出一長串的阿拉伯數字,衣服或照片的數量在更多時候就只能作為某種感覺的材料,赤裸裸地存在於波東斯基作品當中;比起從制檔開始到開放檔案瀏覽為的是操作某些特定的事件,不被看的波東斯基檔案裡唯一可視的事件,就只有被視覺化了的這個檔案化行為本身。物在波東斯基的作品中,所鍛鍊的遂較不是人們將其擬人化的比附能力,它們更不是人在事過境遷後的比對物,相反地,物在此,要求的是我們對其作為一件正在時刻變化的物,投以最高程度的注視。而這恐怕才是「無人」的真義。物在波東斯基作品中展示出的,是其不但不會在人—即便是他的猶太祖輩們—發生變故的那一刻起便停止氧化、受潮、崩解⋯,更將沒有任何人能夠無視於它們所在的時空,亦沒有一個人不因此而不改變其對時空的感知,縱然最後倖存下來的只有物,或就算它們以一種默默的、微小的方式持續不斷地在變化。對比於從曾經有人到現在的無人,無人或許並不只為了把人撤出,而是讓物在不同的時間、空間中所發生的改變再次的為人可感,其雖看似不再指定著任何一個人,卻也沒有人能夠置身事外。而這連帶讓波東斯基作品當中的物件、物與遺物之間的關係變得清明:物所需要被揭露的並不是它如何從有人(甚至是某人)之物到無人之物,好證明它最後成為了一項遺物,換句話說,知道那是誰遺落下來的物件,可能並不是何以波東斯基作品中的這些,竟能讓我們如此悲不自勝的主要原因,而是反之。是對物在時空之中各種微小改變的感知一旦啟動,其便不比面對物(件)在人非的這種震驚不捨來得衝擊較小。光憑藉著不得不跟著物(的改變),打開所有的技術去記憶它的存在、不得不跟在物(的改變)之後,傾盡所有的能力來哀悼其變化這一點,物從一開始或許就值得了「遺物」這個稱呼。於是,與其說無人之物是物得以被以遺物視之的必要條件,倒不如說,在波東斯基的作品中,任何一件物的存在,因能開發出各種對它正在時刻變化的微感知這一項能力,讓其必然首先就是一件無人的遺物。

關鍵字:遺物、載體、數量、檔案、記憶、波東斯基。
Christian Boltanski once said, black and white photos, old clothes, and all kinds of archives that appear in his works as “objects” are “things of no one” and nothing else. However, these objects could never become things of no one if they had not been “relics of no one” at the first place. For critics and audiences alike, Boltanski’s “relics” are probably neither absurd nor novel as Boltanski was born to a Jewish father one year before the World War II came to an end, and hence so naturally, his works usually fall into the group of items that are needed to be identified – To whom do these “things of no one” belong? Unsurprisingly, the owners are usually identified as victims of the massacre during the identification work. Therefore, black and white photos, old clothes, archives, or in Boltanski’s own words, things of no one, can claim their alias, or their real names, in this Jewish artist’s hands: They are relics of the massacre. Although it’s not uncommon to read about Boltanski’s borrowing the image of objects to represent people in art critiques and essays, it seems to me that we are still short of the most critical evidence to fully explain why the objects appear in his works haunt us more than any momentos that remind us of old friends or old things, why his objects stir us more. So, there could only be one reason: Things of no one are not here to emphasise their having belonged to “someone”. In this sense, what are we really looking for in an object if it no longer represents its owner? In Boltanski’s works, it is the “thingness” that these objects possess that we are looking for. We can hence figure that looking at Boltanski’s work is less an experience of looking at the subjects of the photo than that of looking at the photo itself. The numbers of clothes or photos in Boltanski’s works are less often a string of numbers than materials that evoke certain feelings and lie nakedly in his works. The very act of archiving and publishing the archives, practiced by Boltanski, are less the acts to highlight an event than the visualisation of the act of archiving itself. Boltanski’s objects do not aim to train us to personify themselves, and they are not anchors to help us compare things before and after certain events. Instead, Boltanski’s objects only request us to really look at them as objects – this is probably what “no one” really means. Objects never stop oxidising, collapsing, and getting damp however people around them change – even though it is Boltanski’s Jewish ancestors that changed. With the existence of objects, no one can ever neglect the spacetime again, and different perceptions of the spacetime are also provoked. Boltanski’s objects continue to change, silently and subtly, even though nothing other than themselves survive. If we compare the old status of things, that they used to belong to someone, to the current status of their belonging to no one, we can deduct that perhaps Boltanski did not aim to remove people from his works; instead, he might be just trying to make objects sensible in different spacetimes however these objects change. In this sense, although these objects are no longer assigned to anyone, no one can be an outsider any more. Consequently, this clarifies the relationships between objects, things, and relics appearing in Boltanski’s works: It’s not necessary to unveil how an object goes through its belonging to someone to no one for proving its current status as a relic; or, in other words, it’s probably not because an object has belonged to a known person that we become overwhelmingly sad. The truth lies in the opposite side – Whenever we sense the subtle changes that occur to objects in a spacetime, we are not less shocked than our figuring that old people are gone while things remain at the place. That we must exert ourselves to remember the existence of certain objects and to mourn for them whenever they change validates these objects’ names of “relics” from the very beginning. Hence, the discussion on what makes things of no one “relics” is less necessary in Boltanski’s works because whatever arouse people’s feelings due to its own change must be a relic at the first place.


Keywords: relic, carrier, amount, archive, memory, Christian Boltanski
摘要 i
Abstract iii

謝辭 v

導論、遺物條件 1

第一章、照片的照片
如其所不是的記憶 9
載體攝影師 12
記憶與載體同一,而非反之 17

第二章、感覺的材料
非關計算的數量 23
數量時刻 30
數量的材料學觀點,或第三公理 34

第三章、波東斯基的「視覺」檔案
不可及的檔案 39
檔案之師 44
檔案化的視覺化 48

第四章、已死之人,波東斯基
大屠殺先生 55
以死亡記憶死亡 58
後死者們 62

第五章、物的紀念碑
非關個人 69
物的存有與事件 73
時空微感術 76

結論、「做藝術比活著容易多了。」 81

參考書目 85
作品圖版 99
附錄、作者簡歷 103
藝術家簡歷 107

外文部分



專書
Adorno Theodor W. (1955). Prisms: Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought, trans. Samuel Weber and Shierry Weber Nicholsen, Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1983.
Badiou, Alain (1988). Being and Event, trans. Oliver Feltham, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005.
Barthes, Roland (1977). The Death of the Author, IMAGE-MUSIC-TEXT, trans. Stephen Heath, New York: Hill & Wang, 1978.
Barthes, Roland (1980). Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography, trans. Richard Howard, London: Vintage, 2000.
Deleuze, Gilles (1969). The Logic of Sense, trans. Mark Lester and Charles Stivale, New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
De Roo, Rebecca J.. “Christian Boltanski’s Personal Memorabilia” in The Museum Establishment and the Contemporary Art: The Pllitics of Artistic Display in France after 1968, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 71-124.
Derrida, Jacques (1995). Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression, trans. Eric Prenowitz, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Foucault, Michel (1969). The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language, trans. A.M. Sheridan Smith, New York: Pantheon Books, 1972.
Foucault, Michel (1980). The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, trans. Colin Gordon, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Freud, Sigmund (1917). Mourning and Melancholia in Sigmund Freud’s Collected Papers Vol. IV, trans. Joan Riviere, ed. James Strachey, London: Hogarth Press and The Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1953, pp. 152-170.
Grenier, Catherine and Boltanski, Christian (2007). The Impossible Life of Christian Boltanski, trans. Marc Lowenthal, Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 2009.
Harman, Graham. Object-Oriented Ontology: A new Theory of Everything, London: Pelican Books, 2018.
Harman, Graham. The Quadruple Object, Hampshire: Zer0 Books, 2011.
Heidegger, Martin (1927). Being and Time, trans. Joan Stambaugh, New York: State University of New York Press, 1996.
Heidegger, Martin (1971). “The Thing” in Poetry, Language, Thought, trans. Albert Hofstadter, New York: Harper Perennial Classics, 2001, pp.161-184.
Levinas, Emmanuel. “The Trace of the Other” in Deconstruction on Context Literature and Philosophy, ed. Mark C. Taylor, Chicago: University of Chicage Press, 1986, pp. 345-359.
Liss, Andrea. “ Between Trauma and Nostalgia: Christian Boltanski’s Memorials and Art Spiegelman’s Maus” in Trespassing Through Shadows: Memory, Photography, and the Holocaust, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 1998, pp. 39-68.
Locke, John (1689-1690). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, New York: Dossier Press, 2015.
Plato (399-387 B.C.E.). The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letter, ed. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1989.
Shawcross, Nancy M.. “The Filter of Culture and the Culture of Death: How Barthes and Boltanski Play the Mythologies of the Photograph” in Writing the Image After Roland Barthes (New Cultural Studies), ed. Jean-Michel Rabaté, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997, pp. 59-70.
Van Alphen, Ernst. “Deadly Historians: Boltanski’s Intervention in Holocaust Historiography,” in Visual Culture and the Holocaust, ed. Barbie Zelizer, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2001, pp. 45-73.


期刊及研討會論文
Albers, Kate Palmer. “ ‘It’s Not An Archive’: Christian Boltanski’s Les Archives de C.B., 1965-1988 ” in Visual Resources 20-3, 2011, pp. 254-257.
Barker, Louise. “Second Skin: Used Clothing and Representations of the Body in the Work of Louise Bourgeois and Christian Boltanski” in Textile: The Journal of Cloth and Culture, London: Bloomsbury Press, 2014, pp. 1-42.
Bergman-Carton, Janis. “Christian Boltanksi’s Dernieres Annees: The History of Violence and the Violence of History” in History and Memory, 13-1, 2001, pp. 3-18.
Boehm, Barbara Drake. “Relics and Reliquaries in Medieval Christianity” in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art・Essays, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2020, https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/relc/hd_relc.htm. Accessed Date: Nor.1, 2020.
Caines, Rebecca. “Becoming Mythical: Existence and Representation in the Work of Christian Boltanski” in Afterimage 38-1, 2010, pp. 9-13.
Caines, Rebecca. “Christian Boltanski: Representation and the Performance of Memory” in Afterimage 31-1, 2004, pp. 4-5.
Campbell, Timothy. “Romantic Dispersals: Afterlives of Dress and the Archive” in Studies in Romanticism 57, 2018, pp. 11-38.
De Roo, Rebecca J.. “Christian Boltanski’s Memory Images: Remaking French Museums in the Aftermath of ’68 ” in Oxford Art Magazine 27, 2004, pp. 219-238.
Hobbs, Richard. “Boltanski’s Visual Archives” in History of the Human Sciences 11, 1998, pp. 121-140.
Jones, David Houston. “All the Moments of Our lives: Self-archiving from Christian Boltanski to Lifelogging” in Archives and Records, 36-1, 2015, pp. 29-41.
Kamczycki, Artur. “Yizkor, the Jewish Way of Memory. The Case of Christian Boltanski’s Art” in Studia Europaea Gnesnensia 7, 2013, pp. 309-326.
Maguire, David. “Agent of Death: Barthes, Boltanski and Post-mortem Photography” in Academia, 2014, pp. 1-16.
Marmer, Nancy. “Boltanski: The Uses of Contradiction” in Art in America 77(10), 1989, pp. 168-181.
Mavor, Carol. “Collecting Loss” in Culture Studies, 11(1), 1997,pp. 111-137.
McGurren, Diane D. “Becoming Mythical: Existence and Representation in the Work of Christian Boltanski” in Afterimage, 38-1, 2010, pp. 9-13.
Parker, Elizabeth S., Cahill, Larry., Tejera, Paul. and McGaugh, James L. “A Case of Unusual Autobiographical Remembering” in Neurocase, vol.12, 2016, pp. 35-49.
Rosen, Carol. “Christian Boltanski: Traces of the Dead” in Sculpture 18-5, 1999, pp. 26-33.
Saladini, Emanuela. “The Art of Telling Story: Christian Boltanski” for Art, Education and Value- The 5th Mediterranean Congress of Aesthetics, 2011, pp. 331-343.
Smith, Olga. “Authorless Pictures: Uses of Photography in Christian Boltanski’s Early Work (1969-75)” in Art History 40-3, 2017, pp. 634-657.
Smith, Olga. “ ‘A Hollow Image of the Person’: Objects of Memory in the Art of Christian Boltanski” in Anamnesia: Private and Public Memory in Modern French Culture, 2009, pp. 117-129.
Solomon-Godeau, Abigail. “Mourning or Melancholic: Christian Boltanksi’s ‘Missing House’ ” in Oxford Art Journal 23-2, 1998, pp. 1-20.
Sturken, Marita. ‘Imaging Postmemory/ Renegotiating History’ in Afterimage 26-6, 1999, pp. 10-12.
Van Alphen, Ernst. “Visual Archives as Preposterous History” in Art History 30-3, 2007, pp. 364–382.


博士論文
Albers, Kate Palmer. PhD in Art History (2008). “Archive / Atlas / Album: The Photographic Constructions of Christian Boltanski, Dinh Q. Lê, and Gerhard Richter,” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University, Boston, USA.
Demelo, Sarah. PhD in Art History and Theory (2011). “Autobiography and Self-Portraiture in the Works of Christian Boltanski and Sophie Calle, ” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Essex, Colchester, UK.


畫冊及藝術家創作書
Beil, Ralf. Boltanski: Time, Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2006.
Blistène, Bernard., Bozo, Dominique., Honnef, Klaus., Kantor, Tadeusz., Lascault, Gilbert., Lemoine, Serge., Metken, Günter., Renard, Delphine. and Viéville, Dominique. Boltanski, Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, Musée national d’art modern, 1984.
Boltanski, Christian. Lifetime, Tokyo: Suiseisha, 2019.
Boltanski, Christian. 10 Portraits Photographiques de Christian Boltanski, 1946-1964, Paris: Multiplicata, 1972. –Artist’s Book
Boltanski, Christian. Essais de reconstitution d'objets ayant appartenu à Christian Boltanski entre 1948 et 1954, Paris: Galerie Sonnabend, 1971. –Artist’s Book
Boltanski, Christian., Gumpert, Lynn. Christian Boltanski, Paris: Flammarion, 1994.
Boltanski, Christian., Gumpert, Lynn and Jacob, Mary Jane. Christian Boltanski: Lessons of Darkness, Chicago: Museum of Contemporary Art, 1988.
DeMaria, Shelley. ‘Christian Boltanski: Monument’ in Objects of Devotion and Desire: Medieval Relic to Contemporary Art, Curator Cynthia Hahn, New York: The Bertha and Karl Leubsdorf Art Gallery and Hunter College, 2011, p68.
Fabbri, Paolo. ‘Guide to CB's Alphabet’ in Christian Boltanski, Curator Danilo Eccher, Milano : Charta and the Galleria d'arte moderna, Bologna, 1997.
Grenier, Catherine and Mendelsohn, Daniel. Christian Boltanski: The Flammarion Contemporary Series, Paris: Flammarion, 2010.
Gumpert, Lynn., Marsh, Georgia and Lemoine, Serge. Reconstruction, London: Whitechapel Gallery, 1990.
Landau, Suzanne and Ettinger, Barcha. Christian Boltanski: Lessons of Darkness, Jerusalem: The Israel Museum, 1989.
Lascault, Gilbert. Boltanski: Souvenance (1974), Paris: L'Echoppe, 1998.
Moure, Gloria., Jiménez, José and Clair, Jean. Advent and Other Time, Santiago de Compostela: Centro Galego de Arte Contemporánea, 1995.
Obrist, Hans-Ulrich, Smith, Karen and Fibicher, Bernard.. Ai Wei Wei, London: Phaidon, 2009.
Obrist, Hans-Ulrich. Take Me (I’m Yours), London: Serpentine Gallery, 1995.
Semin, Didier, Garb, Tamar and Kuspit, Donald. Christian Boltanski-Contemporary Artists Series, New York: Phaidon, 1997.
Semin, Didier. ‘Boltanski: From the Impossible Life to the Exemplary Life’, Christian Boltanski, New York: Phaidon, 1997, pp. 44-91.
Soutif, Daniel. ‘An Attempt to Reconstruct Christian Boltanski’ in Christian Boltanski, Curator Danilo Eccher, Milano : Charta and the Galleria d'arte moderna, , Bologna, 1997, pp. 33-178.


訪談稿(含線上報導)
Aspden, Peter. “ Christian Boltanski: ‘We Give Ourselves Things To Do So That We Don’t Die’ “ in Financial Times Online, Mar. 30, 2018. https://www.ft.com/content/182368ec-3212-11e8-ac48-10c6fdc22f03. Accessed Date: Feb. 21, 2020.
Bertola, Chiara. ‘Christian Boltanski, Something Personal’ in Flash Art, May/June, 2011, pp. 117-120.
Borger, Irene. ‘Interview with Christian Boltanski’ in BOMB Magazine Online 26, 1989. https://bombmagazine.org/articles/christian-boltanski/. Accessed Date: Aug. 31, 2019.
Burton, Johanna and Pasquariello, Lisa. ‘Ask Somebody Else Something Else: Analyzing the artist interview’ in Art Journal 64-3, 2005, pp. 46-49.
Camhi, Leslie. ‘Christian Boltanski: A Conversation with Leslie Camhi” in The Print Collector’s Newsletter, vol. XXII, no.6, 1993, pp. 201-206.
Cash, Stephanie. ‘From a Mountain of Lost Souls to an Island of Heartbeats’ in Art in America, May 10, 2010, pp. 33-34.
Castro, Jan Garden. ‘Inside the Worlds of the Dead: A Conversation with Christian Boltanski’ in Sculpture 30-3, 2011, pp. 36-41.
Cole, Andrew. ‘Those Obscure Objects Of Desire: The Uses And Abuses Of Object-Oriented Ontology and Speculative Realism’ in Artforum Online, vol. 53, No.10, Summer,2015. https://www.artforum.com/print/201506/the-uses-and-abuses-of-object-oriented-ontology-and-speculative-realism-andrew-cole-52280. Accessed Date: Dec. 8, 2020.
Fabbri, Paolo. ‘Mort from CB's Alphabet’ in Christian Boltanski, Curator Danilo Eccher, Milano : Charta and the Galleria d'arte moderna, , Bologna, 1997, pp. 96-101.
Flanagan, Richard. ‘Tasmania Devil – A Master Gambler and His High-Stakes Museum by Richard Flanagan’ in The New Yorker Online, Jan. 14, 2013. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/01/21/tasmanian-devil. Accessed Date: Sep. 3, 2020.
Fleischer, Alain and Semin, Didier. ‘Christian Boltanski, la revanche de la maladresse: interview’ in Art Press 128, September 1988, pp. 4-9.
Fulton, Jeni. ‘Fragile Time: Talking About Death with Christian Boltanski’ in Sleek Magazine Online, Dec. 8, 2017. https://www.sleek-mag.com/article/christian-boltanski-interview-death. Accessed Date: Oct. 9, 2020.
Garb, Tamar. ‘Interview: Tamar Garb in Conversation with Christian Boltanski’ in Christian Boltanski-Contemporary Artists Series, New York: Phaidon, 1997, pp.8-40.
Gumpert, Lynn. ‘ The Many Faces of C.B.’ in Reconstruction, London: Whitechapel Gallery, 1990: unpaged.
Hossenally, Rooksana. ‘A Matter of Life and Death: Christian Boltanski on His Must-see Paris Show - An interview by Rooksana Hossenally’ in Forbes Online, Jan. 25, 2020. https://www.forbes.com/sites/rooksanahossenally/2020/01/25/christian-boltanski-on-his-must-see-art-exhibition-in-paris-right-now/#751010195e96. Accessed Date: Aug. 3, 2020.
Juchau, Mireille. ‘Christian Boltanski’s Chance at Life’ in The Monthly Online, March, 2014. https://www.themonthly.com.au/issue/2014/march/1393592400/mireille-juchau/christian-boltanski%E2%80%99s-chance-life#mtr. Accessed Date: Dec. 1, 2018.
Kuspit, Donald. ‘From the Sublime to the Ridiculous: Christian Boltanski and Paul McCarthy’ in Art New England, vol. 22, No.4, June/ July, 2001, pp. 8-9.
Leydier, Richard. ‘Everything Must Go-Christian Boltanski Interviewed by Richard Leydier’ in Art Press, No.363, 2010, pp. 8-22.
Marsh, Georgia. ‘The White and the Black: An Interview with Christian Boltanski’ in Parkette, vol.22, 1989, pp. 36-40.
Marsh, Georgia. ‘Christian, Carrion, Clown, and Jew: Christian Boltanski Interviewed by Georgia Marsh’ in Reconstruction, London: Whitechapel Gallery, 1990:unpaged.
Malinaud, Sandrine. ‘Christian Boltanski: Towards the Cemeteries’ Peace’ in Cimaise, vol.45, Issue 255, 1998, pp. 48-56.
McDonald, John. ‘ Christian Boltanski’s Chance: The Lottery of Life” in The Sydney Morning Herald Online, Jan. 25, 2014: https://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/christian-boltanskis-chance-the-lottery-of-life-20140123-319pt.html. Accessed Date: Jan. 9, 2019.
Rosenbaum-Kranson, Sarah. ‘Interview with Christian Boltanski’ in Museo- Magazine Online, 2010. http://www.museomagazine.com/CHRISTIAN- BOLTANSKI. Accessed Date: Aug. 31, 2019.
Semin, Didier. ‘ Boltanski: From the Impossible Life to the Exemplary Life’ in Christian Boltanski-Contemporary Artists Series, New York: Phaidon, 1997, pp. 44-91.
Semin, Didier. ‘An Artist of Uncertainty’ in Parkett, vol.22, 1989, pp. 26-33.
Smith, Roberta. ‘ART VIEW: Boltanski's Haunting Fragments of Despair’ in The New York Times Online, June 12, 1988: https://www.nytimes.com/1988/06/12/arts/art-view-boltanski-s-haunting-fragments-of-despair.html. Accessed Date: Aug. 31, 2019.
Searle, Adrian. ‘Christian Boltanski: It's a Jumble Out There’ in The Guardian Online, Jan.13, 2010. http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2010/jan/13/christain-boltanski- grand-palais-paris. Accessed Date: Aug. 31, 2019.
Spears, Dorothy. ‘Exploring Mortality with Clothes and a Claw’ in The New York Times Online, May 9, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/10/arts/design/10boltanski.html?pagewanted =all&_r=0. Accessed Date: Aug. 31, 2019.
Serafin, Amy. ‘Christian Boltanski on Mortality, Whale Wounds and a Wager over Death with a Tasmanian Devil’ in Wallpaper* Online, Apr.1, 2018: https://www.wallpaper.com/art/christian-boltanski-ephemeres-marian-goodman-gallery. Accessed Date: Sep. 3, 2020.
Vetrocq, Marcia E.. ‘Memory’s Flight’ in Art in America, October 2008, pp. 168-169.
Yamada, Mio. ‘Christian Boltanski’s Mesmeric “No Man’s Land” Draws Visitors to the Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennale 2012′s New Satoyama Museum of Contemporary Art’ in The Japan Times Online, Aug. 2, 2012. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/culture/2012/08/02/arts/christian-boltanskis- mesmeric-no-mans-land-draws-visitors-to-the-echigo-tsumari-art-triennale- 2012s-new-satoyama-museum-of-contemporary-art/#.UnqUK3C-3ic. Accessed Date: Aug. 31, 2019.
Zham, Olivier. ‘Alain Badiou Interview and Portrait by Olivier Zham’ in Purple Magazine Online, F/W 2010 Issue 14. https://purple.fr/magazine/fw-2010-issue-14/alain-badiou/. Accessed Date: Feb. 18, 2020.


辭典(含線上百科)
Gutman, Israel. ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, New York: Macmillan, 1990.
Guynn, Beth Ann. ‘Post-mortem photography’, in Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography, ed. John Hannavy, New York: Routledge, 2008.
“After-born.” Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, 2020, https://www.merriam-webster.com/legal/after-born. Accessed Date: Aug. 8, 2020.
“-al.” Merriam-Webster's Dictionary,2020, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Al. Accessed Date: Oct. 15, 2020.
“Greek Mathematics.” Encyclopædia Britannica, 2020: https://www.britannica.com/science/mathematics/Assessment-of-Egyptian-mathematics#ref65977. Accessed Date: Feb.18, 2020.
“Holocaust.” Wiktionary, 2020: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/holocaust. Accessed Date: Nor.1, 2020.
“Hyperthymesia.” English Wikipedia, 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperthymesia. Accessed Date: Jan. 17, 2020.
“Parmenides.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2020, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/parmenides/. Accessed Date: Feb.18, 2020.
“Positive Correlation.” English Wikipedia, 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Correlation_and_dependence. Accessed Date: Feb. 13, 2020.
“Possessive Adjectives and Possessive pronouns.” Complete English Grammar, 2020
https://completeenglishgrammar.com/possessive-adjectives-and-possessive-pronouns. Accessed Date: Oct. 22, 2020.
“Substitution.” English Wikipedia, 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Substitution_(algebra). Accessed Date: Feb. 18, 2020.


其他網路資料
Altar to the Chases High School, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 2020: https://www.imj.org.il/en/collections/202245. Accessed Date: July 14, 2020.
Arolsen Archives, International Center on Nazi Persecution, 2020: https://arolsen-archives.org/en/. Accessed Date: June 5, 2020.
“Hoarding Disorder.” American Psychiatric Association, 2020 https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm. Accessed Date: June 3, 2020.
“Christian Boltanski.” Centre national d'art et de culture, 2019: Georges-Pompidou:https://www.centrepompidou.fr/cpv/rechercher.action. Accessed Date: Jan. 9, 2019.
“Christian Boltanski.” Marian Goodman Gallery, 2019: https://www.mariangoodman.com/artists/christian-boltanski/. Accessed Date: Jan. 9, 2019.
“Christian Boltanski.” Kewenig Gallery, 2019: https://kewenig.com/artist/331. Accessed Date: Feb. 15, 2019.
“Christian Boltanski.” Tate Modern, 2018 : https://www.tate.org.uk/search?q=christian+boltanski. Accessed Date: Dec. 1, 2018.
Direction générale de la Création artistique, Ministère de la Culture, 2020: http://traduction.culture.gouv.fr/url/Result.aspx?to=en&url=https://www.culture.gouv.fr/Nous-connaitre/Organisation/La-direction-generale-de-la-creation-artistique。Accessed Date: Feb. 12, 2020.
“Doris Salcedo.” MoMA, New York, 2020: https://www.moma.org/collection/works/134303. Accessed Date: Nor.1, 2020.
Maps of the Holocaust, Public Broadcasting Service, 2020: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/holocaust-maps/.Accessed Date: Aug. 3, 2020.
Marina Abramović: in residency, Kaldor Public Art Projects, 2020: http://kaldorartprojects.org.au/projects/marina-abramovic. Accessed Date: Sep. 3, 2020.
Ochayon, Sheryl Silver. The World Holocaust Remembrance Center, 2020: https://www.yadvashem.org/articles/general/who-took-the-pictures.html. Accessed Date: June 25, 2020.
Sensory-Processing Sensitivity, Foundation for the Study of Highly Sensitive Persons, 2020: https://hsperson.com. Accessed Date: Oct. 15, 2020.
Synopsis and Plot Overview of Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, 2020: https://www.shakespeare.org.uk/explore-shakespeare/shakespedia/shakespeares-plays/hamlet. Accessed Date: Nor.30, 2020.



中文部分



專書
Badiou, Alain (1988),《存在與与事件》,蓝江譯,南京:南京大学出版社,2018。
Barthes, Roland (1980),《明室・攝影扎記》,許綺玲譯,台北:台灣攝影工作室,1997。
Heidegger, Martin (1927),《存在與時間》,陈嘉映、王庆节譯,北京:商務印書館,2015。
Locke, John (1689-1690),《人類理解論》,關文運譯,台北:五南出版社,2020。
Rancière, Jacques (2003),《影像的宿命》,黃建宏譯,台北:典藏藝術家庭,2011。
楊凱麟,《分裂分析德勒兹:先验经验论与建构主义》,河南省:河南大學出版社,2017。
楊凱麟,《書寫與影像:法國思想,在地實踐》,台北市:聯經出版公司,2015。
錢穆,《論語新解》,台北:東大圖書公司,2018。


期刊及研討會論文
何嘉蓀、馬小敏,〈後保管時代檔案學基礎理論研究之四—檔案化問題研究〉,《檔案學研究》,第三期,2016,頁4-11。
胡峻傑,〈波東斯基的亡靈召喚—當代現成物的使用〉,《藝術欣賞》,第五卷,第三期,2009,頁23-29。
張心龍,〈喚起人們童年經驗的矛盾情懷—波爾坦斯基的攝影裝置藝術〉,《雄獅美術月刊》,第253期,頁111-115。
陳瑞文,〈德勒茲創造理論的非人稱與非人稱性〉,《國立政治大學哲學學報》,第二十五期,2011,頁1-45。
楊凱麟,〈德勒茲的特異性思考:事件的間接自由言說與無人稱場域〉,「台灣哲學學會年會暨學術研討會」論文,台北:台灣哲學學會,2003/12。
蔡雨辰,〈記憶的虛實與展演—從Christian Boltanski的《D家庭相簿》談起〉,《議藝份子》,第九期,2007,頁102-109。
劉俊蘭,〈Christian Boltanski作品中反肖像的肖像表現〉,「論述與思想—第四屆藝術學研討會」論文集,高雄:國立高雄師範大學,2008/10,頁2.1-2.22。
劉俊蘭,〈芸芸眾生像:Christian Boltanski 的「財產清單」系列〉,《研究與創新》,第四期,2017,頁14-16。
劉俊蘭,〈創傷記憶與歷史的再現:波東斯基與猶太大屠殺〉,《現代美術學報》,台北市立美術館,第十四期,2007,頁93-106。


線上百科
「檔案學」,《圖書館學與資訊科學大辭典》,http://120.127.233.14/detail/1679335/?index=6. 下載日期:2020年6月3日。
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