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研究生:Claudia Bermudez
論文名稱:推動女性平權的案例研究:尼加拉瓜的 XtraOrdinary Women NGO
論文名稱(外文):Promoting Development through Women’s Empowerment In Nicaragua: A Case Study on XtraOrdinary Women NGO
指導教授(外文):Chang, I-Wen
口試委員(外文):Lin, YatinLai, Chia-Ling
外文關鍵詞:WomenDevelopmentPatriarchyNicaraguaDomestic Violence
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Women’s empowerment is a sensitive and special topic for me because I had the
privilege of being raised by incredibly strong female figures who became my role models and shaped the person I am today. Therefore, I feel the necessity to fight for women’s rights, and to create a community of strong women that work hard to overcome difficulties.

The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the work of the non-profit organization XtraOrdinary Women NGO to understand its impact on women’s empowerment in Nicaragua. Consequently, this research includes several problems affecting the country, the region and the world when it comes to gender equality. I am aware that women’s empowerment is a broad and
complex topic, thus, this research only covers organizations working with women in Nicaragua. The methodology used for data collections is through a case study, which is an in-depth analysis of data including websites and summary reports of the organization, and conducting interviews
to people that were directly or indirectly connected to the association.

I argue that women’s empowerment plays an important role in the development of
societies and that by achieving gender equality economies grow. Sadly, it is not as easy as it sounds, among the many problems I found with this study are: the lack of formal education, poverty, and machismo. I learned that women are naturally empowered leaders forced by a patriarchal system to believe the opposite and these problems are more evident in developing countries such as mine. Through the honest testimonies of several women, I learned that if given
the opportunity, women thrive, but we have to change the system we are used to before we can see women and men equally shine.
Table of Contents
Abstract 4
Acknowledgements 5
Table of Contents 6
List of Figures 8
List of Tables 9
Chapter 1: Introduction 11
1.1 Motivation 12
1.2 Women Empowerment in Nicaragua 14
1.3 Domestic Violence 18
1.4 XtraOrdinary Women 22
1.5 Research Question 25
1.6 Argument 26
1.7 Purpose of Study 27
Chapter 2: Literature Review 29
2.1 Women’s Oppression 29
2.2 Women’s Empowerment 36
2.3 History of Women’s Movements in Nicaragua 39
2.4 Women in Sustainable Development 44
2.5 Women in Business 53
Chapter 3: Methodology 57
3.1 Case Study 58
3.2 Interview 60
3.3 Limitations 67
Chapter 4: Is Women’s Empowerment A Matter of Education? 69
4.1 XtraOrdinary Women NGO Background 69
4.2 Chureca Chic 75
4.3 XtraOrdinary Team 77
4.4 XtraOrdinary Network 79
4.5 XtraOrdinary Programs 82
4.6 Covid-19 Pandemic 86
Chapter 5: Development, Poverty and Machismo 90
5.1 Measuring Women’s Empowerment 95
5.2 Economical Impact 102
5.3 Psychological Impact 103
5.4 Is Women’s Empowerment the Solution for Economic Development? 106
5.5 Female Entrepreneurship 108
Chapter 6: Flipping the Odds and Changing the System 113
6.1 Findings and Limitations 114
6.2 Future Research 116
References 117
Bibliography 117
Appendix 1 123
Appendix 2 150

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