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研究生:吳翊捷
研究生(外文):WU, YI-CHIEH
論文名稱:當瘟疫蔓延時,西班牙觀光大城的誕生與死亡:巴塞隆納大眾觀光的發展危機
論文名稱(外文):The Birth and Death of A Spanish Tourist City amid The Pandemic of 2020: Development Crisis of Mass Tourism in Barcelona
指導教授:李宇軒李宇軒引用關係
指導教授(外文):LEE, YU-HSUAN
口試委員:陳郁君王萬睿
口試委員(外文):CHEN, YU CHUNWANG, WAN-JUI
口試日期:2021-01-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:文藻外語大學
系所名稱:歐洲研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:大眾觀光巴塞隆納全球化過度觀光新冠病毒
外文關鍵詞:Mass tourismBarcelonaGlobalizationOvertourismCOVID-19
相關次數:
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  • 下載下載:61
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
隨著全球化的運輸能力、傳播資訊科技的進步,以及廉價航空的興起,人們揪團的休閒行程方便安排,許多地方呈現大眾觀光導向的發展趨勢。在歐洲許多城市,觀光成為產業轉型及再造城市形象的指標。本文焦點放在巴塞隆納近年的發展,將探討此國際大城因觀光而繁榮的過程,以及因過度觀光帶來的隱憂。
由歷史的角度檢視觀光聞名的巴塞隆納,本文梳理大眾觀光的趨勢使巴城成功吸引了大量觀光客來朝聖。巴塞隆納自從1992年舉辦奧運會後,觀光業持續蓬勃發展,但緊接而來的是各種檢討觀光發展的問題,例如噪音汙染、區域過度開發、人潮擁擠、商品同質化以及治安不安定。本文認為檢視觀光發展,可根據文獻中的文本解讀。例如觀光理論針對過度觀光問題的討論,或2014年上映的《Bye Bye Barcelona》紀錄片及新聞報導等次級資料,說明不同利害關係人如官方、傳媒、地方社區、文化工作者、知識份子及民間團體的聲音,他們長年思索及辯證觀光發展及其衝擊的資料呈現批判觀光的視角,然而本研究強調過度觀光在全球化的不同脈絡中的問題,尤其我將集中探討2020年全球瘟疫肇始的觀光活動停擺的新危機,受衝擊後的巴塞隆納,將面對當代觀光的新意義。
Mass tourism has grown up rapidly due to the advanced technology in transportation and the Internet-related facilities. Traveling across countries is much closer to our life. My research is about the recent development of Barcelona by focusing on its mass tourism and consequences.
Under the trend of mass tourism, Barcelona attracts lots of tourists. After Barcelona held the Olympic Games in 1992, its tourism industry flourished. However, tourism not only brings benefits, but also has negative impacts, such as noise pollution, overdeveloped areas, crowded people, crime, and gentrification. The research initially unpacks all this by reinterpreting textual materials, including news, academic journals, and documentaries. It seeks to offer a critical lens on argumentations around the dark side of mass tourism according to different voices. The researcher also highlights the significance of the contexts where mass tourism might have different implications. For example, the pandemic of COVID-19 spread all over the world from early 2020 has complicated the issue of overtourism. It poses a persistent threat to the everyday life of people worldwide, and impacts on every sector in modern societies, especially tourism. The COVID-19 fundamentally changes the tourism development in Barcelona and the whole world. Because of the new context-COVID-19, Barcelona’s development in tourism is in dilemma. The research therefore aims at moving beyond one-dimensional viewpoint of overtourism.
第一章 緒論...1
第一節 研究背景...1
第二節 研究動機...2
第三節 研究目的與問題...3
第四節 研究方法...4
第二章 文獻探討...5
第一節 南歐觀光的發展...5
一、 大眾觀光...5
二、 觀光產業在地中海地區的發展...7
三、 觀光在巴塞隆納的發展及影響...9
四、 過度觀光...15
第二節 觀光論述與社會理論...18
一、 文化與觀光...18
二、 旅遊景點形象...23
三、 觀光客的凝視—真實性...24
四、 移動性...26
五、 風險社會...29
第三節 新冠病毒對全球的影響...32
一、 失業...32
二、 航班...34
三、 油價...35
四、 消費者信心...36
第三章 研究方法...38
第一節 文獻分析法...39
第二節 研究架構...42
第三節 研究限制...42
第四章 新冠病毒對西班牙的衝擊...44
第一節 疫情如何影響西班牙觀光業...44
一、 失業...45
二、 航班...46
三、 飯店...48
四、 國際旅客...50
五、 旅遊種類與目的地選擇...51
六、 當地居民...52
第二節 西班牙如何因應新冠病毒...55
一、 政府應變措施...55
二、 政府計劃開放旅遊...57
第三節 綜合討論...59
一、 文化與觀光...60
二、 全球化與觀光...62
三、 政府與觀光...65
第五章 結論...68
參考文獻...71
一、中文文獻
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Becker, E.(2015)。旅行的異義:一趟揭開旅遊暗黑真相的環球之旅(OVERBOOKED: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism)(吳緯疆譯)。新北市:八旗文化。(原著出版年:2013)
Beck, U.(2003)。風險社會—通往另一個現代的路上(Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity)(汪浩譯)。台北市:巨流。(原著出版年:1986)
Smith, M. K.(2014)。文化觀光學(Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies)(劉以德譯)。台北市:桂魯有限公司。(原著出版年:2009)
Urry, J.(2007)。觀光客的凝視(The Tourist Gaze)(葉浩譯)。台北市:書林出版有限公司。(原著出版年:1990)
Zukin, S.(2012)。裸城:純正都市地方的生與死(Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places)(王志弘、王玥民、徐苔玲譯)。台北市:群學。(原著出版年:1961)
呂秉翰(2008)。風險與安全—第二現代語境下的論述。中央警察大學「資訊、科技與社會學報」,第8卷第1期,頁69-77。
周桂田、徐健銘(2016)。進擊的世界風險社會挑戰—紀念貝克逝世一周年。二十一世紀雙月刊,第154期,頁13-29。
陳永忻(2014)。文化遺產觀光:以英國四個個岸城市為例(碩士論文)。取自華藝線上圖書館。doi: 10.6846/TKU.2014.00647
陳美君(2003)。貝克(Ulrich Beck)風險社會理論及其對成人教育的啟示。國立臺灣師範大學社會教育研究所碩士論文,台北市。取自https://hdl.handle.net/11296/b88kj6
張淑娟(2011)。從世界文化遺產觀光經驗思考台灣文化觀光的發展。文資學報,第6期,頁100-126。
黃騰(2006)。國民教育課程之省思:Bauman、Beck及Giddens的全球風險社會觀點。國立臺北教育大學學報,第19卷第1期。頁63-88。
葉至誠、葉立誠(1999)。研究方法與論文寫作。台北市:商鼎文化出版社。
鄭培滄(2001)。我國發展高科技政策之研究—貝克風險社會理論的觀點。國立暨南國際大學公共行政與政策學系碩士論文,南投縣。取自https://hdl.handle.net/11296/85def8

二、外文文獻
Anderson, J. (2015). Understanding Cultural Geography: Places and traces. New York: Routledge.
Bramwell, B. (2004). Mass Tourism, Diversification and Sustainability in Southern Europe’s Coastal Regions. In Bramwell, B. (Ed.), Coastal Mass Tourism Diversification and Sustainable Development in Southern Europe (pp.7-10). UK, Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Brunet, Ferran (2005). The Economic Impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games, 1986-2004: Barcelona: The Legacy of the Games, 1992-2002. Barcelona: Centre D'Estudis Olímpics UAB.
Cocola-Gant, A. (2018). Tourism gentrification. In Lees, L. and Phillips, M. (Eds) Handbook of Gentrification Studies. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Culver, Lawrence, et al. (2011). Revisiting Risk Society: A Conversation with Ulrich Beck. RCC Perspectives 2011, no 6. doi.org/10.5282/rcc/5587.
Daniel J. Boorstin (1962), The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America. New York: Vintage.
Dhiman, Mohinder Chand (2017). Opportunities and Challenges for Tourism and Hospitality in the BRIC Nations. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Franklin, A. (2003). The Tourist Syndrome: An Interview with Zygmunt Bauman. Tourist Studies. 3(2), 205-217. doi: 10.1177/1468797603041632
Goodwin, H. (2016, September). Managing Tourism in Barcelona. Responsible Tourism Partnership Working Paper 1.
Goh, E. (2010). Understanding the heritage tourist market segment. Int. J. Leisure and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp.257-270
Hochadel, O. & Nieto-Galan, A. (2016). Barcelona: An Urban History of Science and Modernity, 1888–1929. New York, NY: Routledge.
John, B. Thompson (1981). Critical Hermeneutics: A Study in the Thought of Paul Ricoeur and Jurgen Habermas. London: Cambridge University Press.
Massey, D. (1994). Space, Place and Gender. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
McNeill, D. (2002). Barcelona: Urban Identity 1992-2002. Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies, 6, 245-61. doi:10.1353/hcs.2011.0277.
Paul, R Ward (2020). A sociology of the Covid-19 pandemic: A commentary and research agenda for sociologists. Journal of Sociology. 56(4), 726-735. doi: 10.1177/1440783320939682
Richards, G. (Ed.). (1996). Cultural Tourism in Europe. London: CAB International.
Sarup, M. (1996). Identity, culture and the postmodern world. UK: Edinburgh University Press.
Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (2006) The new mobilities paradigm. Environment and Planning A, 38, 207-226.
Smith, M., MacLeod, N. & Robertson, M. H. (2010). Key concepts in tourist studies. London, England: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Smith, M. K. (2003). Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies. London, England: Routledge.
Tylor, Edward B. (1871). Primitive Culture. New York: Dover.
Wimmer, J. & Quandt, T. (2006). Living in the risk society. An interview with Ulrich Beck. Journalism Studies. 7(2), 336-347. doi: 10.1080/14616700600645461
Zekan, B., & Heinrich, P. Impacts of Mass Tourism and Communication on the Image of a Destination: The Case of Barcelona.

三、網路資料
(一)外文
Allplane (2020, October 21). The 2020 airline bankruptcy list is open. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from https://allplane.tv/blog/2020/1/17/airlines-that-stopped-flying-in-2020
Alasdair Sandford (2020, July 27). Europe’s tourism industry reels as COVID-19 resurgence hits peak summer season. Retrieved November 28, 2020, from https://www.euronews.com/2020/07/27/europe-s-tourism-industry-reels-as-covid-19-resurgence-hits-peak-summer-season
Andrew J. Wein (2020, June 29). COVID-19: IMPACT ON TOURISM IN MADRID AND BARCELONA IS ENORMOUS. Retrieved December 2, 2020, from https://www.tourism-review.com/covid-19-the-impact-on-tourism-reaches-millions-in-losses-news11610
BBC News (2020, July 27). Coronavirus: UK advises against non-essential travel to Spanish islands. Retrieved December 2, 2020, from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-53560759
Carranco, R.& García J.(2019, July 19). La Fiscalía evita acudir a la junta de seguridad de Barcelona por los lazos amarillos. Retrieved from https://elpais.com/ccaa/2019/07/19/catalunya/1563529638_993203.html
David Val Palao (2020, March 18). El turismo de interior se presupone vital para salvar la situación. Retrieved November 12, 2020, from https://tecnohotelnews.com/2020/03/18/turismo-interior-presupone-vital-coronavirus/
Ferran Nadeu (2020, July 12). Barcelona sin turismo. Retrieved October 30, 2020, from https://www.elperiodico.com/es/opinion/20200712/editorial-barcelona-sin-turismo-8036465
Goodwin, H. (2016, October 27). OverTourism: What is it and how do we address it?. Retrieved August 13, 2020, from https://responsibletourismpartnership.org/overtourism/
Goodwin, H. (2019, January 5). Overtourism Solutions: 21 Strategies to Manage Mass Tourism. Retrieved August 13, 2020, from https://responsibletourismpartnership.org/overtourism-solutions/
Guy Hedgecoe (2020, July 27). Coronavirus: Spain races to save tourism as cases surge. Retrieved November 28, 2020, from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-53551863
Hugo Gutiérrez (2020, July 2). No international visitors and zero spending: Spain records another dismal month for tourism in May. Retrieved November 8, 2020, from https://english.elpais.com/economy_and_business/2020-07-02/no-international-visitors-and-zero-spending-spain-records-another-dismal-month-for-tourism-in-may.html
Hugo Gutiérrez, Jesús Sánchez Orellana, Josep Catà Figuls (2020, July 8). Spanish tourism industry feeling the loss of high-rolling visitors. Retrieved October 29, 2020, from https://english.elpais.com/economy_and_business/2020-07-08/spanish-tourism-industry-feeling-the-loss-of-high-rolling-visitors.html
IPM. What is overtourism?. Retrieved August 13, 2020, from https://www.placemanagement.org/special-interest-groups/visiting-places/overtourism/what-is-overtourism/
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Johnny, Jet (2018, August 20). How Is Overtourism Impacting Travel To Popular Destinations? Retrieved August 13, 2020, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnnyjet/2018/08/20/how-is-overtourism-impacting-travel-to-popular-destinations/#50747b1a35b8
Julia, H. (2020, February 11). Air Italy stops flying and goes into liquidation. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from https://edition.cnn.com/2020/02/11/business/air-italy-collapse/index.html
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(二)中文
BBC News (2020年4月21日)。肺炎疫情封鎖打擊石油需求 美國油價歷史性暴跌為負值。取自2020年11月20日https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/business-52366117
Fernando Duarte (2020年4月30日)。西班牙流感:1918年全球大流行之後的世界是什麼樣子。取自2020年11月21日https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/world-52467463
PIMCO(2020年7月31日)。歐洲就業狀況:短多長空?取自2020年11月20日https://news.cnyes.com/news/id/4509929
山謬(2020年3月24日)。從上次大流行的西班牙流感裡,人們學到什麼?取自2020年11月19日https://dq.yam.com/post.php?id=12304
王穎芝(2020年5月17日)。相隔一世紀,「大瘟疫」景象卻驚人相似!1918年西班牙流感成為新冠肺炎歷史借鏡。取自2020年11月21日https://www.storm.mg/article/2645225?mode=whole
林薏禎(2020年6月15日)。西班牙政府祭37.5億歐元刺激方案助提振國內汽車產業。取自2020年12月22日https://news.cnyes.com/news/id/4493345
陳宜伶(2020年8月21日)。疫情重創!調研機構:消費者信心不會V型復甦。取自2020年11月17日https://news.cnyes.com/news/id/4517672
新華網(2020年3月24日)。綜述:歐洲航空業受疫情影響深陷困境。取自2020年11月20日http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/www.xinhuanet.com/fortune/2020-03/24/c_1125761502.htm
聯合報(2020年10月2日)。疫情結束遙遙無期 歐洲失業率連5個月攀升。取自2020年11月20日https://udn.com/news/story/6811/4905553
藍弋丰(2020年3月16日)。冠狀病毒疫情重擊,歐洲航空市場可能將進入弱肉強食整併期。取自2020年11月20日https://technews.tw/2020/03/16/coronavirus-to-drive-european-airline-industry-shakeout/
羅永明(2020年8月24日)。《Covid-19》開放觀光救經濟,西班牙再度爆發疫情,淪為歐洲重災區。取自2020年11月21日http://www.genetinfo.com/international-news/item/41053.html

四、影音資料
N. Bachmayer, J. Macher (Producer). (2020, October 8). Cómo el coronavirus cambia una ciudad. Retrieved October 30, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EcdtfKH8uLo
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