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論文名稱(外文):Effects of Flame Retardancy on Heat Transfer Oil Modified with Phosphorus-Based Ionic Liquids
指導教授(外文):SHU, CHI-MIN
外文關鍵詞:Heat transfer oilsIonic liquidsFire retardantAgingDosage optimization
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受限於物質的物理性質如:沸點、熔點等,在常溫的環境下的加工能力有限,「傳熱油 (Heat transfer oils, HTOs)」被用於提高製程的溫度以達所需條件溫度甚至加速製程。在未氮封開式系統作業時,HTOs 在高溫情況下接觸空氣,將加速其氧化、熱裂解等反應,釋出可燃氣體。倘若洩漏將點燃可燃物質、遇點火源或自身溫度超過自燃點溫度而導致火災或爆炸的案例亦不在少數。離子液體 (Ionic liquids, ILs) 具備良好的熱物理性質,近年來亦被投入於改善其它物質的熱物理性質。含磷 ILs 在許多研究中被證實其改善阻燃能力之表現亮眼。本研究將以購自 TOTAL 的 SERIOLA AB 及 1510 作為研究對象,並以含磷離子液體 1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑鎓磷酸二丁酯 (1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium dibutyl phosphate, [Bmim][DBP]) 及 1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑鎓六氟磷酸鹽 (1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [Bmim][PF6]) 為添加劑,探討混合後之燃燒行為及熱穩定性。
藉同步熱重分析儀 (Simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis, STA) 可得知雖然反應起始溫度 (Onset temperature, To) 並未有明顯變化,但添加 [Bmim][PF6] 後可使總放熱量 (Heat release, ∆H) 降低;藉由熱重分析儀 (Thermogravimetric analyzer, TGA) 可觀察到,添加 ILs 可使 1510 之最大熱失重率 (Maximum thermal gravity loss rate, DTGmax) 從 –22.38 降至 –12.27 及 –12.57 % min–1,也弱化了其熱失重過程;雖然在 UL 94 垂直燃燒及總熱釋放率 (Total heat release rate, THR) 等皆未有明顯差異,但仍能從以錐形量熱儀 (Cone Calorimeter) 分析後所得之火焰增長率指數 (Fire growth rate index, FIGRA) 推測出 AB 在添加 [Bmim][PF6] 後之火焰成長率將降低;最後藉由 Flynn-Wall-Ozawa 模型計算熱動力學基本參數後,預測得出在 AB 油品中 [Bmim][PF6] 之最佳添加比接近 20 mass%。
This is an era of strong and advanced technology. People have discovered and can flexibly use most of the elements and their compounds to generate various materials, making our lives richer and more convenient. As limited by the physical properties of the substance, such as boiling point and melting point, and since the processing ability under normal temperature environment is limited, we chose to use heat transfer oils (HTOs) to increase the local temperature in the process to achieve the required temperature condition even accelerating the process rate.
When operating in a non-nitrogen-sealed open system, HTOs exposed to air at high-temperatures will accelerate their oxidation, generate a thermal cracking reaction, and emit flammable gases. It may also cause prompt vaporization of high-temperature oil due to excessive pressure differences during leakage. Moreover, if colloids or organic acids are generated, they will stick to the oil pipeline, which will not only block the pipeline and affect the service life of HTOs, but also increase the risk of system leakage. After the leakage, igniting flammable substances, meeting ignition sources, or their own temperature exceeding the auto-ignition temperature. Cases that caused fires or explosions have not been uncommon.
In recent years, ionic liquids (ILs) have also been invested in improving the thermophysical properties of other materials, such as oil and electrolytes, the phosphorus-based ILs also be applied as fire retardant in several fields. In many studies, the improvement of fire retardant performance has been outstanding. This project is a recent study to explore the fire hazards of HTOs. The addition of ILs can improve fire-retardant properties. The HTOs after adding ILs were evaluated for density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity.
摘要 i
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻蒐集與回顧 4
2.1 傳熱流體 4
2.2 阻燃劑 (Flame retardant, FR) 5
2.2.1 混合阻燃劑 (Hybrid flame retardants) 製造方法 6
2.2.2 二元混合阻燃劑 (Binary hybrid flame retardants) 8
2.3 離子液體 (Ionic liquids, ILs) 10
2.3.1 陽離子 (Cation) 10
2.3.2 陰離子 (Anion) 11
2.3.3 磷基離子液體 (Phosphorus-based ionic liquid) 13
2.4 熱動力學與預測 (Thermodynamics and prediction) 14
2.4.1 高等熱分析軟體 (Advanced thermal analysis software, AKTS) 14
2.4.2 熱分析軟體—Neo (NETZSCH Kinetics Neo) 15
第三章 實驗設備及研究方法 17
3.1 實驗樣品 17
3.2 實驗流程 20
3.3 實驗設備及原理 21
3.3.1 垂直燃燒法 (UL94 vertical burning test, UL94) 21
3.3.2 錐形量熱儀 (Cone calorimeter) 23
3.3.3 同步熱重分析儀 (Simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis, STA) 25
3.3.4 熱重分析儀 (Thermogravimetric analyzer, TGA) 28
3.3.5 傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜儀 (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, FT-IR) 30
第四章 結果與討論 32
4.1 DSC 放熱過程分析 33
4.2 熱重分析結果 36
4.3 UL 94 垂直燃燒測試 40
4.4 CONE 量熱測試 49
4.5 恆溫反應之實驗與預測曲線比較 54
4.6 AB 與 [Bmim][PF6] 在不同混合比例下之熱流實驗與預測 61
第五章 結論與建議 64
5.1 結論 64
5.2 建議 65
參考文獻 66
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