跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.211.117.197) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/05/27 06:23
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:劉明威
研究生(外文):LIU, MING-WEI
論文名稱:3GPP R.13 窄頻物聯網下行鏈路之軟式檢測器設計與硬體實現
論文名稱(外文):Design and Hardware Implementation of the 3GPP R.13 Downlink NB-IoT Soft-Output Detector
指導教授:劉宗憲劉宗憲引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIU, TSUNG-HSIEN
口試委員:劉宗憲陳逸民鍾菁哲潘仁義李昌明
口試委員(外文):LIU, TSUNG-HSIENCHEN, YI-MINGCHUNG, CHING-CHEPAN, JEN-YILEE, CHANG-MING
口試日期:2022-08-08
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:通訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:中文
論文頁數:53
中文關鍵詞:窄頻物聯網Channel EstimationDetectionMMSE軟式輸出檢測器
外文關鍵詞:NB-IoTChannel EstimationDetectionMMSESoft-Output dicision
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:164
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
窄頻物聯網 (NB-IoT) 是 3GPP 在第 13 版中引入的針對覆蓋範圍廣、低功
耗、低成本的新一代物聯網 (IoT) 技術。而訊號檢測是確保接收機恢復訊號準確
率的技術,也是系統可靠性的保障。本文首先介紹了 NB-IoT 的基本知識,並
研究了下行鏈路的封包架構和下行三個物理通道 (Narrowband Physical Downlink
Channel) 的主要功能。隨後針對 NB-IoT 下行發射機進行了研究,與分析了 LTE
的通道模型,然後在前面研究基礎上建立了 NB-IoT 下行系統模型。在系統中首
先研究了通道估計相關的下行參考訊號 (Narrowband Reference Signal,NRS),再
利用 MMSE(Mean-Square Error ) 估計和線性插值對接收端 Pilots 通道估計演算
法進行研究。檢測器的解調方面使用 MMSE 來實現,輸出方面使用軟式輸出
(Soft-Output),軟式輸出產生的對數相似比 (Log Likelihood Ratio, LLR) 結果可給
予後端錯誤更正碼使用,因此軟式輸出相較於硬式輸出有較低的錯誤率。最
後使用 TSMC 40nm CMOS 製程,利用 Synopsys Design Compiler 進行 ASIC 硬
體電路合成 (Synthesis),並且使用 Cadence SOC Innovus 來進行佈局繞線 (Place
Route)。合成結果中最大操作頻率為 1.92 MHz,所需 gate counts 為 82.6 KGE,
吞吐量為 0.22 Mbps。
Narrowband Internet of Thing (NB-IoT) is a new generation of cellular IoT tech-
nology defined by 3GPP in the 13-th edition for low-power, low-cost, wide-coverage
services, and is one of the key technologies to realize the Interconnection of Things(IoT).
Signal detection, which is a technique for ensure the accuracy of the receiver’s signal
recovery, and it is also a guarantee of system reliability. This paper first introduces the
basic knowledge of NB-IoT system, and studied the downlink frame structure and the
main functions of the three downlink physical channels (Narrowband Physical Down-
link Channel). Then it studied the downlink transmitter by the NB-IoT, analyzes the
fading characteristic of LTE channel model. Subsequently, it established the NB-IoT
downlink system model based on the previous research. In the system first studies the
downlink reference signal (Narrowband Reference Signal, NRS) related to channel esti-
mation, and then research on minimum mean-square error(MMSE) Estimation and Lin-
ear Interpolation for the the Pilot channel-based downlink channel estimation algorithm.
In the detector, we consider the minimum mean-square error(MMSE) for detection. The
output of the system we consider the Soft-Output. It has a better error rate than the Hard-
output because the Log Likelihood Ratio (LLR) results generated by the detector can be
used for backend error correction code. Finally, the realization of this hardware uses
TSMC 40nm CMOS, synthesis with Synopsys Design Compiler, and place route with
Cadence SOC Innovus. As follow hardware simulation results, the operating frequency
of them is 1.92MHz. Gate counts are 82.6K. Throughput rate is 0.22 Mbps.
目錄
1 簡介 1
2 窄頻物聯網下行鏈路傳輸簡介 [1][2][3][14]-[18][30] 3
2.1 部署方案 (Modes of Operation) [14][15][16] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1.1 帶內部署 (In-band operation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1.2 保護帶部署 (Guard-band operation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1.3 獨立部署 (Stand-alone operation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 封包架構 (Frame Structure) [14][15][16] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3 窄頻物聯網下行物理通道 (Narrowband Physical Downlink Channel)[14][15] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3.1 窄頻物理廣播通道 (NPBCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3.2 窄頻物理下行控制通道 (NPDCCH) [14][15] . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3.3 窄頻物理下行共享通道 (NPDSCH) [14][15] . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.4 窄頻物聯網下行物理訊號 (Narrowband Physical Downlink Signals)
[4][14][15] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.4.1 窄頻主同步訊號 (NPSS) [4][14][15] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.4.2 窄頻次同步訊號 (NSSS) [4][14][15] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.4.3 窄頻參考訊號 (NRS) [14][15] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5 NB-IoT 下行發射機架構 [6][7][14] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.5.1 CRC attachment [14] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.5.2 錯誤更正碼 [14] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.5.3 Rate matching [14] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.5.4 Scrambling [14] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.5.5 Modulation [11][14][18] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5.6 Mapping to assigned resources and antenna ports [14] . . . . . 20
2.6 多路徑通道模型 [11][19][20][30] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3 NB-IoT 下行接收機設計 [6][10][13][21]-[25] 24
3.1 估計演算法 [6][7][27][30] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.1 LS 與 MMSE 的估計器 [6][7][27][30] . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.2 線性插值 [6][7][27][30] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.2 訊號檢測演算法 [9][10][21][22][23] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.2.1 ZF 與 MMSE 檢測器 [10][29] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.2.2 Bit-Log-Likelihood-Ratio(bit LLR) [9][21][22][23] . . . . . . . 30
3.3 浮點數模擬結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4 硬體架構設計 34
4.1 定點數模擬 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.2 硬體設計前言 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.3 估計器硬體架構 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.3.1 MMSE 估計硬體架構 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.3.2 線性插值 (Linear Interpolation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.4 檢測器硬體架構 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.4.1 MMSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.4.2 Bit Log-Likelihood Ratio(LLR)[22] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5 模擬與合成數據結果 43
6 結論 46
7 特別感謝 47
參考文獻 48
論文口試意見答覆與論文修改 52
[1] J. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Ming, K. Wu, and L. Chen, “Narrowband internet of things: evolutions, technologies, and open issues,” IEEE Internet Thing J., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1449-1462, Jun. 2018.
[2] J. Chen, K. Hu, Q. Wang, Y. Sun, Z. Shi, and S.He, “narrowband internet of things: implementations and applications,” IEEE Internet Thing J., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 2309-2314, Dec. 2017.
[3] Y. Lin, H. Tseng, and L.Chen, “NB-IoT talk: A service platform for fast development of NB-IoT applications,” IEEE Internet Thing J., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 928-939, Feb. 2019.
[4] Qualcomm Incorporated, “NB-PSS and NB-SSS design (Revised),” 3GPP, TS R1-161981, Mar. 2016.
[5] A. Ali and W. Hamouda, “On the cell search and initial synchronization for NB-IoT LTE systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1843-1846, Aug. 2017.
[6] M-S. Ali, M-K. Jewel, and F. Lin, “An efficient channel estimation technique in NB-IoT systems,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Integer. Circuits, Technol. Appl. (ICTA), Nov. 2018, pp. 22-23.
[7] M.-K.-H. Jewel, R.-S. Zakariyya, O.-J. Famoroji, M.-S. Ali, and F. Lin, “A low complexity channel estimation technique for NB-IoT downlink system,” in Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Wireless Symp(IWS), May 2019, pp. 1-3.
[8] S. Yang and L. Hanzo, “Fifty years of MIMO detection: The road to large-scale MIMOs,” IEEE Commum. Surveys Tutorilas, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1941-1988, 2015.
[9] C. Li, Y. Cheng, and Y. Huang, “Low-complexity soft-output detecors for LDPC coded spatial modulation systems,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Wireless Commun. Signal Process(WCSP), Oct. 2016, pp. 1-6.
[10] Y. Cho, J. Kim, W. Yang and C. Kang, MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communications with MATLAB. Wiley-IEEE Press, 2010.
[11] J. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications. 5th Ed. Prentice Hall, 2008.
[12] 劉宗憲, 5G 基頻傳收機實作, 上課講義, 2021.
[13] 劉宗憲, 偵測與估計, 上課講義, 2021.
[14] H. Fattah, 5G LTE Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT). CRC Press, 2018.
[15] O. Liberg, M. Sundberg, E .Wang, J. Bergman and J. Sachs, Cellular Internet of things: technologies, standards, and performance. Academic Press, 2017.
[16] N.-A. Ahmad and N. -I. -A. Razak, “Performance of Narrow-Band Internet of Things (NB-IoT) based on repetition of downlink physical channel,” in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Telecommun. (ICT), Apr. 2019, pp. 506-509.
[17] M. Elsaadany, A. Ali and W. Hamouda, “Cellular LTE—A technologies for the future Internet-of-Things: Physical layer features and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 2544-2572, 4th Quart. 2017.
[18] 3GPP TS36.211 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation (Release 13),”2015.
[19] 3GPP TS 36.101 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) Radio Transmission and Reception,”2015.
[20] 3GPP TS 36.104 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Base Station (BS) Radio Transmission and Reception,” 2012.
[21] Y. Miao, W. Li, D. Tian, M.-S. Hossain and M. -F. Alhamid, “Narrowband Internet of Things: Simulation and Modeling,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 2304-2314, Aug. 2018.
[22] 張家偉, 大型多輸入輸出天線系統下的最小均方誤差軟式輸出檢測器之硬體實現, 國立中正 學通訊工程研究所碩士論文. 民國 110 年 7 月.
[23] Y. -P. E. Wang, X. Lin, A. Adhikary, A. Grovlen, and Y. Sui, Y. Blanlenship, et al.“A Primer on 3GPP narrowband Internet of Things,” IEEE Commun. Meg., vol.55, no. 3, pp. 117-123, Mar. 2017.
[24] S. Coleri, M. Ergen, A. Puri and A. Bahai, “Channel estimation techniques based on pilot arrangement in OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 48, no.3, pp. 223-229, Nov. 2002.
[25] F. Tufvesson and T. Maseng, “Pilot assisted channel estimation for OFDM in mobile cellular systems,” Vehicular Technology Conference 1997 IEEE 47th, vol. 3, pp. 1639-1643, May 1997.
[26] J.-W. Won and J. -M. Ahn, “NB-IoT downlink channel estimation,” in 2020 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC), Dec 2020, pp 21-23.
[27] M.-K.-H. Jewel, R.-S. Zakariyya and F. Lin, “On channel estimation in LTE-based downlink narrowband Internet of things systems,” Electronics, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1246-1270, 2021.
[28] B. Hochwald and S. Brink, “Achieving near-capacity on a multiple-antenna channel,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 389-399, Mar. 2003.
[29] T.-H. Liu, Y,-Z. Ye, C.-K. Huang, C.-E. Chen, Y.-T. Hwang, and Y.-S. Chu, “A Low-complexity maximum likelihood detector for the spatially modulated signals: Algorithm and hardware implementation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 11, Exp. Briefs, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1820-1824, Nov. 2019.
[30] 程宥鋮, NB-IoT 系統下行信道估計演算法的研究, 南京郵電大學電子與通信工程研究所碩士論文. 民國 109 年 5 月.
電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20270824)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊