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研究生:莊芷晴
研究生(外文):CHUANG, CHIH-CHING
論文名稱:壓抑調節情境下 D 型人格自主神經反應: 以年輕健康成人為例
論文名稱(外文):Type D personality and autonomic nervous responses during anger suppression
指導教授:翁嘉英翁嘉英引用關係
指導教授(外文):WENG, CHIA-YING
口試委員:林宜美鄧閔鴻林庭光
口試委員(外文):LIN, I-MEITENG, MIN-HUNGLIN, TIN-KWANG
口試日期:2022-06-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:心理學系臨床心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:D 型人格壓抑情緒調節自主神經調節
外文關鍵詞:Type D personalityanger suppressionautonomic nervous systemvagal withdrawal
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目的:本研究旨在探討 D 型人格特質者在生氣情緒壓抑調節下之自主神經活動,釐清該特質與高血壓風險之心理病理機轉。研究分為兩部分,第一部分檢驗壓抑情緒調節與自主(迷走和交感)神經活性之相關假設;第二部分加入 D 型人格變項,檢驗 D 型與非 D 型人格者在壓抑調節下之自主神經反應差異。
方法:本研究資料取自翁嘉英教授科技部專題研究計畫(108-2410-H-194-040)。經網路公告招募志願參與者,經篩選最終納入 63 人進入資料分析(男性占比 66.7%;平均 20.29 ± 1.88 歲)。參與者先完成 D 型人格量表等研究問卷後,進入實驗室參與情緒與壓抑調節作業(四個實驗階段:基準期、生氣回憶期、壓抑調節期、與恢復期)。本研究採用 MP100C Data Acquisition System(Biopac Systems, Inc.)蒐集參與者之心電圖(electrocardiogram, ECG)及阻抗心電圖(impedance cardiogram, ICG),來獲得其自主神經與心血管反應資料。心跳變異波形經快速傅立葉轉換後,以高頻波百分比(HF%)代表迷走神經活性;以前射出分率(pre-ejection period, PEP),代表交感神經活性指標。
結果:第一部分,全樣本個體在情緒壓抑調節作業中(1)生氣回憶、壓抑調節與恢復期三階段,均較基準期有迷走神經下降之表現;交感神經活性則無顯著改變。(2)從生氣回憶到壓抑調節期,迷走神經無顯著改變;交感神經則顯著下降。第二部分結果,加入 D 型人格變項後發現,(3-1)壓抑調節相較生氣回憶期:D 型人格者迷走神經活性無顯著差異,交感神經則顯著下降;非 D 型人格者出現迷走神經顯
著下降;交感神經活性邊緣顯著下降。另進一步分析生氣情緒下的反應,發現(3-2)生氣回憶相較基準期:D 型人格者迷走神經活性顯著下降;交感神經活性則無顯著差異;非 D 型人格者迷走與交感神經活性均沒有顯著改變。最後,恢復期部分(4)恢復期相較基準期:D 型與非 D 型人格均展現迷走神經活性下降;交感神經活性無顯著改變。在恢復期相對基準期的反應量上,D 型人格組相較於非 D 型人格
組,有較小幅度的迷走活性下降反應量。
結論:(1)Brosschot 與 Thayer(1998)之壓抑調節會使迷走神經活性下降及延宕恢復假設獲驗證,然 Mauss 及 Gross(2004)所提及壓抑調節會使交感神經活性上升未獲支持。(2)在生氣後使用壓抑調節,全樣本之交感活性下降,D 型與非 D 型人格者無明顯交感反應的不同;然而,D 型與非 D 型人格者的迷走活性下降反應則有明顯差異:只有非 D 型人格者有顯著迷走神經活性下降,D 型人格者迷走神經則沒有顯著改變。針對此一結果,本研究進一步檢驗發現:D 型人格者在生氣回憶階段即出現生氣壓抑之迷走活性顯著下降反應,可能因而在壓抑操弄下,未再有迷走神經活性顯著下降。此外,本研究亦發現,在情緒壓抑調節作業中,D 型人格者相較於非 D 型人格者,表現出較小幅度的迷走神經活性下降反應量,反映其較差的自主神經調節。整體而言,本研究結果發現 D 型人格者(1)在壓力下較顯著的迷走神經活性下降,及(2)壓力後較差的自主神經調節,為 D 型人格與高血壓風險的可能機制。
Objective: In order to clarify the psychopathological mechanisms linking Type D personality to the risk of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the autonomic nervous response of Type D personality traits during anger suppression. The first part of the study was to examine the associations between suppressive emotion regulation with vagal and sympathetic activities. The second part of the study was to examine the differences of autonomic nervous responses to suppressive emotion regulation between individuals with Type D and non-Type D personality.
Methods: Undergraduate students (age = 20.29 ± 1.88, 66.7% male), recruited through an online announcement, completed the Type D Scale-Taiwanese version Questionnaires and participated in a anger induction then suppression task, consisting the following four stages: baseline, anger recall, anger suppression, and recovery.
Results: Results showed the significant vagal withdrawal during anger recall, suppression, and recovery stages comparing to baseline stage, but the sympathetic activity did not showed significant change. Furthermore, individuals with Type D personality showed a more vagal withdrawal response during the anger induction stage, a blunter vagal withdrawal response during the anger suppression stage, and a blunter vagal regulation during recovery stage comparing to the non-Type D personality counterpart.
Conclusion: First, the results validated the hypothesis of Brosschot and Thayer (1998) regarding emotion suppression can lead to vagal withdrawal and delayed recovery. However, the hypothesis of Mauss and Gross (2004) regarding the sympathetic rising caused by emotion suppression was failed to support. Second, individuals with Type D personality showed a blunter vagal withdrawal response during the anger suppression stage may come from an already withdrawn vagal tone at anger recall stage. In conclusion, the more pronounced vagal withdrawal response and subsequent blunter vagal regulation under social stress may be one of the possible mechanisms linking Type D personality to hypertension risk.

目錄
第一章 緒論 9
第二章 文獻回顧 12
一、 D型人格 12
(一) D型人格定義 12
(二) D型人格與高血壓關聯 12
(三) D型人格與壓力下自主神經 14
二、 情緒調節 15
(一) 情緒調節定義 16
1. 情緒情態模型 16
2. 情緒調節歷程模型 17
(二) 壓抑調節與自主神經 18
1. 迷走神經活性撤除 18
2. 交感神經髓質系統 18
(三) 壓抑調節與自主神經關聯實徵研究 21
三、 D型人格、情緒調節與自主神經關聯 25
(一) D型人格與情緒調節 25
(二) D型人格、情緒調節與自主神經 26
四、 研究焦點與假設 28
第三章 研究方法 29
一、 研究參與者 29
二、 研究工具 30
(一) 基本資料調查表 30
(二) 台灣版D型人格量表 30
1. 自主神經訊號 31
2. 心血管反應 32
三、研究程序 32
四、統計分析 34
第四章 研究結果 35
一、 樣本特性 35
二、 全樣本與生氣和壓抑調節之生理指標反應關聯 36
(一) 全樣本生氣回憶作業期生理檢核 36
(二) 全樣本壓抑調節作業期生理檢核 36
(三) 全樣本恢復期生理檢核 37
三、 D型人格與生氣和壓抑調節之生理指標反應關聯 39
(一) D型與非D型人格組基準期生理指標差異檢定 39
(二) D型與非D型人格組在四個實驗階段之生理檢核 40
四、 恢復期D型與非D型人格生理指標活動與回復反應量 41
第五章 討論 47
一、 研究摘述 47
二、 研究結果與討論 48
(一) 迷走神經反應 48
1. 壓抑調節與迷走活性下降反應 48
2. 生氣後進行壓抑之迷走活性反應 49
3. 恢復期迷走活性下降與回復反應量 49
(二) 交感活性反應 51
1. 生氣激發與交感活性反應 51
2. 壓抑調節與交感活性反應 51
3. 生氣後進行壓抑之交感活性反應 52
(三) 研究限制 54
(四) 研究貢獻 54
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