( 您好!臺灣時間:2023/12/07 15:09
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::


論文名稱:高能效電混凝浮除技術分離 水中藍綠藻細胞之研究
論文名稱(外文):Separation of microcells from cyanobacteria laden-water by high energy-efficient electrocoagulation-flocculation-flotation (EFF)
指導教授(外文):LIN, JR-LIN
外文關鍵詞:Electrocoagulation-flotationalumina hydratesmicroalgaedephosphorization
IG URL:@fahrudinsidik
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:77
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
水體中的高污染營養物質(如氮和磷酸鹽)會引發藍綠藻等藻類大量繁殖。這種微藻細胞造成了嚴重的水質問題,包括增加消毒副產物(disinfection by-products, DBPs)生成潛能,並降低水廠淨水處理效率。基於時間效率與經濟性考量,鋁電極之電混凝法已被證明是一種有效分離微藻細胞的方法。本研究中,一種新電混凝-絮凝-浮除(electrocoagulation-flocculation-flotation, EFF)系統被設計用於銅綠微囊藻(Microcystis aeruginosa, MA)細胞分離和削減藻類有機物(algogenic organic matter, AOM)。EFF實驗在不同的pH值 (pH 5、7、8)及電流密度(3、5、10 mA/cm2)進行,並分析鋁水解物種對其效能之影響。此外,本研究同時評估磷酸鹽濃度(5、10 mg/L-PO43-)在最適操作條件下對EFF效能之影響。另外,使用掃描電子顯微鏡和能量色散X射線光譜法進一步觀察膠羽特性與化學元素組成,以確認EFF對微藻細胞之去除機制。最後,分析EFF處理後之水樣之分子量分佈、DBPs生成潛能與能源使用效率。
研究結果顯示,在pH 8和5 mA/cm2條件下進行的EFF可以達到95%的MA細胞分離和56%的AOM消減效率,類可溶性微生物產物(SMPL)和類芳香族蛋白(APL)物質是AOM削減之主要貢獻者。在一開始操作EFF時,約80%的單體鋁物種(Ala)轉化為聚合鋁物種(Alb)和膠體鋁物種(Alc),此結果導致了強烈沉澱掃除與弱電性中和混凝機制主導了藻類細胞的分離。在相似的MA去除效率下,EFF的能量輸入需求(2.07×10-2 kWh/kg)較傳統電混凝-浮除(electro-coagulation-flotation, ECF)系統低63%。另一方面,10 mg/L-PO43-的存在會使細小和鬆散結構的絮狀物形成而降低EFF對藻類分離的性能。此外,EFF對低分子量化合物及DBPs前質削減並不明顯。然而,EFF可以通過提高電流密度克服高濃度磷酸鹽降低藻類分離效能之問題。因此,EFF是一個高能源效率之系統,其適用於分離含藻原水,並可同時進行磷之削減處理。

The high pollutant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate in water bodies can trigger algal blooms like microcell cyanobacteria. This microcell caused severe water quality problems, including increased disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation potential and reduced treatment efficiency while entering the water treatment plant. Alumina-based electrocoagulation has proved as a means of microcell separation due to its time effectiveness and economic aspect. In this study, a novel electrocoagulation-flocculation-flotation (EFF) system was designated toward Microcystis aeruginosa (MA) cells separation and algogenic organic matter (AOM) reduction. EFF performance on various pH (pH 5, 7, 8), CD (3, 5, 10 mA/cm2), and the effect of alumina hydrate investigations. In addition, the impact of phosphate concentrations (i.e., 5, 10 mg/L-PO43-) were evaluated. Further observation was carried out with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to determine the mechanism of algae removal during EFF. In addition, fractionated molecular weight, DBP formation potential reduction, and energy input were further quantified.
The results have shown that EFF performed at pH 8 and 5 mA/cm2 could achieve 95% of MA cells separation and 56% of AOM reduction, with soluble microbial product-like (SMPL) as the main contributors, accounting for 60%. The formation of dominant colloidal Al species (Alc) governs the EFF to promote cells and AOM destabilization by strong sweep flocculation along with weak charge neutralization by polymeric Al species (Alb). At such a conditions, EFF requires only 2.07×10-2 kWh/kg in energy input and serves energy saving ~63% less than that by traditional ECF at similar MA cells separation. On the other hand, the presence of 10 mg/L-PO43- could lower the performance of EFF toward MA cells separation and worsen the floc formation with delicate and loose structures. In addition, low molecular weight compounds remain with insignificant reduction of DBPs precursors after EFF treatment. Nevertheless, EFF can overcome the problem with insignificant performance at concentrated phosphate by increasing current density. It is concluded that EFF is a feasible system with an energy-efficient approach and applicable to the separation of algae-laden water simultaneously with dephosphorization.


摘 要 i
1.1 Background information 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Research Objective 4
1.4 Research framework 4
2.1 Cyanobacteria in freshwater 6
2.2 AOM characterizations 8
2.3 The commonly used of algae treatment 9
2.4 Electrocoagulation process 9
2.4.1 Several factors can influence EC process 13
2.5 Electro-flotation process 17
2.6 Energy consumptions 18
2.7 Application of Al-based electrocoagulation for algal cell removal 19
3.1 Determination of variables and parameters in pre-tests 22
3.2 Methodology 24
3.2.1 Flow cytometer 24
3.2.2 Measurement of zeta potential 24
3.2.3 Measurement of UV-based absorbance 25
3.2.4 Measurement of alumina concentration 26
3.2.5 DOC determination 26
3.2.6 Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) 26
3.2.7 Observation on cell morphology 28
3.2.8 Analysis of organic molecular weight 29
3.2.9 Analysis of DBP formation potential 30
3.3 Reactor setup 30
3.3.1 Reactor design 30
3.3.2 Experimental protocol 31
4.1 EFF on MA cells separations and AOM reduction 33
4.1.1 Effect of current density 33
4.1.2 The effect of pH on MA cell 42
4.1.3 The effect of alumina hydrates on MA cells removal 50
4.1.4 MA cells removal mechanism in the EFF system 54
4.2 Energy Input on EFF process 55
4.3 The effect of phosphate on MA cells separation 57
4.3.1 Effect of phosphate concentration on MA cells removal 57
4.3.2 Effect of phosphate in AOM reduction during EFF process 60
4.3.3 Floc formation behavior during EFF in the presence of phosphates 64
4.3.4 Mechanism of dephosporization during EFF process 68
4.4 DBP formation potential 72
4.5 Energy Input requirement toward algal separation with the presence of phosphate by EFF process 75
4.6 Operating efficiency of EFF and ECF in AOM reduction 77


Figure 1.1 Research framework of this study 5
Figure 2.1 Cell morphology of (a) Microcystis aeruginosa and (b) cross-section of cyanobacterial cell 6
Figure 2.2 Important steps of electrocoagulation 10
Figure 2.3 Overlapping of electrical double layers mechanism and interaction energy of the particle 11
Figure 2.4 General Pathways of coagulation; (a) Double layer compression; (b) Charge neutralization; (c) Inter-particle bridging; (d) Sweep coagulation 13
Figure 2.5 Different forms of alumina according to changes in pH during the electrocoagulation process 14
Figure 2.6 Standardized design for coagulation and flocculation 17
Figure 2.7 General pathway of flotation process 18
Figure 3.1 Classified EEM region into soluble microbial product-like (SMPL), humic acid-like (HAL), aromatic protein-like (APL), and fulvic acid-like (FAL) 28
Figure 3.2 Setup of electrocoagulation system 31
Figure 3.3 Diagram of electrocoagulation-flotation (ECF) and electrocoagulation-flocculation-flotation (EFF) process 32
Figure 4.1 Variations of MA cells separation ratio and cell density during EFF at pH 7 with different CD (3, 5, 10 mA/cm2) 34
Figure 4.2 Variations of (a) operational pH, (b) Al release, and (c) zeta potential during EFF at pH 7 with different CD (3, 5, 10 mA/cm2) 35
Figure 4.3 Changes in (a) Floc size formation and (b) Floc morphology during EFF at pH 7 with different CD applied (3, 5, 10 mA/cm2) 37
Figure 4.4 Observation of MA cells with flow cytometer for EFF process at pH 7 with different CD (3, 5, and 10 mA/cm2) 38
Figure 4.5 Variations of (a) DOC concentration and SUVA254, (b) DOC reduction ratio during EFF at pH 7 with different CD (3, 5, 10 mA/cm2) 40
Figure 4.6 Variations of EEM fluorophore in four fraction, (a) soluble microbial products-like (SMPL), (b) aromatic protein-like (APL), (c) humic acid-like (HAL), and (d) fulvic acid-like (FAL) during EFF at pH 7 with different CD (3, 5, 10 mA/cm2) 41
Figure 4.7 Variations in cell separation ratio and cell density during EFF at different pH (pH 5, 7, and 8) with 5 mA/cm2 43
Figure 4.8 Variations in (a) Al release, (b) zeta potential, and (c) floc size during EFF at different pH (5, 7, and 8) with 5 mA/cm2 44
Figure 4.9. Fluorescent contour observation on MA cells during EFF process at different pH (5, 7, and 8) with 5 mA/cm2 46
Figure 4.10 Variations of (a) DOC concentration and SUVA254, (b) DOC reduction ratio during EFF at different pH (pH 5, 7, and 8) with 5 mA/cm2 48
Figure 4.11 Variations of EEM fluorophore in four fraction, (a) soluble microbial products-like (SMPL), (b) aromatic protein-like (APL), (c) humic acid-like (HAL), and (d) fulvic acid-like (FAL) during EFF at different pH (pH 5, 7, and 8) with 5 mA/cm2 50
Figure 4.12 Variation of Al hydrates at (a) various pH conditions (pH 5 to 9), and (b) at pH 8 during 10 minutes EC in the absence of MA cells (CD=5 mA/cm2) 52
Figure 4.13 Liquid-phase SEM imaging for (a) Al hydroxide and (b) cluster formed by Al hydroxide after EFF without MA cells (pH=8; CD=5 mA/cm2) 53
Figure 4.14 Dried-phase SEM imaging for (a) algal floc, (b) Al(OH)3 precipitates patched on MA cell surface and (c) EDS mapping onto Al (cyan) and carbon (red) after EFF with MA cells (pH=8; CD=5 mA/cm2) 54
Figure 4.15 Schematic representation of electrocoagulation-flocculation mechanisms for MA cells destabilization and separation by EFF at pH 8 with 5 mA/cm2 55
Figure 4.16 Energy input for EFF and ECF at various EC reaction time (pH 8 and 5 mA/cm2) 57
Figure 4.17 Variations in cell separation during EFF at optimum conditions (pH 8 and 5 mA cm2) (a) with various phosphate concentration (0, 5, and 10 mg/L of PO43-) and (b) 10 mg/L-PO43- with various current density ( 5, 10, and 15 mA/cm2) 59
Figure 4.18 Variations of (a) DOC and SUVA254, (b)DOC reduction ratio during EFF at optimum conditions (pH 8 and 5 mA/cm2) and various of phosphate (0, 5, and 10 mg/L of phosphate), (c) DOC and SUVA254 (d) DOC reduction ratio at different current density (5, 10, and 15 mA/cm2) 61
Figure 4.19 Variations of EEM fluorophore in four fraction during EFF at optimum conditions (pH 8 and 5 mA cm2; [*] mark is applied at10 mA/cm2 and [**] with 15 mA/cm2) with the existence of various phosphate concentrations (0, 5, and 10 mg/L of PO43-) 63
Figure 4.20 MW distribution of organic before and after EFF at various phosphate concentrations (0, 5, and 10 mg/L of PO43-) 64
Figure 4.21. Effect of various phosphate on (a) Floc size, (b) Fractal dimension, and (c) Zeta potential during EFF process at pH 8 with 5 mA/cm2 66
Figure 4.22 SEM images of MA cell obtained after EFF process (a) in the absence of phosphate and (b) in the presence of phosphate 67
Figure 4.23 SEM images of MA cells after EFF process with the presence of phosphate demonstrate in (a) a cluster of MA cells, (b) a web-like structure, and (c) the element mapping of C (red), O (yellow), Al (green), and P (purple) 68
Figure 4.24 Variations of (a) residual phosphate (PO43-) and Al release (Al3+), and (b) reacted Al3+ and PO43- and the ratio of Al3+/PO43- during EFF at various phosphate concentrations in pH 8 with 5 mA/cm2 71
Figure 4.25 Proposed EFF mechanisms in the presence of phosphate 72
Figure 4.26 Variations of (a) total disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBPFP) and (b) specific DBPFP during EFF in the presence of different amounts of phosphate at pH 8 with 5 mA/cm2 (H10 is EFF with 10 mA/cm2 and 10 mg/L-PO43-) 74
Figure 4.27 DBP reduction ratio of (I) HAAs, (II) THMs, (III) HANs, and (IV) HKs fraction during EFF in the presence of different amount of phosphate at pH 8 with 5 mA/cm2 (start mark [*] is EFF with 10 mA/cm2 and 10 mg/L-PO43-) 75
Figure 4.28 Energy input requirement toward algal separation and AOM reduction by EFF (with the existence of 10 mg/L-PO43- at pH 8 with varied current density (5,10, 15 mA/cm2)) 76
Figure 4.29 Changes in (a) cell separation, total cells count, and (b) DOC reduction
rate in 10 minutes of EC during EFF (EFF10) and ECF (ECF10) process at pH 8 with 5 mA/cm2 78
Figure 4.30 Changes in (a) cell separation, total cells count, and (b) DOC reduction
rate in EC time variation (10, 20, and 30 minutes) during ECF process at pH 8 with 5 mA/cm2 79


Table 2.1 Algal species commonly encountered in sources of drinking water 7
Table 2.2 Experimentation results of ECF system for algae removal in previous studies 20
Table 3.1 Parameters in EFF system for algae removal and organic reduction 23
Table 4.1 Variations of MA cells separation ratio, Al release, and zeta potential by EFF at pH 7 with different CD (3, 5, and 10 mA/cm2) 36
Table 4.2 Variations of DOC, SUVA254, and EEM fluorophore in four regions by EFF with current density towards MA cells solution 41
Table 4.3 Variations of cell separation ratio, Al release, zeta potential, and floc properties by EFF at different pH (5, 7, and 8) with 5 mA/cm2 45
Table 4.4 Variations in fluorescent intensity of filtered MA suspension after EFF at various pH 49
Table 4.5 Variations of alumina hydrates species at different pH (pH 5 to pH 9) at 10 min electro-dissolution with 5 mA/cm2 53
Table 4.6 Variations alumina species in fixed pH (pH 8) with 5 mA/cm2 53
Table 4.7 Energy input during EFF in 10 minutes, and ECF in 10, 20, 20 minutes 56
Table 4.8 Total cells and cell separation ratio during EFF in phosphate influences 58
Table 4.9 Original DOC and SUVA254 during EFF with phosphate variations 61
Table 4.10 Concentration of alumina and phosphate during varied EFF 70
Table 4.11 Energy input requirement during EFF at different phosphate concentrations 77
Table 4.12 Variations in cell density, cell separation ratio, and DOC during EFF and ECF comparison at pH 8 and 5 mA/cm2 79


[1]M.S.A. Putri, J.L. Lin, L.H.C. Hsieh, Y. Zafirah, G. Andhikaputra, Y.C. Wang, .2020. Influencing factors analysis of Taiwan eutrophicated reservoirs, Water (Switzerland). 12 1–16.
[2]S.F. Mohsenpour, S. Hennige, N. Willoughby, A. Adeloye, T. Gutierrez, .2021. Integrating micro-algae into wastewater treatment: A review, Sci. Total Environ. 752 142168.
[3]B.O. Isiuku, C.E. Enyoh, .2020. Pollution and health risks assessment of nitrate and phosphate concentrations in water bodies in South Eastern, Nigeria, Environ. Adv. 2 100018.
[4]W.H.R. Van Hassel, M. Andjelkovic, B. Durieu, V.A. Marroquin, J. Masquelier, B. Huybrechts, A. Wilmotte, .2022. A Summer of Cyanobacterial Blooms in Belgian Waterbodies: Microcystin Quantification and Molecular Characterizations, Toxins (Basel). 14 1–21.
[5]D.L. Sutherland, M.H. Turnbull, P.A. Broady, R.J. Craggs, .2014. Effects of two different nutrient loads on microalgal production, nutrient removal and photosynthetic efficiency in pilot-scale wastewater high rate algal ponds, Water Res. 66 53–62.
[6]T. Li, B.Z. Dong, Z. Liu, W.H. Chu, .2011. Characteristic of algogenic organic matter and its effect on UF membrane fouling, Water Sci. Technol. 64 1685–1691.
[7]J.L. Lin, M.S. Nugrayanti, A. Karangan, .2022. Effect of Al hydrates on minimization of disinfection-by-products precursors by coagulation with intensified pre-oxidation towards cyanobacteria-laden water, Sci. Total Environ. 810 152251.
[8]R. Huang, Z. Liu, B. Yan, J. Zhang, D. Liu, Y. Xu, P. Wang, F. Cui, Z. Liu, .2019. Formation kinetics of disinfection byproducts in algal-laden water during chlorination: A new insight into evaluating disinfection formation risk, Environ. Pollut. 245 63–70.
[9]X. Wang, H. Xu, R. Jiao, G. Ma, D. Wang, .2021. Coagulation removal of phosphorus from a southern China reservoir in different stages of algal blooms: Performance evaluation and Al[sbnd]P matching principle analysis, Sci. Total Environ. 782 146849.
[10]J.L. Lin, L.C. Hua, S.K. Hung, C. Huang, .2018. Algal removal from cyanobacteria-rich waters by preoxidation-assisted coagulation–flotation: Effect of algogenic organic matter release on algal removal and trihalomethane formation, J. Environ. Sci. (China). 63 147–155.
[11]J.L. Lin, L.C. Hua, S.K. Hung, C. Huang, .2018. Algal removal from cyanobacteria-rich waters by preoxidation-assisted coagulation–flotation: Effect of algogenic organic matter release on algal removal and trihalomethane formation, J. Environ. Sci. (China). 63 147–155.
[12]R.K. Padhi, S. Subramanian, K.K. Satpathy, .2019. Formation, distribution, and speciation of DBPs (THMs, HAAs, ClO2−,andClO3−) during treatment of different source water with chlorine and chlorine dioxide, Chemosphere. 218 540–550.
[13]S. Lucakova, I. Branyikova, S. Kovacikova, M. Pivokonsky, M. Filipenska, T. Branyik, M.C. Ruzicka, .2021. Electrocoagulation reduces harvesting costs for microalgae, Bioresour. Technol. 323.
[14]J. An, N. Li, S. Wang, C. Liao, L. Zhou, T. Li, X. Wang, Y. Feng, .2019. A novel electro-coagulation-Fenton for energy efficient cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins removal without chemical addition, J. Hazard. Mater. 365 650–658.
[15]S. Gao, J. Yang, J. Tian, F. Ma, G. Tu, M. Du, .2010. Electro-coagulation–flotation process for algae removal, J. Hazard. Mater. 177 336–343.
[16]S. Visigalli, M.G. Barberis, A. Turolla, R. Canziani, M. Berden Zrimec, R. Reinhardt, E. Ficara, .2021. Electrocoagulation–flotation (ECF) for microalgae harvesting – A review, Sep. Purif. Technol. 271.
[17]P. Rafiee, S. Ebrahimi, M. Hosseini, Y.W. Tong, .2020. Characterization of Soluble Algal Products (SAPs) after electrocoagulation of a mixed algal culture, Biotechnol. Reports. 25.
[18]D. Ghernaout, .2019. Electrocoagulation Process for Microalgal Biotechnology-A Review, Djamel Ghernaout. Electrocoagulation Process Microalgal Biotechnol. Rev. Appl. Eng. 3 85–94.
[19]I.D. Tegladza, Q. Xu, K. Xu, G. Lv, J. Lu, .2021. Electrocoagulation processes: A general review about role of electro-generated flocs in pollutant removal, Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 146 169–189.
[20]A.Y. Bagastyo, F. Sidik, A.D. Anggrainy, J.L. Lin, E. Nurhayati, .2022. The Performance of Electrocoagulation Process in Removing Organic and Nitrogenous Compounds from Landfill Leachate in a Three-Compartment Reactor, J. Ecol. Eng. 23 235–245.
[21]M. Chen, O. Dollar, K. Shafer-Peltier, S. Randtke, S. Waseem, E. Peltier, .2020. Boron removal by electrocoagulation: Removal mechanism, adsorption models and factors influencing removal, Water Res. 170 115362.
[22]S.Y. Lee, G.A. Gagnon, .2016. Growth and structure of flocs following electrocoagulation, Sep. Purif. Technol. 163 162–168.
[23]Y. Watanabe, .2017. Flocculation and me, Water Res. 114 88–103.
[24]A.K. Tolkou, A.I. Zouboulis, .2020. Application of composite pre-polymerized coagulants for the treatment of high-strength industrial wastewaters, Water (Switzerland). 12.
[25]J.L. Lin, C. Huang, J.R. Pan, D. Wang, .2008. Effect of Al(III) speciation on coagulation of highly turbid water, Chemosphere. 72 189–196.
[26]W. Dongsheng, L. Hong, L. Chunhua, T. Hongxiao, .2006. Removal of humic acid by coagulation with nano-Al13, Water Sci. Technol. Water Supply. 6 59–67.
[27]J. Duan, J. Gregory, .2003. Coagulation by hydrolysing metal salts, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 100–102 475–502.
[28]R.J.S. Palacios, D.G. Kim, S.O. Ko, .2016. Humic acid removal by electrocoagulation: characterization of aluminum species and humic acid, Desalin. Water Treat. 57 10969–10979.
[29]S. Zhang, J. Su, S. Ma, H. Wang, X. Wang, K. He, H. Wang, D.E. Canfield, .2021. Eukaryotic red and green algae populated the tropical ocean 1400 million years ago, Precambrian Res. 357 106166.
[30]B.L. Townhill, J. Tinker, M. Jones, S. Pitois, V. Creach, S.D. Simpson, S. Dye, E. Bear, J.K. Pinnegar, .2018. Harmful algal blooms and climate change: exploring future distribution changes, ICES J. Mar. Sci. 75 1882–1893.
[31]Cronodon, .2021. Cyanobacteria,. https://cronodon.com/BioTech/Cyanobacteria.html (accessed May 30, 2022).
[32]H. Thuret-Benoist, V. Pallier, G. Feuillade-Cathalifaud, .2022. Monitoring of the impact of the proliferations of cyanobacteria on the characteristics of Natural Organic Matter in a eutrophic water resource: Comparison between 2012–2013 and 2017–2018, Chemosphere. 291 132834.
[33]J. Yin, W. Fan, J. Du, W. Feng, Z. Dong, Y. Liu, T. Zhou, .2020. The toxicity of graphene oxide affected by algal physiological characteristics: A comparative study in cyanobacterial, green algae, diatom, Environ. Pollut. 260.
[34]H. Zhang, Z. Yu, Q. Huang, X. Xiao, X. Wang, F. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Liu, C. Hu, .2011. Isolation, identification and characterization of phytoplankton-lytic bacterium CH-22 against Microcystis aeruginosa, Limnologica. 41 70–77.
[35]A. Pugazhendhi, S. Arvindnarayan, S. Shobana, J. Dharmaraja, M. Vadivel, A.E. Atabani, S.W. Chang, D.D. Nguyen, G. Kumar, .2020. Biodiesel from Scenedesmus species: Engine performance, emission characteristics, corrosion inhibition and bioanalysis, Fuel. 276.
[36]M. Yu, M.P. Ashworth, N.H. Hajrah, M.A. Khiyami, M.J. Sabir, A.M. Alhebshi, A.L. Al-Malki, J.S.M. Sabir, E.C. Theriot, R.K. Jansen, .2018. Evolution of the Plastid Genomes in Diatoms, Adv. Bot. Res. 85 129–155.
[37]R.G. Sheath, J.D. Wehr, Introduction to Freshwater Algae, in: Freshw. Algae North Am., Elsevier, 2003: pp. 1–9.
[38]B. Zaheri, D. Morse, .2022. An overview of transcription in dinoflagellates, Gene. 829 146505.
[39]L. Li, N. Gao, Y. Deng, J. Yao, K. Zhang, .2012. Characterization of intracellular & extracellular algae organic matters (AOM) of Microcystic aeruginosa and formation of AOM-associated disinfection byproducts and odor & taste compounds, Water Res. 46 1233–1240.
[40]N. Her, G. Amy, H.R. Park, M. Song, .2004. Characterizing algogenic organic matter (AOM) and evaluating associated NF membrane fouling, Water Res. 38 1427–1438.
[41]A. Tomlinson, M. Drikas, J.D. Brookes, .2016. The role of phytoplankton as pre-cursors for disinfection by-product formation upon chlorination, Water Res. 102 229–240.
[42]L.G.A.N. Danielsson, .1982. On the use of filters for distinguishing between dissolved and particulate fractions in natural waters, 16 179–182.
[43]R. Albrektiene, M. Rimeika, E. Zalieckiene, V. Šaulys, A. Zagorskis, .2012. Determination of organic matter by UV absorption in the ground water, J. Environ. Eng. Landsc. Manag. 20 163–167.
[44]H.C. Hong, F.Q. Huang, F.Y. Wang, L.X. Ding, H.J. Lin, Y. Liang, .2013. Properties of sediment NOM collected from a drinking water reservoir in South China, and its association with THMs and HAAs formation, J. Hydrol. 476 274–279.
[45]W. Becker, .2016. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging – Applications and Instrumental Principles, Encycl. Cell Biol. 2 107–120.
[46]R.H. Peiris, C. Hallé, H. Budman, C. Moresoli, S. Peldszus, P.M. Huck, R.L. Legge, .2010. Identifying fouling events in a membrane-based drinking water treatment process using principal component analysis of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices, Water Res. 44 185–194.
[47]L.-C. Hua, J.-L. Lin, P.-C. Chen, C.-P. Huang, .2017. Chemical structures of extra- and intra-cellular algogenic organic matters as precursors to the formation of carbonaceous disinfection byproducts, Chem. Eng. J. 328.
[48]A. Matilainen, E.T. Gjessing, T. Lahtinen, L. Hed, A. Bhatnagar, M. Sillanpää, .2011. An overview of the methods used in the characterisation of natural organic matter (NOM) in relation to drinking water treatment, Chemosphere. 83 1431–1442.
[49]A.T. Chow, S. Gao, R.A. Dahlgren, .2005. Physical and chemical fractionation of dissolved organic matter and trihalomethane precursors: A review, J. Water Supply Res. Technol. - AQUA. 54 475–507.
[50]L.C. Hua, C.-H. Lai, G.-S. Wang, T.F. Lin, C. Huang, .2019. Algogenic organic matter derived DBPs: Precursor characterization, formation, and future perspectives – A review, Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49 1803–1834.
[51]J. Leenher, J.-P. Croue, .2003. Characterizing dissolved aquatic organic matter,.
[52]J.L. Lin, A.R. Ika, .2022. Pre-oxidation of Microcystis aeruginosa-laden water by intensified chlorination: Impact of growth phase on cell degradation and in-situ formation of carbonaceous disinfection by-products, Sci. Total Environ. 805 150285.
[53]J.L. Lin, A.R. Ika, C.C. Tseng, .2020. Effect of in-situ formed Al hydrates through long-term aging on enhanced particle destabilization by PACl coagulation, J. Environ. Sci. (China). 92 200–210.
[54]Y. Zhao, H. Lian, C. Tian, H. Li, W. Xu, S. Phuntsho, K. Shih, .2021. Surface water treatment benefits from the presence of algae: Influence of algae on the coagulation behavior of polytitanium chloride, Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 15 1–13.
[55]M. Yan, D. Wang, J. Qu, W. He, C.W.K. Chow, .2007. Relative importance of hydrolyzed Al(III) species (Ala, Alb, and Alc) during coagulation with polyaluminum chloride: A case study with the typical micro-polluted source waters, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 316 482–489.
[56]M. Sillanpää, M. Shestakova, Emerging and Combined Electrochemical Methods, 2017.
[57]M. Vepsäläinen, M. Sillanpää, Electrocoagulation in the treatment of industrial waters and wastewaters, 2020.
[58]D. Ghernaout, N. Elboughdiri, S. Ghareba, A. Salih, .2020. Coagulation Process for Removing Algae and Algal Organic Matter—An Overview, OALib. 07 1–21.
[59]D. Parmentier, D. Manhaeghe, L. Baccini, R. Van Meirhaeghe, D.P.L. Rousseau, S. Van Hulle, .2020. A new reactor design for harvesting algae through electrocoagulation-flotation in a continuous mode, Algal Res. 47.
[60]F. Bleeke, G. Quante, D. Winckelmann, G. Klöck, .2015. Effect of voltage and electrode material on electroflocculation of Scenedesmus acuminatus, Bioresour. Bioprocess. 2 36.
[61]M. Sillanpää, M.C. Ncibi, A. Matilainen, M. Vepsäläinen, .2018. Removal of natural organic matter in drinking water treatment by coagulation: A comprehensive review, Chemosphere. 190 54–71.
[62]Syam B. D., Nidheesh P. V., .2019. Electrode Materials ELECTROOXIDATION OF ORGANIC, APCBEE Procedia. 1–21.
[63]M.L. Davis, Water and Wastewater Engineering: Design Principles and Practice, Fourth Edi, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2010. https://www.accessengineeringlibrary.com/content/book/9780071713849.
[64]M. Tir, N. Moulai-Mostefa, .2008. Optimization of oil removal from oily wastewater by electrocoagulation using response surface method, J. Hazard. Mater. 158 107–115.
[65]P. Taylor, D. Ghernaout, M. Naceur, B. Ghernaout, .2012. Desalination and Water Treatment : A review of electrocoagulation as a promising coagulation process for improved organic and inorganic matters removal by electrophoresis and electroflotation Review article A review of electrocoagulation as a promising co, 37–41.
[66]Z. Zhao, W. Sun, M.B. Ray, A.K. Ray, T. Huang, J. Chen, .2019. Optimization and modeling of coagulation-flocculation to remove algae and organic matter from surface water by response surface methodology, Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 13.
[67]S. Oliveira, A. Clemente, I. Menezes, A. Gois, I. Carloto, L. Lawton, J. Capelo-Neto, .2021. Hazardous cyanobacteria integrity response to velocity gradient and powdered activated carbon in water treatment plants, Sci. Total Environ. 773 145110.
[68]H. Zhang, L. Yang, X. Zang, S. Cheng, X. Zhang, .2019. Effect of shear rate on floc characteristics and concentration factors for the harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris using coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation, Sci. Total Environ. 688 811–817.
[69]J.M. Ebeling, P.L. Sibrell, S.R. Ogden, S.T. Summerfelt, .2003. Evaluation of chemical coagulation-flocculation aids for the removal of suspended solids and phosphorus from intensive recirculating aquaculture effluent discharge, Aquac. Eng. 29 23–42.
[70]S. Supriyono, D.T. Nurrohman, .2020. Floating oil skimmer design using rotary disc method, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 1450 012046.
[71]K. de Souza Torres, O.C. Winter, .2018. The When and Where of Water in the History of the Universe, Habitability of the Universe Before Earth. 47–73.
[72]R. V. Pearsall, R.L. Connelly, M.E. Fountain, C.S. Hearn, M.D. Werst, R.E. Hebner, E.F. Kelley, .2011. Electrically dewatering microalgae, IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 18 1578–1583.
[73]S. Gao, J. Yang, J. Tian, F. Ma, G. Tu, M. Du, .2010. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal, J. Hazard. Mater. 177 336–343.
[74]S. Gao, M. Du, J. Tian, J. Yang, J. Yang, F. Ma, J. Nan, .2010. Effects of chloride ions on electro-coagulation-flotation process with aluminum electrodes for algae removal, J. Hazard. Mater. 182 827–834.
[75]N. Uduman, Y. Qi, M.K. Danquah, G.M. Forde, A. Hoadley, .2010. Dewatering of microalgal cultures: A major bottleneck to algae-based fuels, J. Renew. Sustain. Energy. 2 012701.
[76]L. Xu, F. Wang, H.Z. Li, Z.M. Hu, C. Guo, C.Z. Liu, .2010. Development of an efficient electroflocculation technology integrated with dispersed-air flotation for harvesting microalgae, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 85 1504–1507.
[77]D. Tibebe, Y. Kassa, A.N. Bhaskarwar, .2019. Treatment and characterization of phosphorus from synthetic wastewater using aluminum plate electrodes in the electrocoagulation process, BMC Chem. 13 1–14.
[78]K.S. Hashim, R. Al Khaddar, N. Jasim, A. Shaw, D. Phipps, P. Kot, M.O. Pedrola, A.W. Alattabi, M. Abdulredha, R. Alawsh, .2019. Electrocoagulation as a green technology for phosphate removal from river water, Sep. Purif. Technol. 210 135–144.
[79]P. Maha Lakshmi, P. Sivashanmugam, .2013. Treatment of oil tanning effluent by electrocoagulation: Influence of ultrasound and hybrid electrode on COD removal, Sep. Purif. Technol. 116 378–384.
[80]J. Zeng, M. Ji, Y. Zhao, T.H. Pedersen, H. Wang, .2021. Optimization of electrocoagulation process parameters for enhancing phosphate removal in a biofilm-electrocoagulation system, Water Sci. Technol. 83 2560–2574.
[81]V. Dashkova, E. Segev, D. Malashenkov, R. Kolter, I. Vorobjev, N.S. Barteneva, .2016. Microalgal cytometric analysis in the presence of endogenous autofluorescent pigments, Algal Res. 19 370–380.
[82]H. Zhang, M. Taxipalati, L. Yu, F. Que, F. Feng, .2013. Structure-Activity Relationship of a U-Type Antimicrobial Microemulsion System, PLoS One. 8 e76245.
[83]S.C. Jagdale, G.K. Deore, A.R. Chabukswar, .2018. Development of Microemulsion Based Nabumetone Transdermal Delivery for Treatment of Arthritis, Recent Pat. Drug Deliv. Formul. 12 130–149.
[84]X. He, A.A. de la Cruz, A. Hiskia, T. Kaloudis, K. O’Shea, D.D. Dionysiou, .2015. Destruction of microcystins (cyanotoxins) by UV-254 nm-based direct photolysis and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): Influence of variable amino acids on the degradation kinetics and reaction mechanisms, Water Res. 74 227–238.
[85]Taiwan EPA, .2010. Phosphorus detection method in water - spectrophotometer/vitamin C method (in chinese),. https://www.epa.gov.tw/niea/2B74ED49B0407E51 (accessed May 29, 2022).
[86]Mark W. Williams, .2000. Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon ( NPOC ), Total Inorganic Carbon ( TIC ), and Total Nitrogen ( TN ) in Waters and Aqueous Extracts, Inst. Arct. Alp. Res. https://nral.ualberta.ca/nral/wp-content/uploads/sites/75/2020/05/Total-Organic-Carbon-Nitrogen-Method-Summary-2020.pdf.
[87]L.C. Hua, S.J. Chao, C. Huang, .2019. Fluorescent and molecular weight dependence of THM and HAA formation from intracellular algogenic organic matter (IOM), Water Res. 148 231–238.
[88]J.R. Lakowicz, .2006. Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy, Princ. Fluoresc. Spectrosc. 1–954.
[89]S.A. Baghoth, S.K. Sharma, G.L. Amy, .2011. Tracking natural organic matter (NOM) in a drinking water treatment plant using fluorescence excitation–emission matrices and PARAFAC, Water Res. 45 797–809.
[90]X. Wang, P. Xiang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wan, H. Lian, .2018. The inhibition of Microcystis aeruginos by electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrode, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 25 20631–20639.
[91]A. Yamaguchi, M. Kobayashi, Y. Adachi, .2019. Yield stress of mixed suspension of silica particles and lysozymes: The effect of zeta potential and adsorbed amount, Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 578 123575.
[92]G. Divyapriya, P. V. Nidheesh, .2021. Electrochemically generated sulfate radicals by boron doped diamond and its environmental applications, Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 25 100921.
[93]P. Rodenas, F. Zhu, A. ter Heijne, T. Sleutels, M. Saakes, C. Buisman, .2017. Gas diffusion electrodes improve hydrogen gas mass transfer for a hydrogen oxidizing bioanode, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 92 2963–2968.
[94]I. Menezes, D. Maxwell-McQueeney, J. Capelo-Neto, C.J. Pestana, C. Edwards, L.A. Lawton, .2021. Oxidative stress in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7813: Comparison of different analytical cell stress detection assays, Chemosphere. 269.
[95]D. Ghernaout, .2014. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio vs. dissolved organics removal by coagulation - A review, J. King Saud Univ. - Sci. 26 169–180.
[96]N. Ates, M. Kitis, U. Yetis, .2007. Formation of chlorination by-products in waters with low SUVA—correlations with SUVA and differential UV spectroscopy, Water Res. 41 4139–4148.
[97]L.C. Hua, J.L. Lin, S.J. Chao, C. Huang, .2018. Probing algogenic organic matter (AOM) by size-exclusion chromatography to predict AOM-derived disinfection by-product formation, Sci. Total Environ. 645 71–78.
[98]D. Ghernaout, B. Ghernaout, .2012. Sweep flocculation as a second form of charge neutralisation-A review, Desalin. Water Treat. 44 15–28.
[99]S. Chellam, M.A. Sari, .2016. Aluminum electrocoagulation as pretreatment during microfiltration of surface water containing NOM: A review of fouling, NOM, DBP, and virus control, J. Hazard. Mater. 304 490–501.
[100]J. Roostaei, Y. Zhang, K. Gopalakrishnan, A.J. Ochocki, .2018. Mixotrophic Microalgae Biofilm: A Novel Algae Cultivation Strategy for Improved Productivity and Cost-efficiency of Biofuel Feedstock Production, Sci. Rep. 8 1–10.
[101]G. Mouedhen, M. Feki, M.D.P. Wery, H.F. Ayedi, .2008. Behavior of aluminum electrodes in electrocoagulation process, J. Hazard. Mater. 150 124–135.
[102]H. Zhao, C. Hu, H. Liu, X. Zhao, J. Qu, .2008. Role of aluminum speciation in the removal of disinfection byproduct precursors by a coagulation process, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 5752–5758.
[103]S. Chellam, .2014. Aluminum Electrocoagulation and Electroflotation Pretreatment for Microfiltration: Fouling Reduction and Improvements in Filtered Water Quality, Desalin. Water Purif. Res. Dev. Progr. 1–114. https://www.usbr.gov/research/dwpr/DWPR_Reports.html.
[104]L.C. Hua, S.J. Chao, K. Huang, C. Huang, .2020. Characteristics of low and high SUVA precursors: Relationships among molecular weight, fluorescence, and chemical composition with DBP formation, Sci. Total Environ. 727 138638.
[105]T. Guo, Y. Yang, R. Liu, X. Li, .2017. Enhanced removal of intracellular organic matters (IOM) from Microcystic aeruginosa by aluminum coagulation, Sep. Purif. Technol. 189 279–287.
[106]H. Xu, W. Jiang, F. Xiao, D.S. Wang, .2014. The characteristics of flocs and zeta potential in nano-TiO2 system under different coagulation conditions, Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 452 181–188.
[107]C. Hu, S. Wang, J. Sun, H. Liu, J. Qu, .2016. An effective method for improving electrocoagulation process: Optimization of Al13 polymer formation, Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 489 234–240.
[108]Y. Liu, X. Zhang, W.M. Jiang, M.R. Wu, Z.H. Li, .2021. Comprehensive review of floc growth and structure using electrocoagulation: Characterization, measurement, and influencing factors, Chem. Eng. J. 417 129310.
[109]Y. Kong, Y. Ma, L. Ding, J. Ma, H. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Shen, .2021. Coagulation behaviors of aluminum salts towards humic acid: Detailed analysis of aluminum speciation and transformation, Sep. Purif. Technol. 259 118137.
[110]T. Priya, B.K. Mishra, M.N.V. Prasad, Physico-chemical techniques for the removal of disinfection by-products precursors from water, LTD, 2020.
[111]J.L. Lin, A.R. Ika, .2020. Minimization of halogenated DBP precursors by enhanced PACl coagulation: The impact of organic molecule fraction changes on DBP precursors destabilization with Al hydrates, Sci. Total Environ. 703 134936.
[112]E. Valero, X. Álvarez, Á. Cancela, Á. Sánchez, .2015. Harvesting green algae from eutrophic reservoir by electroflocculation and post-use for biodiesel production, Bioresour. Technol. 187 255–262.
[113]D. Vandamme, S.C.V. Pontes, K. Goiris, I. Foubert, L.J.J. Pinoy, K. Muylaert, .2011. Evaluation of electro-coagulation-flocculation for harvesting marine and freshwater microalgae, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 108 2320–2329.
[114]N. Fayad, T. Yehya, F. Audonnet, C. Vial, .2017. Harvesting of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using electro-coagulation-flocculation in the batch mode, Algal Res. 25 1–11.
[115]B. An, S. Lee, H.G. Kim, D. Zhao, J.A. Park, J.W. Choi, .2019. Organic/inorganic hybrid adsorbent for efficient phosphate removal from a reservoir affected by algae bloom, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 69 211–216.
[116]A.M. Costa, E.F. Zanoelo, C. Benincá, F.B. Freire, .2021. A kinetic model for electrocoagulation and its application for the electrochemical removal of phosphate ions from brewery wastewater, Chem. Eng. Sci. 243 116755.
[117]T.A.O.K. Meetiyagoda, T. Fujino, .2020. Comparison of Different Anode Materials to Remove Microcystis aeruginosa Cells Using Electro-Coagulation–Flotation Process at Low Current Inputs, Water 2020, Vol. 12, Page 3528. 12 3528.
[118]F. Qu, H. Liang, J. He, J. Ma, Z. Wang, H. Yu, G. Li, .2012. Characterization of dissolved extracellular organic matter (dEOM) and bound extracellular organic matter (bEOM) of Microcystis aeruginosa and their impacts on UF membrane fouling, Water Res. 46 2881–2890.
[119]S.D. Rosan, C.A. Silva, H.J.G.M. Maluf, .2018. Humic acid-phosphate fertilizer interaction and extractable phosphorus in soils of contrasting texture, Rev. Cienc. Agron. 49 32–42.
[120]Z. Su, T. Liu, W. Yu, X. Li, N.J.D. Graham, .2017. Coagulation of surface water: Observations on the significance of biopolymers, Water Res. 126 144–152.
[121]J. Nan, M. Yao, T. Chen, S. Li, Z. Wang, G. Feng, .2016. Breakage and regrowth of flocs formed by sweep coagulation using additional coagulant of poly aluminium chloride and non-ionic polyacrylamide, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 23 16336–16348.
[122]Y. Han, Z. Jiang, X. Zhou, D. Peng, .2011. The effect of dissolved organic matter on Zeta potential during the coagulation process, Proc. - Int. Conf. Comput. Distrib. Control Intell. Environ. Monit. CDCIEM 2011. 1402–1405.
[123]T. Duricic, B.N. Malinovic, D. Bijelic, .2016. The phosphate removal efficiency electrocoagulation wastewater using iron and aluminum electrodes, Bull. Chem. Technol. Bosnnia Herzegovina. 47 33–38.
[124]J. Kotyńska, Z.A. Figaszewski, .2018. Binding of trivalent metal ions (Al3+, In3+, La3+) with phosphatidylcholine liposomal membranes investigated by microelectrophoresis, Eur. Phys. J. E. 41.
[125]J.L. Lin, M.S. Nugrayanti, A.R. Ika, A. Karangan, .2021. Removal of Microcystis Aeruginosa by oxidation-assisted coagulation: Effect of algogenic organic matter fraction changes on algae destabilization with Al hydrates, J. Water Process Eng. 42 102142.
[126]S. Chen, Y. Shi, W. Wang, Z. Li, J. Gao, K. Bao, R. Han, R. Zhang, .2014. Phosphorus Removal from Continuous Phosphate-Contaminated Water by Electrocoagulation using Aluminum and Iron Plates Alternately as Electrodes, Sep. Sci. Technol. 49 939–945.
[127]P. Du, X. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Su, H. Li, N. Wang, T. Guo, T. Zhang, Z. Zhou, .2019. Optimized coagulation pretreatment alleviates ultrafiltration membrane fouling: The role of floc properties and slow-mixing speed on mechanisms of chitosan-assisted coagulation, J. Environ. Sci. (China). 82 82–92.

電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20270822)
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top