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研究生:雅恩
研究生(外文):ARENDARSKI, JAN
論文名稱:認識論、靈性和哲學的界限:魯道夫·史代納的挑戰
論文名稱(外文):Epistemology, Spirituality, and the Limits of Philosophy: The Challenge of Rudolf Steiner
指導教授:何乏筆何乏筆引用關係邱建碩邱建碩引用關係
指導教授(外文):HEUBEL, FABIANCHIU, CHIEN-SHUO
口試委員:林遠澤張存華馬愷之孫雲平
口試委員(外文):LIN, YUAN-TSECHANG, TSUN-HWAMARCHAL, KAISUN, YUN-PING
口試日期:2022-07-19
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:哲學系
學門:人文學門
學類:哲學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:英文
論文頁數:328
中文關鍵詞:史代納靈性實踐知識論認知直覺
外文關鍵詞:Rudolf Steinerspiritualitycultivationepistemologycognitionintuition
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西方哲學史表明,哲學的界限是相當靈活的。然而,西方哲學作為 一個領域是非常有限的。幾個世紀以來,靈性、靈性知識和靈性實踐是哲學的主 要部分。然而,他們主要是在啟蒙思想和唯物主義自然科學的影響下被排除在哲 學之外。今天,哲學主要是一個專注於生產和處理抽像話語的學術領域,與培養 個人的生活方式相去甚遠。

本論文旨在反思哲學的界線問題,主要是從哲學與靈性之間的關係的角度 來思考。考慮到這一目標,我將魯道夫·史代納(Rudolf Steiner)介紹為「非哲 學的他者」,他可以通過同時處於這些界線之內和超越這些界線來引發對哲學界 線的反思。

論文由三章組成。在第一章中,我根據史代納的博士論文和他的《自由哲 學》構建了一個認知模型(cognitive model)。儘管模型本身可以與普通的感 官認知相關聯,但史代納公開表示,他的哲學計劃(以及模型)的有效性取決於 意向的思維活動組織認知的靈性特徵以及對它的靈性認識的可能性,即不是基於 感官。這種實用的方法挑戰了被理解為理論的傳統認識論。第二章提供了與認知 模型相關的靈性訓練片段。史代納通過將靈性鍛煉作為獲得知識的一種形式來挑 戰與宗教或神秘主義相一致的靈性,這種知識也可以使用概念來表達。第三章反 思哲學中非宗教靈性的可能性,從而挑戰了我們這個時代哲學的局限。我認為這 種靈性可能在所構建的模型上設計,並且可能是學術教育和融入非西方哲學的前 景。
The history of Western philosophy demonstrates that the limits of philosophy are rather flexible. Nevertheless, Western philosophy as a field is much limited. Spirituality, spiritual knowledge, and spiritual practice were for centuries the main parts of philosophy; however, they were excluded from philosophy primarily under the influence of Enlightenment thought and materialistic natural science. Today, philosophy is mainly an academic field that concentrates on producing and managing abstract discourse, far from the connection with cultivating the individual’s way of life.

This thesis aims to reflect on the question of the limits of philosophy, primarily through the lens of the relationship between philosophy and spirituality. With this objective in mind, I introduce Rudolf Steiner as the “non-philosophical other” who can provoke reflection upon the limits of philosophy by being within those limits and beyond them at the same time.

The thesis consists of three chapters. In the first chapter, I construct a cognitive model based on Steiner’s doctoral dissertation and his “Philosophy of Freedom.” Although the model itself can relate to ordinary sensory cognition, Steiner openly indicates that the validity of his philosophical project (and thus the model) hinges on the spiritual character of the intentional thinking activity organizing cognition and the possibility of spiritual knowledge of it, that is not based on the senses. Such a practical approach challenges the traditional epistemology understood as a theory. The second chapter provides chosen pieces of spiritual training that relate to the cognitive model. Steiner challenges spirituality identified with religion or mysticism by keeping spiritual exercise as a form of gaining knowledge, which is also expressible in concepts. The third chapter reflects on the possibility of non-religious spirituality within philosophy, thus challenging the limits of philosophy in our time. I argue that such spirituality is possible to formulate upon the constructed model and may be a prospect for academic education and the inclusion of non-Western philosophies.
Table of contents:

English abstract (英文摘要): ...... ii
中文摘要 (Chinese abstract): ...... iv

1. Introduction ...... 1
1.1. Research questions and thesis statement ...... 1
1.2. Outline of the current situation ...... 2
1.3. Controversies and criticisms ...... 7
1.4. Rudolf Steiner’s intellectual influences and background ...... 14
Johann Gottlieb Fichte ...... 15
Johann von Goethe ...... 16
Eduard von Hartmann ...... 20
Esotericism ...... 23
Steiner’s historical consciousness ...... 24
1.5 Limits of philosophy ...... 28
1.6. Steiner’s books and lectures used in this thesis ...... 34
1.7. Model-building – explanation of the methodology ...... 35
1.8. Structure of the thesis ...... 38

2. Constructing the cognitive model ...... 43
2.1. Critical epistemology without dogma ...... 44
2.1.1. What is the “unhealthy faith in Kant”? ...... 45
2.1.2. Critical is the opposite of naïve ...... 48
2.1.3. Steiner’s critical reception of transcendental idealism and natural science ...... 51
2.1.3.1. Law of specific sense energies shares the flaws of transcendental idealism ...... 51
2.1.3.2. The broken chain of the transcendental model of cognition ...... 52
2.1.3.3. Establishing the non-naïve by the naïve. ...... 54
2.1.3.4. Achilles-head and tortoises of things. ...... 55
2.2. Starting point of epistemology – the initial preparation ...... 56
2.2.1. Starting point without assertions ...... 56
2.2.1.1. On the thought experiment ...... 57
2.2.2. We have access to our own acts of meaning ...... 59
2.2.3. The not-given within the given ...... 60
2.2.4. The directly perceptual given ...... 62
2.2.5. From chaos to knowledge ...... 64
2.2.6. Introducing thinking as an activity ...... 65
2.2.7. On the concept of the given ...... 67
2.3. How to determine what is undetermined? ...... 70
2.3.1. Concepts are principles used to organize the sensory given ...... 71
2.3.2. Intellectual intuition and experiencing a concept ...... 72
2.4. Is the cognitive restoration arbitrary? ...... 79
2.4.1. The way humans are cognitively structured does not imply anything about the structure of the world ...... 80
2.4.2. The world content is not our product ...... 82
2.4.3. Our cognitive process is comprised of two acts ...... 83
2.4.4. How can we have a correct cognitive process? ...... 86
2.4.5. The given world is not ready-made ...... 87
2.4.6. The hidden nature of things mirrored in concepts ...... 88
2.4.7. A posteriori cognition ...... 91
2.4.8. Mis-takes and cognition ...... 93
2.5. “The consciousness of reality” and the “reality of consciousness” ...... 96
2.5.1. How does consciousness come about? ...... 99
2.5.2. Consciousness is always intentional and individual ...... 101
2.5.3. We do not see what we add conceptually automatically, and we cannot observe our thinking “live” ...... 103
2.5.4. Observing thinking – cognition’s exceptional state of affairs ...... 105
2.5.5. Is the thinking activity unconscious? ...... 110
2.5.6. Universality of thinking based on concepts ...... 114
2.5.7. How does the “reality of consciousness” start? ...... 118
2.5.8. The “I-consciousness” as the result of cognitive activity ...... 122
2.5.9. Mirroring and thinking ...... 126
2.5.10. Mental picturing, feelings, and I-consciousness ...... 131
2.5.11. “The real I” and the urge for knowledge ...... 136
2.5.12. The feeling of separateness ...... 139
2.5.13. The real “I” as the ultimate dynamic and self-transcending particular founding freedom ...... 141
2.6. Epistemology and freedom ...... 144
2.6.1. How is freedom understood in “Truth and Knowledge”? ...... 147
2.6.2. Freedom in the “Philosophy of Freedom” ...... 149
2.6.3. How does conceptual content mediate the deed? ...... 151
2.6.3.1. Characterological dispositions related to perceiving, feeling, and thinking ...... 152
2.6.3.2. Motives: mental pictures and pure concepts ...... 154
2.6.3.3. The moral needs expressed in the highest motives ...... 155
2.6.3.4. Overlapping of disposition and motive in highest intuition. Ethical individualism ...... 157
2.6.3.5. Moral imagination ...... 159
2.7. The cognitive model ...... 161
2.8. Conclusion ...... 165

3. Spiritual practice ...... 168
3.1. Pure thinking is based on dynamic concepts ...... 169
3.1.1. Reading “Philosophy of Freedom” and world outlooks ...... 172
3.2. Imagination, Inspiration, and Intuition ...... 180
3.2.1. Imagination ...... 181
3.2.2. Spiritual organs of super-sensible cognition ...... 185
3.2.3. Inspiration ...... 187
3.2.4. Intuition (and beyond) ...... 190
3.3. Other spiritual exercises and modern research on Steiner’s spiritual practice ...... 195
3.3.1. Six basic exercises and Rückschau ...... 195
3.3.2. Research on Steiner’s philosophical practice ...... 202
3.3.2.1. Bo Dahlin: comparing Steiner and Heidegger ...... 202
3.3.2.2. Marek Majorek: meeting anthroposophical practice and phenomenological reduction...... 205
3.3.2.3. Terje Sparby: anthroposophical practice as theory and qualitative research ...... 208
3.3.2.4. Johannes Wagemann: using structural phenomenology to render anthroposophical meditation (and epistemology) an independent field of research ...... 211
3.4. Outline of Foucaultian and Hadotian understanding of the spiritual practice ...... 216
3.4.1. Spiritual practice according to Steiner in the context of Foucault’s and Hadot’s interpretations ...... 222
3.5. Conclusion ...... 225

4. Spirituality and the limits of philosophy ...... 230
4.1. Spirituality and religion ...... 232
4.1.1. The internal relation between religion and spirituality ...... 232
4.1.2. Is Steiner a guru? ...... 236
4.1.3. Individualism and freedom as anti-dogmatic elements intrinsic to Steiner’s thought ...... 242
4.2. Spirituality and philosophy ...... 248
4.2.1. The purpose of “Philosophy of Freedom” ...... 248
4.2.2. “Philosophy of Freedom” from the point of view of esoteric science ...... 251
4.2.3. Spiritual science and the nature of proof ...... 254
4.3. The constructed model and the limits of philosophy ...... 261
4.3.1. Steiner as a prototypic philosopher escaping mysticism ...... 264
4.4. The consequences of the proposed model ...... 273
4.4.1. Spirituality in academic philosophy ...... 274
4.4.1.1. Problems of academic philosophy ...... 276
4.4.1.2. Some ways to answer the above blind spots by reintroducing spirituality into philosophy ...... 283
4.4.1.3. The relevance of Steiner, the model, and this thesis in the context of the above answers ...... 291
4.4.2. Inclusion of non-Western philosophies ...... 295
4.4.2.1. Ways to appropriate the non-Western other ...... 296
4.4.2.2. Upsetting the language, upsetting philosophy ...... 300
4.4.2.3. Imprisoned spirituality ...... 308

5. Conclusion ...... 316

Bibliography: ...... 319
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