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研究生:張毓恬
研究生(外文):Chang, Yu-Tien
論文名稱:集體安全制度與非國際性武裝衝突: 區域組織於非洲之實踐
論文名稱(外文):The Collective Security System and Non-International Armed Conflicts: Practice of Regional Organizations in Africa
指導教授:蔡沛倫蔡沛倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai, Pei-Lun
口試委員:蔡季廷陳秉逵蔡沛倫
口試委員(外文):Tsai, Chi-TingChen, Ping-KueiTsai, Pei-Lun
口試日期:2022-01-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:外交學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:中文
論文頁數:211
中文關鍵詞:非洲和平安全架構非洲聯盟聯合國憲章第八章集體安全制度西非國家經濟共同體國際刑事法邀請干涉非洲團結組織保護責任非憲政秩序政府更迭保持占有
外文關鍵詞:African Peace and Security ArchitectureAfrican Unionchapter VIII of the United Nations Chartercollective security systemEconomic Community of West African Statesinternational criminal lawintervention by invitationOrganization of African Unityresponsibility to protectunconstitutional changes of governmentuti possidetis
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在無中央政府狀態的國際社會中,國家藉由加入全球以及區域的集體安全制度保障自身避免戰爭自二十世紀中期變得蓬勃。於此之際,非國際性武裝衝突已成為國際和平及安全威脅的來源,不僅衝擊聯合國的集體安全制度,也刺激非洲次區域以及區域集體安全制度的發展。
本文回顧聯合國、非洲聯盟、西非國家經濟共同體之集體安全制度的發展歷程並分析其主要規範;透過聯合國與非洲聯盟在蒲隆地、索馬利亞、蘇丹達佛、中非共和國,以及聯合國與西非國家經濟共同體在賴比瑞亞、象牙海岸、馬利的共同實踐,探討全球-區域如何運用集體安全制度處理非國際性武裝衝突。
在集體安全制度的規範方面,非洲聯盟與西非國家經濟共同體的集體安全制度共同的特色皆涵蓋衝突預防、訂定有條件的干涉權,以及訂有非憲政秩序政府更迭的制裁機制。此外,兩者的調停以及決策機制也反映非洲問題非洲方法解決的特性。
在全球-區域合作方面,聯合國維和行動的部署多為接替非洲聯盟、西非國家經濟共同體的和平任務,整體而言,在區域辦法優先的原則下,非洲區域組織是處理會員國發生國內衝突第一線的反應者,而聯合國目前仍主要責任的承擔者以及建設和平的主導者。此外,非洲和平安全架構仍存在各次區域能力發展不均的現象,如何有效解決跨區域的衝突仍是難題。在對抗大規模暴行的合作上,對於聯合國以國際刑事法院機制究責,非洲聯盟採取抵制的態度,欲將國際刑事管轄權非洲化,但後續的實踐顯示許多非洲國家願意與安全理事會合作,終結在武裝衝突中有罪不罰的文化。
Since mid-20th century, in the international community, where there is an absence of a central government, states have secured themselves from armed conflicts by participating in regional and global collective security systems. In the meantime, non-international armed conflicts have become the main sources of threats to international peace and security, not only impacting the United Nations (UN) collective security system, but also contributing to the development of collective security systems in sub-regional and regional organizations, including those in Africa.
This thesis reviews collective security systems of the UN, the African Union (AU), and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and their development, and analyzes their core instruments. It also explores how these systems have been applied to manage non-international armed conflicts through examinng practice of the UN and the AU in Burundi, Somalia, Darfur, and Central African Republic and that of the UN and the ECOWAS in Liberia, Côte d’Ivoire, and Mali.
The analysis of the legal and institutional frameworks reveals that both the AU and the ECOWAS collective security systems cover conflict prevention, the right of conditioned intervention, and sanctions to the unconstitutional changes of government. Also, their mediation and decision-making mechanisms reflect characteristics of African solutions to African problems.
The study of cooperation patterns under the global-regional security framework shows that the AU and ECOWAS peace missions have been frequently taken over by UN operations. Overall, following the doctrine of priority to regional arrangements, African regional organizations are the first responders to African intra-state conflicts, but the UN still plays a leading role and often shoulders the primary duty in the peacebuilding process. In addition, the African Peace and Security Architecture has existed unequal capacity development of subregional organizations, and effectively tackling transregional conflicts remains a difficult task. In combating mass atrocities, the AU had refused the UN’s stance on holding perpetrators accountable through the International Criminal Court, and the AU tried to Africanize jurisdiction over the atrocity crimes. But subsequent states practice indicates that many African states are willing to cooperate with the Security Council to end the culture of impunity in armed conflicts.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究目的 1
第二節 文獻回顧 3
一、集體安全概念及其演變 3
二、非國際性武裝衝突 8
三、集體安全制度的全球-區域框架 11
第三節 研究範圍 13
第四節 研究途徑與方法 13
ㄧ、文件分析 14
二、個案研究 15
第五節 論文章節安排 16

第二章 聯合國集體安全制度 17
第一節 從《大西洋憲章》到《聯合國憲章》 17
一、聯合國成立經過 17
二、成立目的、原則與主要機關 19
第二節 聯合國集體安全制度之主要規範 24
一、《聯合國憲章》之爭端和平解決 24
二、《聯合國憲章》與武力使用 24
三、《聯合國憲章》外的非國際性武裝衝突干涉型態 30
四、其他相關國際法文件 36
五、聯合國維和行動規範與演變 37
第三節 從剛果行動到軍事干涉利比亞 40
一、剛果(1960-1964年) 40
二、利比亞(2011年) 43
第四節 小結 46

第三章 非洲聯盟集體安全制度 49
第一節 從《非洲團結組織憲章》到《非洲聯盟組織法》 49
一、非洲團結組織簡介 49
二、非洲團結組織集體安全制度之發展(1963-1990年) 54
三、安全改革與非洲聯盟成立 73
第二節 非洲聯盟集體安全制度之主要規範 78
一、《非洲聯盟組織法》 79
二、《關於建立非洲聯盟和平安全理事會議定書》 84
三、《非洲防衛與安全共同政策宣言》 92
第三節 非洲聯盟干涉權之實踐 94
一、邀請干涉 94
二、對抗大規模暴行 100
三、非洲聯盟任務與《聯合國憲章》第八章 113
第四節 小結 116

第四章 西非國家經濟共同體集體安全制度 119
第一節 從《西非國家經濟共同體條約》到《修訂條約》 119
一、ECOWAS成立簡介 119
二、ECOWAS集體安全制度的形成與發展(1975-1999年) 122
三、擴及安全功能 136
第二節 西非國家經濟共同體集體安全制度之主要規範 138
一、《關於西非國家經濟共同體衝突預防、管理、解決、維和及安全機制議定書》 138
二、《民主與善治議定書》 145
第三節 西非國家經濟共同體之干涉實踐 147
一、賴比瑞亞、象牙海岸、馬利 147
二、奈及利亞、ECOWAS以及非洲聯盟 161
三、ECOWAS任務與《聯合國憲章》第八章 164
第四節 小結 167

第五章 結論 169
第一節 非洲區域集體安全制度特色 169
一、衝突預防 169
二、決策機制 171
三、訂定處理會員國國內衝突之干涉權 171
四、制裁非憲政秩序政府更迭 173
第二節 非洲區域組織因應非國際性武裝衝突之模式 175
一、和平進程與辦法 175
二、終結對大規模暴行的有罪不罰 177
第三節 聯合國體系下的全球-區域安全合作 179
一、非國際性武裝衝突與安全理事會決議案 179
二、聯合國-非洲區域組織安全合作型態 180
參考文獻 183
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條約及其他國際組織文件

African Charter on Democracy, Election, and Governance

African Union Non-Aggression and Common Defence Pact

Charter of the Organization of American States

Charter of the United Nations

Constitutive Act of the African Union

ECOWAS. (1991, November).Official Journal of the ECOWAS: ECOWAS decisions on the Liberian crisis- Special supplement of the official Journal.

ECOWAS. (2003, January).Official Journal of the ECOWAS.

ECOWAS Revised Treaty

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ICISS. (2001, December). The responsibility to protect : Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. IDRC. https://www.idrc.ca/en/book/responsibility-protect-report-international-commission-intervention-and-state-sovereignty

Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Area of Peace and Security between the African Union, the Regional Economic Communities and the Coordinating Mechanisms of the Regional Standby Brigades of Eastern Africa and Northern Africa

North Atlantic Treaty

OAU Charter

Protocol of the Commission of Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitrary

Protocol on Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union

Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance Supplementary to the Protocol Relating to the Mechanism For Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Security

Protocol on Non-Aggression

Protocol Relating to Establishing the ECOWAS Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Security

Protocol Relating to Mutual Assistance on Defence

Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union

Rome Statute of International Criminal Court

Treaty of the Economic Community of West African States

網路資料

African Union (2019, April 2). List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the Protocol on Amendments to the Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rghts. https://au.int/en/treaties/protocol-amendments-protocol-statute-african-court-justice-and-human-rights

African Union (2019, July 16). List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the Protocol on the Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union. https://au.int/en/treaties/protocol-amendments-constitutive-act-african-union

Agoagye, F. (2004, August 26). The African mission in Burundi: Lessons learned from the first African Union peacekeeping operation. Relifweb. https://reliefweb.int/report/burundi/african-mission-burundi-lessons-learned-first-african-union-peacekeeping-operation

Barna, J. (2013, June 4). Can the Central African Republic escape its violent past? European Parliament. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/briefing_note/join/2013/491508/EXPO-DEVE_SP(2013)491508_EN.pdf

Smith, K. (2020, August 17). A reflection on the responsibility to protect in 2020. Global center for the responsibility to protect. https://www.globalr2p.org/publications/a-reflection-on-the-responsibility-to-protect-in-2020/

The New Humanitarian. (2002, December 4). CÔTE d'Ivoire: Crisis bodes ill for country, region. Relifweb. https://reliefweb.int/report/c%C3%B4te-divoire/cote-divoire-crisis-bodes-ill-country-region

United Nations. (n. d. ). The San Francisco Conference. https://www.un.org/en/about-us/history-of-the-un/san-francisco-conference

United Nations Peacekeeping (n. d.). List of past peacekeeping operations. https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/past-peacekeeping-operations
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