跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(100.28.0.143) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/19 18:29
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:盤美樂
研究生(外文):PENCHAN NATTHAPHAN
論文名稱:評估城市自行車觀光目的地之適騎性:以高雄市為例
論文名稱(外文):THE EVALUATION OF THE BIKEABILITY FOR AN URBAN BICYCLE TOURISM DESTINATION: A CASE STUDY OF KAOHSIUNG CITY
指導教授:陳俐欣陳俐欣引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHEN, LI-HSIN
口試委員:陳意玲李歐
口試委員(外文):CHEN, LYNN I-LINGNAVA JIMENEZ, LEONARDO
口試日期:2022-07-06
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄餐旅大學
系所名稱:國際觀光餐旅全英文碩士學位學程
學門:民生學門
學類:觀光休閒學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:英文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:單車適騎性城市單車旅遊城市旅遊高雄
外文關鍵詞:BikeabilityUrban bicycle tourismUrban tourismKaohsiung
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:236
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:30
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
雖然目前在各不同領域已有很多對於適騎性 (Bikeability) 的研究,但針對都市觀光的自行車適騎性仍需深入探討。南台灣最大的城市高雄目前致力於配合台灣的觀光政策去發展單車旅遊,為了使高雄市單車旅遊能夠更好的發展,本研究期望透過問卷和實地調查作為依據,以達到以下三個研究目的 : 第一、確定應包含在自行車適騎性指數中的成分,以衡量城市自行車旅遊目的地 ; 第二、分析在城市自行車旅遊中、適騎性要素與遊客滿意度之關係。第三則是通過實地調查,從高雄兩條城市單車路線:愛河和西港路線所收集到數據,以改善高雄市自行車適騎性的可能性。本次調查共收集了 129 個有效的統計分析數據。問卷調查結果發現舒適度、吸引力和安全因素與自行車遊客的滿意度有顯著相關。此外,此研究也利用地理資訊系統進行空間分析,結果顯示高雄市之單車基礎設施仍有進步空間。本論文為第一個進行城市自行車觀光適騎性之研究,研究之結果針對相關業者及觀光單位提出建議,期待開拓對於城市自行車旅遊適騎性的概念。
Bikeability is still not a word in any authorized dictionary. Nowadays, a lot of bikeability research has been conducted on many different interests. However, bikeability research for urban bicycle tourism is still needed. Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan’s largest city, also supports bicycle tourism to comply with Taiwan’s tourism policy. To develop urban bicycle tourism, the purpose of this study is 1) to identify components that should be included in bikeability index for measuring an urban bicycle tourism destination, 2) to analyze tourists’ perceptions and evaluations of the components of bikeability when cycling at an urban bicycle tourism destination, 3) to discuss the possible improvement of bikeability in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The data was gathered along the Love River and West Port routes, two urban cycling routes in Kaohsiung, utilizing a questionnaire and field investigation. 129 results were used to test the statistical analysis. This study found that comfort, attractiveness, and safety components significantly relate to bicycle tourists’ satisfaction. In addition, the findings from the spatial analysis discuss which bicycle infrastructure should be developed. This study aims to provide theoretical and practical implications, especially relevant for practitioners expanding the bikeability concept for urban bicycle tourism in Kaohsiung.
Inside Cover………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………i
Verification Letter from the Oral Examination Committee…………………………ii
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………iii
English Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………iv
Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………v
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………vii
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………xi
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………xii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1. Research Background………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1.1. Cycling and Bikeability……………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1.2. Bicycle Tourism and Bike Usage in Taiwan………………………………………………3
1.2. Statement of Problems…………………………………………………………………………………………………4
1.3. Research Questions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
1.4. Research Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
1.5. Delimitations………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
1.6. Limitations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
1.7. Significance of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………6
1.8. Chapter Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………………………………………………8
2.1. Chapter Overview………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8
2.2. Advantages of Promoting Bicycle Tourism…………………………………………………8
2.3. Why Bikeability is Needed to Encourage Urban Bicycle Tourism
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9
2.4. Definition of Bikeability……………………………………………………………………………………10
2.5. Components included in Bikeability……………………………………………………………11
2.5.1. Comfort and Attractiveness…………………………………………………………………………………13
2.5.1.1. Bike lanes, bike paths, and Advisory Bike lanes (ABLs)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………14
2.5.1.2. Quality of Bicycle Path Surfaces……………………………………………15
2.5.1.3. Obstacles on Bike Paths……………………………………………………………………16
2.5.1.4. The Slope of Bike Paths……………………………………………………………………16
2.5.1.5. Width of Bike Paths………………………………………………………………………………16
2.5.1.6. The Presence of Trees and Landscape……………………………………17
2.5.1.7. Attractions……………………………………………………………………………………………………18
2.5.1.8. Bike Parking…………………………………………………………………………………………………18
2.5.1.9. Bike Rental Services……………………………………………………………………………19
2.5.2. Traffic Safety…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20
2.5.2.1. Traffic Control Device………………………………………………………………………21
2.5.2.2. Signage Systems and Maps…………………………………………………………………21
2.5.2.3. Accidents on Roads…………………………………………………………………………………22
2.5.3. Security…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………23
2.5.3.1. Presence of the Polices……………………………………………………………………24
2.5.3.2. Presence of Security Cameras………………………………………………………24
2.5.3.3. Lighting……………………………………………………………………………………………………………24
2.5.4. Connectivity………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………25
2.6. Bikeability and Bicycle Tourists’ Satisfaction……………………………27
2.7. Chapter Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………28
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………………………………………29
3.1. Chapter Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
3.2. Research Design………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
3.3. Study Context: Kaohsiung City, Taiwan……………………………………………………30
3.3.1. General Information about Kaohsiung City……………………………………………30
3.3.2. Kaohsiung Urban Development and Tourism………………………………………………31
3.4. Research Site……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………34
3.5. Population of Study……………………………………………………………………………………………………38
3.6. Sample Size…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………38
3.7. Sampling Techniques……………………………………………………………………………………………………38
3.8. Data Collection Method……………………………………………………………………………………………38
3.9. Research Instrument……………………………………………………………………………………………………39
3.10. Pre-test and Pilot Test…………………………………………………………………………………………41
3.11. Data Analysis Method…………………………………………………………………………………………………43
3.12. Chapter Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………44
CHAPTER FOUR STATISTICAL ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………………45
4.1. Chapter Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………………45
4.2. Respondent Profile………………………………………………………………………………………………………45
4.2.1. Descriptive Statistics (Mean, Standard Deviation, Skewness, and Kurtosis) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………47
4.3. Assessment of Formative Measurement (Measurement Model)……50
4.4. Assessment of Reflective Measurement (Measurement Model)…51
4.5. Structure Model………………………………………………………………………………………………………………53
4.5.1. Step 1: Assessment of Structural Model for Collinearity Issues
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………53
4.5.2. Step2: Assessment of Path Coefficient……………………………………………………53
4.5.3. Step 3: Assessment of the Level of R2 (Co-efficient of Determination)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………54
4.5.4. Step 4: Assessment of Effect Size (f2)…………………………………………………55
4.5.5. Step 5: Assessment of Predictive Relevance Q2………………………………55
4.6. Discussion of the Results of the Statistical Analysis…………56
4.7. Chapter Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………57
CHAPTER FIVE SPATIAL ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………………………58
5.1. Chapter Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………………58
5.2. Field Investigation Preparation……………………………………………………………………58
5.3. Assessment of Overall Bikeability Scores of West Port Route
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………58
5.4. Assessment of Overall Bikeability Scores of Love River Route
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………60
5.5. Spatial Analysis and ArcGIS-Pro……………………………………………………………………61
5.5.1. Comfort and Attractiveness…………………………………………………………………………………63
5.5.2. Traffic Safety…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………65
5.5.3. Security…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………68
5.5.4. Connectivity………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………70
5.6. Bike-related Infrastructure Optimized Hot Spot Analysis……74
5.7. Discussion of the Spatial Analysis……………………………………………………………76
5.8. Chapter Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………77
CHAPTER SIX DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………78
6.1. Chapter Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………………78
6.2. Summary of the Main Findings……………………………………………………………………………78
6.3. Contributions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………81
6.3.1. Theoretical Contributions……………………………………………………………………………………81
6.3.2. Practical Contributions…………………………………………………………………………………………82
6.4. Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research………………82
6.5. Concluding Statement…………………………………………………………………………………………………85
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………86
Appendix 1 Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………………………………………………108


Adventure Cycling Association. (n.d.). Bicycle Tourism 101. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from https://www.adventurecycling.org/advocacy/building-bike-tourism/bicycle-tourism-101/
Andrews, E. (2021, Feb 21). The Bicycle’s Bumpy History - HISTORY. https://www.history.com/news/bicycle-history-invention
Arellana, J., Saltarín, M., Larrañaga, A. M., González, V. I., & Henao, C. A. (2020). Developing an urban bikeability index for different types of cyclists as a tool to prioritise bicycle infrastructure investments. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 139, 310-334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2020.07.010
Aziz, H. M., Nagle, N. N., Morton, A. M., Hilliard, M. R., White, D. A., & Stewart, R. N. (2018). Exploring the impact of walk–bike infrastructure, safety perception, and built-environment on active transportation mode choice: a random parameter model using New York City commuter data. Transportation, 45(5), 1207-1229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-017-9760-8
Bakogiannis, E., Vassi, A., Christodoulopoulou, G., & Siti, M. (2018). Bike sharing systems as a tool to increase sustainable coastal and maritime tourist. The case of Piraeus. Regional Science Inquiry, 10(3), 57-71.
Basch, C. H., Ethan, D., & Basch, C. E. (2019). Bike lane obstructions in Manhattan, New York City: Implications for bicyclist safety. Journal of Community Health, 44(2), 396-399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-018-00596-4
Beck, B., Chong, D., Olivier, J., Perkins, M., Tsay, A., Rushford, A., ... & Johnson, M. (2019). How much space do drivers provide when passing cyclists? Understanding the impact of motor vehicle and infrastructure characteristics on passing distance. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 128, 253-260.
Bennett, T., & Gelsthorpe, L. (1996). Public attitudes towards CCTV in public places. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 5(1), 72-90.
Berger, M., & Dörrzapf, L. (2018). Sensing comfort in bicycling in addition to travel data. Transportation Research Procedia, 32, 524-534.
Bicycle. (n.d.). In Cambridge Dictionary online. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english-chinese-traditional/bicycle?q=Bicycle
Bicycle. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster online. Retrieved from
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bicycle
Adventure Cycling Association. (n.d.). Bicycle Tourism 101. Retrieved October 9, 2021, from https://www.adventurecycling.org/advocacy/building-bike-tourism/bicycle-tourism-101/
Bowles, P., Lyu, Y., McFann, A., Merchan, J., & Rothstein, M. (2021). E-bike Usage on the Carriage Roads. Unpublished Interactive Qualifying Project. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
Boyce, P. R., Eklund, N. H., Hamilton, B. J., & Bruno, L. D. (2000). Perceptions of safety at night in different lighting conditions. International Journal of Lighting Research and Technology, 32(2), 79-91. https://doi.org/10.1177/096032710003200205
Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Touris Management, 21(1), 97-116.
Castañon, U. N., & Ribeiro, P. J. (2021). Bikeability and emerging phenomena in cycling: Exploratory analysis and review. Sustainability, 13(4), 2394. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042394
Cedar Lake Ventures (n.d.). Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Weather Spark. Retrieved September 9, 2021, from https://weatherspark.com/y/135326/Average-Weather-in-Kaohsiung-Taiwan-Year-Round
Chang, H. L., & Chang, H. W. (2005). Comparison between the differences of recreational cyclists in national scenic bikeway and local bike lane. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 6, 2178-2193.
Chang, H. W., & Chang, H. L. (2003). A strategic study of bicycle tourism in Taiwan. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 5(8), 1675-1685.
Chuan, C. L., & Penyelidikan, J. (2006). Sample size estimation using Krejcie and Morgan and Cohen statistical power analysis: A comparison. Jurnal Penyelidikan IPBL, 7(1), 78-86.
Chen, C. A., & Lee, H. L. (2017). How to promote bike tourism globally. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 23(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.20867/thm.23.1.2
Chen, C. F., & Huang, C. Y. (2021). Investigating the effects of a shared bike for tourism use on the tourist experience and its consequences. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(1), 134-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1730309
Chen, L. H., & Chancellor, H. C. (2020). Examining the leisure use of a bicycle share program: A case study of YouBike in Taipei. Journal of Leisure Research, 51(2), 183-205. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2019.1660598
CNA. (2020). Taiwan's ‘noise cameras’ to start targeting raucous vehicles [Photograph]. Taiwan News. https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/4067378
Cox, P. (2012). Strategies promoting cycle tourism in Belgium: Practices and implications. Tourism Planning & Development, 9(1), 25-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2012.658167
Crotti, D., Maggi, E., & Pantelaki, E. (2022). Urban cycling tourism. How can bikes and public transport ride together for sustainability?. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, 1, 1-15.
Cycle. (n.d.). In Cambridge Dictionary online. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english-chinese-traditional/cycle
Cyclist. (n.d.). In Cambridge Dictionary online. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english-chinese-traditional/cyclist
Davidse, R. J., Van Duijvenvoorde, K., Boele-Vos, M. J., Louwerse, W. J. R., Stelling-Konczak, A., Duivenvoorden, C. W. A. E., & Algera, A. J. (2019). Scenarios of crashes involving light mopeds on urban bicycle paths. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 129, 334-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.05.016
Deenihan, G., & Caulfield, B. (2015). Do tourists value different levels of cycling infrastructure?. Tourism Management, 46, 92-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.06.012
Department of Transportation Taipei City Government (2018, January 18) YouBike. https://english.dot.gov.taipei/News_Content.aspx?n=F126F4D3F5D0368B&s=92399DD6F08BD1F5
Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2006). Formative versus reflective indicators in organizational measure development: A comparison and empirical illustration. British Journal of Management, 17(4), 263-282. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00500.x
Dill, J., & Voros, K. (2007). Factors affecting bicycling demand: Initial survey findings from the Portland, Oregon, region. Transportation Research Record, 2031(1), 9-17. https://doi.org/10.3141/2031-02
DURAN, E., SEVİNÇ, F., & HARMAN, S. (2018). Cycle tourism as an alternative way of tourism development in Canakkale, Turkey. Journal of Awareness, 3(4), 25-34. https://doi.org/10.26809/joa.2018445552
Eisenman, T. S., Coleman, A. F., & LaBombard, G. (2021). Street Trees for Bicyclists, Pedestrians, and Vehicle Drivers: A Systematic Multimodal Review. Urban Science, 5(3), 56. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci5030056
Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American journal of theoretical and applied statistics, 5(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11
Ewing, R., Brownson, R. C., & Berrigan, D. (2006). Relationship between urban sprawl and weight of United States youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 31(6), 464-474. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2006.08.020
Florey, C. D. (1993). Sample size for beginners. British Medical Journal, 306(6886), 1181-1184. https://doi.org/10.1177/002743214102700532
Gao, K., Yang, Y., Li, A., & Qu, X. (2021). Spatial heterogeneity in distance decay of using bike sharing: An empirical large-scale analysis in Shanghai. Transportation research Part D: Transport and Environment, 94, 102814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2021.102814
Gårder, P., Leden, L., & Thedéen, T. (1994). Safety implications of bicycle paths at signalized intersections. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 26(4), 429-439. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-4575(94)90034-5
Getty Images. (2018). Bike crash: The first things to do in the aftermath [Photograph]. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-45703513
Goertzen, M. J. (2017). Introduction to quantitative research and data. Library Technology Reports, 53(4), 12-18. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452274881.n1
Google. (2021). Lotus Pond Scenic Area to Taroko Park [Maps]. Google Maps https://bit.ly/3oh4S5m
Google. (2021). Love River Line Bicycle Route [Maps]. Kaohsiung Government Work Bureau. https://pwbgis.kcg.gov.tw/Bicycle/TravelDetail.aspx?routeId=7b6bce92-b482-448a-b0af-8e664b3f3c9f
Google. (2021). West Port Line Bicycle Route [Maps]. Kaohsiung Government Work Bureau. https://pwbgis.kcg.gov.tw/Bicycle/TravelDetail.aspx?routeId=9156dcdd-bbd6-414e-b5f3-0f681482ae6f
Gray, J. A., Zimmerman, J. L., & Rimmer, J. H. (2012). Built environment instruments for walkability, bikeability, and recreation: Disability and universal design relevant?. Disability and Health Journal, 5(2), 87-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2011.12.002
Gu, P., Han, Z., Cao, Z., Chen, Y., & Jiang, Y. (2018). Using open source data to measure street walkability and bikeability in China: A case of four cities. Transportation Research Record, 2672(31), 63-75. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361198118758652
Guo, R., Liu, X., & Song, H. (2021). Structural relationships among strategic experiential modules, motivation, serious leisure, satisfaction and quality of life in bicycle tourism. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(23), 12731. https://doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH182312731
Hagen, O. H., & Rynning, M. K. (2021). Promoting cycling through urban planning and development: a qualitative assessment of bikeability. Urban, Planning and Transport Research, 9(1), 276-305. https://doi.org/10.1080/21650020.2021.1938195
Hahn, G. J. (1973). The coefficient of determination exposed. Chemtech, 3(10), 609-612.
Han, H., Lho, L. H., Al-Ansi, A., & Yu, J. (2020). Cycling tourism: A perspective article. Tourism Review, 75(1), 162–164. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-06-2019-0268
Hartanto, K. (2017). Developing a bikeability index to enable the assessment of Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) nodes: Case study in Arnhem-Nijmegen region, Netherlands (Master’s thesis, University of Twente).
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2012). Using partial least squares path modeling in advertising research: basic concepts and recent issues. In Handbook of research on international advertising. Cheltenhama, the UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Hung, K. Y., Lin, M. H., & Hsueh, S. L. (2018). A study on tourism development strategy of Kaohsiung City in Taiwan after urban style regeneration. KnE Social Sciences, 3(10), 1617–1629. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i10.3497
Hunt, J. D., & Abraham, J. E. (2007). Influences on bicycle use. Transportation, 34(4), 453-470. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-006-9109-1
Islam, M. M., Ridwan, A. M., Mary, M. M., Siam, M. F., Mumu, S. A., & Rana, S. (2020, June). Design and implementation of a smart bike accident detection system. In 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP) (pp. 386-389). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/TENSYMP50017.2020.9230656
Israel, G. D. (1992). Determination of sample size. Program Evaluation and Organizational Development, 6, 1-5.
Jandari, A., Meulders, M., Desplenter, S., & Vandebroek, M. (2020). Attribute non-attendance in choosing the bike as a transport mode in Belgium. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 20(4), 127-151. https://doi.org/10.18757/ejtir.2020.20.4.4475
Jia, X., O’Mara, M., & Guan, M. (2007). Rethinking geometric design standards for bike paths. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 133(9), 539-547. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(2007)133:9(539)
Kang, H., Kim, D. H., & Yoo, S. (2019). Attributes of perceived bikeability in a compact urban neighborhood based on qualitative multi-methods. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(19), 3738. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193738
Kang, H. (2021). Sample size determination and power analysis using the G* Power software. Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions, 18, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3352/JEEHP.2021.18.17
Kaohsiung Bike Network. (n.d.). Retrieved September 9, 2021, from https://pwbgis.kcg.gov.tw/Bicycle/bicycle.aspx
Kaohsiung City - Taiwan The Heart of Asia. (n.d.). Retrieved September 9, 2021, from https://eng.taiwan.net.tw/m1.aspx?sNo=0002121
Kaohsiung Travel Website. (n.d.). Retrieved September 9, 2021, from https://khh.travel/en
Kaplan, S., Manca, F., Nielsen, T. A. S., & Prato, C. G. (2015). Intentions to use bike-sharing for holiday cycling: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Tourism Management, 47, 34-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.08.017
Kellstedt, D. K., Spengler, J. O., Foster, M., Lee, C., & Maddock, J. E. (2021). A scoping review of bikeability assessment methods. Journal of Community Health, 46(1), 211-224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00846-4
Kim, D., Yu, J., Yoon, J., Jeon, S., & Son, S. (2021). Comparison of accuracy of surface temperature images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Satellite for Precise Thermal Environment Monitoring of Urban Parks using in Situ Data. Remote Sensing, 13(10), 1977. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13101977
Kim, K. (2018). Investigation on the effects of weather and calendar events on bike-sharing according to the trip patterns of bike rentals of stations. Journal of Transport Geography, 66, 309-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.01.001
Kireeva, N., Zavialov, D., Saginova, O., & Zavyalova, N. (2019, December). Indicator system for monitoring the development of urban bicycle transport infrastructure. Journal of Physics, 1425(1), 012070. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1425/1/012070
Kock, N., & Lynn, G. (2012). Lateral collinearity and misleading results in variance-based SEM: An illustration and recommendations. Journal of the Association for information Systems, 13(7), 546–580. https://doi.org/10.17705/1jais.00302
Krenn, P. J., Oja, P., & Titze, S. (2015). Development of a bikeability index to assess the bicycle-friendliness of urban environments. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 05(04), 451–459. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2015.54045
Kulczycki, C., & Halpenny, E. A. (2014). Sport cycling tourists’ setting preferences, appraisals and attachments. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 19(2), 169-197. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2015.1070741
Kwigizile, V., Oh, J. S., & Lyimo, S. M. (2019). Investigating and Prioritizing Factors for Quantifying Bikeability (Report No. TRCLC 2018-02). Western Michigan University. Transportation Research Center for Livable Communities.
Langenheim, N., White, M., Tapper, N., Livesley, S. J., & Ramirez-Lovering, D. (2020). Right tree, right place, right time: A visual-functional design approach to select and place trees for optimal shade benefit to commuting pedestrians. Sustainable Cities and Society, 52, 101816. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.101816
Lee, C. F. (2014). An investigation of factors determining cycling experience and frequency. Tourism Geographies, 16(5), 844-862. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2014.927524
Lee, C. F., & Huang, H. I. (2014). The attractiveness of Taiwan as a bicycle tourism destination: A supply-side approach. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(3), 273-299. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2012.739190
Liberty Times Net. (2015). Driving dumbfounded! Traffic police turn around like a street conductor [Photograph]. Liberty Times Net. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/society/breakingnews/1377019
Lin, J. (2019, Feb 9). Taiwan’s cultural plurality and immigration policy – Taiwan insight. Retrieved September 9, 2021, from https://taiwaninsight.org/2019/02/09/taiwans-cultural-plurality-and-immigration-policy/
Lin, J. J., & Wei, Y. H. (2018). Assessing area-wide bikeability: A grey analytic network process. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 113, 381-396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2018.04.022
Lin, J. J., Zhao, P., Takada, K., Li, S., Yai, T., & Chen, C. H. (2018). Built environment and public bike usage for metro access: A comparison of neighborhoods in Beijing, Taipei, and Tokyo. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 63, 209-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2018.05.007
Lin, S. J., Shyu, G. S., Fang, W. T., & Cheng, B. Y. (2020). Using multivariate statistical methods to analyze high-quality bicycle path service systems: A case study of popular bicycle paths in Taiwan. Sustainability, 12(17), 7185. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177185
Litzenberger, S., Christensen, T., Hofstätter, O., & Sabo, A. (2018). Prediction of road surface quality during cycling using smartphone accelerometer data. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Proceedings, 2(6), 217. https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2060217
Liu, G., Nello‐Deakin, S., te Brömmelstroet, M., & Yamamoto, Y. (2020). What makes a good cargo bike route? Perspectives from users and planners. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 79(3), 941-965. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajes.12332
Livesley, S. J., McPherson, E. G., & Calfapietra, C. (2016). The urban forest and ecosystem services: impacts on urban water, heat, and pollution cycles at the tree, street, and city scale. Journal of Environmental Quality, 45(1), 119-124. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2015.11.0567
Lowry, M. B., Callister, D., Gresham, M., & Moore, B. (2012). Assessment of communitywide bikeability with bicycle level of service. Transportation Research Record, 2314(1), 41-48. https://doi.org/10.3141/2314-06
Mamrayeva, D., & Tashenova, L. (2017). Prospects of bicycle-sharing in urban tourism in the republic of Kazakhstan: myth or reality?. Transport Problems, 12(2), 65–76. https://doi.org/10.20858/tp.2017.12.2.7
Marqués, R., & Hernández-Herrador, V. (2017). On the effect of networks of cycle-tracks on the risk of cycling. The case of Seville. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 102, 181-190.
Mazzulla, G., Bellizzi, M. G., Eboli, L., & Forciniti, C. (2021). Cycling for a sustainable touristic mobility: A preliminary study in an urban area of Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(24), 13375. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413375
McCormack, G. R., Nesdoly, A., Ghoneim, D., & McHugh, T. L. (2021).‘Cul-de-sacs make you fat’: Homebuyer and land developer perceptions of neighbourhood walkability, bikeability, livability, vibrancy, and health. Cities & Health, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/23748834.2021.1979759
McLean, M. (2012). Strategies for increasing bikeability: A closer look at the St. Louis regional bike plan (Unpublished master’s thesis). Washington University, St. Louis, MO.
Meng, B., & Han, H. (2018). Working-holiday tourism attributes and satisfaction in forming word-of-mouth and revisit intentions: Impact of quantity and quality of intergroup contact. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 9, 347-357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2018.03.009
Mrnjavac, E., Kovačić, N., & Topolšek, D. (2014). The logistic product of bicycle destinations. Tourism and hospitality management, 20(2), 171-184. https://doi.org/10.20867/thm.20.2.2
Muhammad, I., Shamsudin, M. F., & Hadi, N. U. (2016). How important is customer satisfaction? Quantitative evidence from mobile telecommunication market. International Journal of Business and Management, 11(6), 57-69. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v11n6p57
Muhs, C. D., & Clifton, K. J. (2016). Do characteristics of walkable environments support bicycling? Toward a definition of bicycle-supported development. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 9(2), 147-188. https://doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2015.727
Nakagawa, S., Johnson, P. C., & Schielzeth, H. (2017). The coefficient of determination R2 and intra-class correlation coefficient from generalized linear mixed-effects models revisited and expanded. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 14(134), 20170213. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2017.0213
Nilsson, J. H. (2019). Urban bicycle tourism: Path dependencies and innovation in Greater Copenhagen. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(11), 1648-1662. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2019.1650749
Onur, İ. Ç. Ö. Z., Bozkurt, Y. S., & Günay, T. (2018). Cycling as an opportunity for improving health tourism in Izmir. Uluslararası Turizm Ekonomi ve İşletme Bilimleri Dergisi, 2(2), 27-35.
Osama, A., Albitar, M., Sayed, T., & Bigazzi, A. (2020). Determining if walkability and bikeability indices reflect pedestrian and cyclist safety. Transportation Research Record, 2674(9), 767-775. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361198120931844
Perić, M., Đurkin, J., & Vitezić, V. (2018). Active event sport tourism experience: The role of the natural environment, safety and security in event business models. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 13(5), 758-772.
Persaud, T., Amadi, U., Duane, A., Youhana, B., & Mehta, K. (2020). Smart city innovations to improve quality of life in urban settings. In 2020 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1109/GHTC46280.2020.9342905
Pizam, A., Tarlow, P. E., & Bloom, J. (1997). Making tourists feel safe: Whose responsibility is it?. Journal of Travel Research, 36(1), 23-28. https://doi.org/10.1177/004728759703600104
Poljičak, A. M., Šego, D., & Periša, T. (2021). Analysis of cycling tourism: Case-study Croatia. International Journal for Traffic and Transport Engineering (Belgrade), 11(3), 454-464. http://dx.doi.org/10.7708/ijtte2021.11(3).08
Porter, A. K., Kohl III, H. W., Pérez, A., Reininger, B., Pettee Gabriel, K., & Salvo, D. (2020). Bikeability: Assessing the objectively measured environment in relation to recreation and transportation bicycling. Environment and Behavior, 52(8), 861-894. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916518825289
Procopiuck, M., Segovia, Y. N. S., & Procopiuck, A. P. V. (2021). Urban cycling mobility: Management and urban institutional arrangements to support bicycle tourism activities—Case study from Curitiba, Brazil. Transportation, 48(4), 2055-2080. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-020-10121-z
Qian, X., Cordeiro, J., Gomes, R., & Niemeier, D. (2017, January 8-12). Mean texture depth and deflection detection and steering angle based bike pavement condition assessment. Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Meeting, Washington DC, United States.
Ritchie, B. W. (1998). Bicycle tourism in the South Island of New Zealand: Planning and management issues. Tourism management, 19(6), 567-582. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(98)00063-6
Roman, M., & Roman, M. (2014). Bicycle transport as an opportunity to develop urban tourism–Warsaw example. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 151, 295-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.10.027
Saelens, B. E., Sallis, J. F., & Frank, L. D. (2003). Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25(2), 80-91. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15324796ABM2502_03
Salon, D., Wang, K., Conway, M. W., & Roth, N. (2019). Heterogeneity in the relationship between biking and the built environment. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), 99-126. https://doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2019.1350
Salvanelli, G., Porter, C., & Mario, I (2020). Risk factor influencing bicycle theft in Milan (Italy): A spatial analysis.
Schmid-Querg, J., Keler, A., & Grigoropoulos, G. (2021). The Munich bikeability index: A practical approach for measuring urban bikeability. Sustainability, 13(1), 428. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010428
Shaaban, K. (2020). Why don’t people ride bicycles in high-income developing countries, and can bike-sharing be the solution? The case of Qatar. Sustainability, 12(4), 1693. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041693
Stamboulis, Y., & Skayannis, P. (2003). Innovation strategies and technology for experience-based tourism. Tourism Management, 24(1), 35-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(02)00047-X
Ministry of Transport. (2021). Daoan information inquiry network. Retrieved September 9, 2021, from https://roadsafety.tw/Dashboard/Custom?type=統計快覽
Su, S. (2020, April 24). Tourism and urban branding in Kaohsiung – Approaches to the modern city. https://moderncity.georgetown.domains/kaohsiung/kaohsiung-urban-tourism-report/
Sullivan, G. M., & Feinn, R. (2012). Using effect size—or why the P value is not enough. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 4(3), 279-282.
OSAC Bureau of Diplomatic Security U.S. Department of State Washington (2020, Mar 17). Taiwan 2020 Crime & Safety Report. https://www.osac.gov/Country/Taiwan/Content/Detail/Report/a81e91c1-8248-4247-87fb-1838ca0ec766
Tan, P. Y., & Ismail, H. N. (2020, February). Reviews on interrelationship between transportation and tourism: Perspective on sustainability of urban tourism development. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 447(1), 012065. IOP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/447/1/012065
Tarlow, P. E., & Santana, G. (2002). Providing safety for tourists: A study of a selected sample of tourist destinations in the United States and Brazil. Journal of Travel Research, 40(4), 424-431. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287502040004009
Taylor, D., & Jeffrey Davis, W. (1999). Review of basic research in bicycle traffic science, traffic operations, and facility design. Transportation Research Record, 1674(1), 102-110. https://doi.org/10.3141/1674-14
Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Los Angeles. (2022, Jan 4). The new 2022 “Biking Around Taiwan” float launches for the 2022 Rose Parade. https://www.taiwanembassy.org/uslax_en/post/7344.html
Thompson, S. R., Monsere, C. M., Figliozzi, M., Koonce, P., & Obery, G. (2013). Bicycle-specific traffic signals: Results from a state-of-the-practice review. Transportation Research Record, 2387(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3141/2387-01
Tourism Bureau of Kaohsiung City Government. (2021). [Statistic database of Attraction Search]. Attraction Search. Kaohsiung Travel. https://khh.travel/en/attractions/list
Tourism Bureau of Kaohsiung City Government. (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2021, from https://www.kcg.gov.tw/EN/News_Content.aspx?n=3788E6E04BC17563&sms=7E0BEA6C4C2D1715&s=E78B3D2643019790
Tran, P. T., Zhao, M., Yamamoto, K., Minet, L., Nguyen, T., & Balasubramanian, R. (2020). Cyclists’ personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and its influence on bikeability. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 88, 102563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2020.102563
Tran, T. D., Ovtracht, N., & d’Arcier, B. F. (2015). Modeling bike sharing system using built environment factors. Procedia Cirp, 30, 293-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.156
Turim, A. (2021). Extended Summary: Urban Bike Tourism in Major Canadian Cities. Faculty of Architecture. University of Manitoba. https://umanitoba.ca/architecture/sites/architecture/files/2021-11/turim_extended-summary_2021.pdf
Uprichard, E. (2013). Sampling: Bridging probability and non-probability designs. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 16(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2011.633391
Van der Spek, S. C., & Scheltema, N. (2015). The importance of bicycle parking management. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 15, 39-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2015.03.001
Van Treese II, J. W., Koeser, A. K., Fitzpatrick, G. E., Olexa, M. T., & Allen, E. J. (2017). A review of the impact of roadway vegetation on drivers’ health and well-being and the risks associated with single-vehicle crashes. Arboricultural Journal, 39(3), 179-193. https://doi.org/10.1080/03071375.2017.1374591
Wage, O., Feuerhake, U., Koetsier, C., Ponick, A., Schild, N., Beening, T., & Dare, S. (2020). Ride vibrations: Towards comfort-based bicycle navigation. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & Spatial Information Sciences, XLIII-B4, 367-373. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLIII-B4-2020-367-2020
Wahlgren, L., & Schantz, P. (2011). Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-6
Wang, T. L., Tran, P. T. K., & Tran, V. T. (2017). Destination perceived quality, tourist satisfaction and word-of-mouth. Tourism Review, 72(4), 392-410. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-06-2017-0103
Weston, R., Davies, N., Lumsdom, L., McGrath, P., Peeters, P., Ejgelaar, E., et al. (2012). The European cycle route network Eurovelo: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism. Report IP/B/TRAN/FWC/2010-006/Lot5/C1/SC1. Brussels, Belgium: Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies, European Parliament.
WHO. (2021, October 28) WHO kicks off a decade of Action for road safety. https://www.who.int/news/item/28-10-2021-who-kicks-off-a-decade-of-action-for-road-safety
Williams, M. (2018). A new type of road for North America: Solving the challenge of non-motorized infrastructure with Advisory Bike Lanes. Institute of Transportation Engineers. ITE Journal, 88(9), 40-44.
Winters, M., Brauer, M., Setton, E. M., & Teschke, K. (2013). Mapping bikeability: a spatial tool to support sustainable travel. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 40(5), 865-883. https://doi.org/10.1068/b38185
UNWTO (n.d.). Urban Tourism. Retrieved September 9, 2021, from https://www.unwto.org/urban-tourism
UNWTO (2020), UNWTO Recommendations on Urban Tourism, UNWTO, Madrid. https://doi.org/10.18111/9789284422012.
Wu, C., Kim, I., & Chung, H. (2021). The effects of built environment spatial variation on bike-sharing usage: A case study of Suzhou, China. Cities, 110, 103063. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.103063
Wu, Y., Abdel-Aty, M., Zheng, O., Cai, Q., & Yue, L. (2019). Developing a crash warning system for the bike lane area at intersections with connected vehicle technology. Transportation Research Record, 2673(4), 47-58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361198119840617
Xia, T., Song, X., Song, X., Lu, M., Huang, S., Shibasaki, R., & Kim, K. S. (2019). Xia, T., Song, X., Song, X., Lu, M., Huang, S., Shibasaki, R., & Kim, K.-S. (2019). From walkability to bikeability: A GIS based analysis of integrating bike sharing service in Tokyo TOD system. Abstracts of the ICA, 1, NA. https://doi.org/10.5194/ica-abs-1-409-2019
Xu, C., Yang, Y., Jin, S., Qu, Z., & Hou, L. (2016). Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 87, 59-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2015.11.014
Xu, H., Yuan, M., & Li, J. (2019). Well-being of cycling tourists in Hainan, China. Sport in Society, 22(8), 1449-1465. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2019.1619699
Xu, S. J., & Chow, J. Y. (2020). A longitudinal study of bike infrastructure impact on bikesharing system performance in New York City. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 14(11), 886-902. https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2019.1645921
Yang, Y., Jiang, L., & Zhang, Z. (2021). Tourists on shared bikes: Can bike-sharing boost attraction demand?. Tourism Management, 86, 104328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2021.104328
Yeganegi, K., Moradi, D., & Obaid, A. J. (2020, May). Create a wealth of security CCTV cameras. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1530, No. 1, p. 012110). IOP Publishing.
Yeh, C. C., Lin, C. J. Y., Hsiao, J. P. H., & Huang, C. H. (2019). The effect of improving cycleway environment on the recreational benefits of bicycle tourism. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(18), 3460. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183460
Yuan, C., Sun, Y., Lv, J., & Lusk, A. C. (2017). Cycle tracks and parking environments in China: Learning from college students at Peking University. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(8), 930. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080930
Zhang, L., Zhang, J., Duan, Z. Y., & Bryde, D. (2015). Sustainable bike-sharing systems: characteristics and commonalities across cases in urban China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 97, 124-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.04.006
Zhang YongXiang. (2021). MRT Houyi [Photograph], Google Maps. https://bit.ly/3v1VpTb
Zhang, Y., Thomas, T., Brussel, M., & Van Maarseveen, M. (2017). Exploring the impact of built environment factors on the use of public bikes at bike stations: Case study in Zhongshan, China. Journal of Transport Geography, 58, 59-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2018.03.001
Zhao, J., Wang, J., Xing, Z., Luan, X., & Jiang, Y. (2018). Weather and cycling: Mining big data to have an in-depth understanding of the association of weather variability with cycling on an off-road trail and an on-road bike lane. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 111, 119-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2018.03.001
Zhou, B., Liu, T., Ryan, C., Wang, L. E., & Zhang, D. (2020). The satisfaction of tourists using bicycle sharing: a structural equation model-the case of Hangzhou, China. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(7), 1063-1082. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1720697
Zhu, S., & Zhu, F. (2019). Cycling comfort evaluation with instrumented probe bicycle. Transportation Research part A: Policy and Practice, 129, 217-231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2019.08.009

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top