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研究生:岑崇瑞
研究生(外文):Chung-jui Tsen
論文名稱:交直流馬達電動車系統設計與比較
論文名稱(外文):Design and Comparison of AC and DC Motor Electric Vehicle System
指導教授:曾逸敦
指導教授(外文):Tseng, Yih-tun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:電動車直流有刷馬達交流感應馬達PID控制Matlab/Simulink
外文關鍵詞:Electric VehicleDC brushed motorAC induction motorPID controllerMatlab/Simulink
相關次數:
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馬達在21世紀中所關係到人的生活品質,從農業社會、商務、交通工具、工業發展,各行各業都有馬達的貢獻,本文主要探討的領域為電動車市場的技術發展,隨著現代生活節奏日益加快,以及能源策略所帶來的壓力,代步工具的需求越來越嚴格,人們對環保意識越來越重視,不久的將來電動車將取代傳統燃油車,而確保環保產品的品質和性能已經是各大研究單位最主要關切的問題。但汽車工業有長達200年的歷史[1],馬達的種類、特性、用途更是百百種,在本研究希望針對剛進入電動車領域的初學者,對電動車有初步的了解,從電動車的歷史、現代電動車的種類、電子電力技術的演進,再推導直流有刷馬達和交流感應馬達的數學模型,最後再利用Simulink軟體模擬電動車針對不同馬達的比較。未來則可以參考各單位的子系統來做電腦模擬,依照不同的分類需求來替換子系統以更符合實際的用路情形。
Motors are related to people''s quality of life in the 21st century. From agricultural society, business, transportation, and industrial development, all walks of life have the contribution of motors.This paper mainly discusses the technical development of the electric vehicle market, With the accelerating pace of modern life, people''s increasing awareness of environmental protection, and the pressure brought by energy strategies, the demand for mobility tools is becoming more and more stringent, from the perspective of environmental issues, electric vehicles will replace traditional fuel vehicles in the near future, and ensuring the quality and performance of environmentally friendly products has become the main concern of major research institutes. However, the automobile industry has a history of 200 years, and there are hundreds of types, characteristics, and uses of motors. In this study, I hope to have a preliminary understanding of electric vehicles for beginners who have just entered the field of electric vehicles. From the history of vehicles, the types of modern electric vehicles, and evolution of electronic technology, and derivation of Mathematical Models for DC Brush Motors and AC Induction Motors.Finally, use Simulink software to simulate the comparison of electric vehicles for different motors.In the future, computer simulations can be performed with reference to the subsystems of each unit, and the subsystems can be replaced according to different classification requirements to better meet the actual road usage situation.
論文審定書 i
中文摘要 ii
英文摘要 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 xi
1 第一章 緒論1
1.1 研究前言1
1.2 研究目的1
1.3 研究架構1
2 第二章 文獻回顧3
2.1 電動車百年發展史3
2.1.1 19世紀 電動馬達和燃油機同時發展3
2.1.2 20世紀 燃油機取代電動機5
2.1.3 21世紀 電動機過渡期~全電動車6
2.2 汽車電子技術的發展史9
2.2.1 1955年以前的電子管時代9
2.2.2 1955~1980年的電晶體與積體時代9
2.2.3 1980年以後的電腦時代9
2.3 常用於電動車的馬達11
2.3.1 直流有刷馬達11
2.3.2 交流感應馬達12
2.3.3 永磁無刷馬達13
2.3.4 開關磁阻馬達14
2.4 電動車的分類15
2.4.1 燃油車ICE17
2.4.2 油電混和動力車HEV17
2.4.3 插電式油電混合動力車PHEV18
2.4.4 增程式電動車EREV18
2.4.5 純電動車BEV19
2.4.6 燃料電池電動車FCEV19
2.5 直流有刷馬達的驅動原理20
2.5.1 勞倫茲力22
2.5.2 換向23
2.5.3 反電動勢24
2.6 交流感應馬達的驅動原理25
2.6.1 場繞組26
2.6.2 轉差率26
2.6.3 轉子感應電勢頻率27
2.7 交流發電機28
2.8 控制方法30
2.8.1 PID control30
2.8.2 V/F control33
3 第三章 交直流電動車控制系統設計36
3.1 系統設計目標與架構36
3.2 直流有刷馬達數學模型推導36
3.2.1 直流有刷馬達的轉移函數37
3.3 交流感應馬達數學模型推導37
3.3.1 感應馬達的等效電路37
3.3.2 交流感應馬達的轉移函數40
3.3.3 等效電路的功率分析41
3.4 車輛動力學44
3.4.1 牽引力 Ftf45
3.4.2 滾動阻力 Frr46
3.4.3 空氣阻力 Fwr46
3.4.4 坡度阻力 Fsr47
3.5 Matlab Simulink模型與控制系統設計48
3.5.1 直流有刷馬達的Matlab建模48
3.5.2 交流感應馬達的Matlab建模51
3.5.3 汽車動力模型54
4 第四章 結果與討論56
4.1 馬達特性曲線56
4.2 平面道路測試57
4.3 爬坡道路測試58
4.4 不同路況的平面道路測試60
4.5 城市駕駛FTP-75測試61
5 第五章 總結與未來展望63
5.1 總結63
5.2 未來展望63
參考文獻64
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