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研究生:劉昀宗
研究生(外文):Liu, Yun-Tsung
論文名稱:三相轉換器穩定度分析
論文名稱(外文):Stability Analyses of Three Phase Converters
指導教授:吳財福
指導教授(外文):Wu, Tsai-Fu
口試委員:陳建富劉添華林法正廖聰明鐘太郎
口試委員(外文):Chen, Jiann-FuhLiu, Tian-HuaLin, Faa-JengLiaw, Chang-MingJong, Tai-Lang
口試日期:2022-01-12
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:英文
論文頁數:144
中文關鍵詞:耦合型穩定度分析等效單相解耦合型穩定度分析電流追蹤能力阻抗法穩定度分析三相四線式轉換器三相三線式轉換器三相三線式濾波器設計平均共模電壓解耦合數位控制
外文關鍵詞:Coupled stability analysisequivalent-circuit decoupled stability analysiscurrent tracking capabilityimpedance-based stabilitythree-phase four-wire (3Ф4W) converterthree-phase three-wire (3Ф3W) converterfilter designaverage common-mode voltage (ACMV)decoupled digital control (DDC)
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本論文提出一種耦合型穩定度分析方法,分析三相四線式與三相三線式系統之三相電流追蹤能力及系統之穩定度。此外,比較耦合型與電路等效單相之解耦合穩定度分析,個別應用在三相四線式及三相三線式轉換器之間差異,並考慮濾波器電感值隨電流大小的變化,搭配解耦合數位控制與濾波器設計,實現三相高功率併網型轉換器。本論文透過平均共模電壓觀念,設計電流控制演算法,並藉由時域及頻域推導出轉換器輸入對輸出之轉移函數,用於分析系統穩定度與設計濾波器,最後實測驗證轉換器功能。
在穩定度分析比較方面,本論文各別推導出三相四線式LC與三相三線式LCL轉換器之輸入對輸出轉移函數,從相對簡易的三相四線式轉換器至複雜的三相三線式轉換器,比較耦合型與解耦合型轉移函數間之差異和考慮電感值衰減的影響。同時為了驗證轉移函數的正確性,本研究將三相系統建模於MATLAB中,並以MATLAB/Simscape模型結果為基準,比較模型結果與推導結果的一致性。此外,基於濾波器諧振頻帶穩定性,本論文提出三相三線式LCL轉換器濾波器設計,考慮電感值不同的衰減量與濾波器總體積大小,並且透過供應商提供的鐵芯參數,設計出濾波器各元件值並篩選出符合使用者所需規格限制下的鐵芯元件。
在系統功能驗證方面,受限於環境容量,本研究建造二部DC 760V/ac 380V/350 kVA的三相四線式LC轉換器,透過實際二部循環功率測試以驗證市電併網與直流鏈電壓穩壓功能。此外,亦建造一部DC 760V/ac 380V/33 kVA的三相三線式LCL轉換器並實際測試市電併網與直流鏈電壓穩壓功能,最後實現多部轉換器並聯並測試。同時,本研究建立MATLAB/Simulink模擬模型,比對在相同規格下的三相四線式與三相三線式轉換器實測驗證結果與模擬結果,驗證Simulink模型與實測結果的一致性。
透過模擬與實測結果,本論文驗證三相耦合型穩定度分析,具有更高的精確性並更符合電路實際運作等優點,此外,配合濾波器設計與解耦合數位控制可減少濾波器體積並使輸出電流符合IEEE Std 519-2014 和IEEE Std 1547之電流注入電網諧波規範。
本論文的原創性貢獻簡述如下:
本論文所提出的三相三線式轉換器耦合型穩定度分析,相較於傳統解耦合型穩定度分析,與MATLAB/Simscape模型結果一致。
耦合型穩定度分析將電感值衰減量和市電電網強度納入變化因素,分析當電感值隨電流大小變化時之影響與系統的穩定性。
三相三線式轉換器LCL濾波器設計方法配合耦合型穩定度分析,將供應商提供的鐵芯參數納入考量並計算鐵芯體積,設計出符合使用者所需之濾波器元件參數值。
以「直接數位控制」的三相轉換器電流控制演算法,配合耦合型穩定度分析,確保實測有低輸出電流總諧波失真率且穩定操作,滿足IEEE Std 519-2014 和IEEE Std 1547的諧波規範。
藉由提高開關切換頻率,以降低濾波器體積且提升系統動態響應,在系統穩定運行下,實測多部並聯以提高整體系統額定功率。
This dissertation proposes a coupled stability analysis to analyze the three-phase current tracking capability and the system stability of the three-phase four-wire (3Ф4W) and three-phase three-wire (3Ф3W) systems. In addition, it compares the difference between the coupled and equivalent-circuit decoupled stability analyses for 3Ф4W and 3Ф3W converters. Moreover, it considers filter inductance variations simultaneously to verify a three-phase grid-connected converter with decoupled digital control (DDC) and filter design. The current control algorithm based on the concept of the average common-mode voltage (ACMV), system parameters, and the input-to-output transfer functions of the converters are derived and analyzed with time-domain and frequency-domain models.
For the stability analyses, the transfer functions of the 3Ф4W LC and 3Ф3W LCL converters are derived. The differences between the coupled and decoupled transfer functions with wide filter inductance variation and distorted grid voltages are compared and discussed from a relatively simple 3Ф4W converter to a complex 3Ф3W converter. In order to verify the correctness of the transfer functions, the three-phase system is modeled in MATLAB, and the results of the MATLAB/Simscape model with the linear analysis tool are used as a benchmark to compare the consistency of the model with the derived results. Besides, based on the stability of the resonant frequency band, the filter design of a 3Ф3W converter by considering inductance variations and the total volume of the filter is proposed. Moreover, the filter and core-element parameters are designed and filtered to meet the user requirements.
To verify and develop the system transfer functions, two DC 760V/ac 380V/350 kVA 3Ф4W LC converters were built to confirm the grid connection and DC-bus voltage regulation with the circulating power test (CPT) set-up due to the limited environmental capacity. In addition, a 3Ф3W LCL converter with DC 760V/ac 380V/33 kVA was built and tested for the grid-connected functions; moreover, multiple converters in parallel were constructed and tested. In this dissertation, a MATLAB Simulink simulation model was built and analyzed to compare the simulated and experimental results of the 3Ф4W and 3Ф3W converters with the exact specifications.
Finally, based on simulated and experimental results, the three-phase coupled stability analyses are verified and analyzed to be more accurate and consistent with actual circuit operation. Besides, the filter design and DDC can reduce the filter volume and make the output current total harmonic distortions (THDs) comply with the IEEE-519-2014 and IEEE-1547 harmonic standards.
The original contributions of this dissertation are briefly presented as follows:
Compared with the traditional decoupled stability analyses, the proposed coupled stability analyses of the 3Ф3W LCL converters are consistent with the results of MATLAB/Simscape model.
The proposed coupled stability analyses incorporate the wide inductance variation and analyze the effect of the system stability. Besides, depending on the different grid conditions, the accuracy of the proposed coupled stability analyses is improved compared to the decoupled stability analyses.
The filter design of 3Ф3W converter with coupled stability analyses takes the core parameters provided by the manufacturer into consideration. It calculates the core volume to design the filter parameters that meet user needs.
The derived simple three-phase converter current control algorithms with coupled stability analyses can ensure low THDs of output current and compliance with the IEEE-519-2014 and IEEE-1547 harmonic standards.
By increasing the switching frequency, the filter volume can be reduced, and the system dynamic response can be improved. Simulated and experimental results of two filter parameters are verified and compared. In addition, the overall system power rating is increased by multiple converters in parallel under stable operation.
中文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------i
ABSTRACT-----------------------------------------------------------iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS----------------------------------------------------vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS-------------------------------------------------viii
LIST OF FIGURES-----------------------------------------------------xi
LIST OF TABLES-----------------------------------------------------xix
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS----------------------------------------------xxi
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION-----------------------------------------------1
1.1 Background and Motivation----------------------------------------1
1.2 Review of Previous Work------------------------------------------3
1.2.1 Control Approach-----------------------------------------------3
1.2.2 Filter Design--------------------------------------------------5
1.2.3 Stability Analysis of the System-------------------------------8
1.3 Dissertation Outline---------------------------------------------9
CHAPTER 2 CONTROL ALGORITHMS FOR THE 3Ф4W LC AND 3Ф3W LCL CONVERTERS----------------------------------------------------------------------12
2.1 Control for the 3Ф4W LC Converter-------------------------------12
2.1.1 Structure for the 3Ф4W LC Converter with CPT------------------13
2.1.2 Derivation of Control Laws for the 3Ф4W LC Converter----------14
2.1.3 Communication, Start-up, and Test Process---------------------17
2.2 Control for the 3Ф3W LCL Converter------------------------------19
2.2.1 Derivation of Current Control for the 3Ф3W LCL Converter------19
2.2.2 Communication, Test, and Start-up Process for Single and Multiple Converters-------------------------------------------------27
2.2.3 Derivation of Voltage Control for the 3Ф3W LCL Converter------27
2.2.4 Test and Start-up Process for the DC-bus Voltage Regulation---30
2.3 Discussion------------------------------------------------------31
CHAPTER 3 FILTER DESIGN---------------------------------------------33
3.1 LC Filter Design for the 3Ф4W Converter-------------------------33
3.1.1 Design Example with a 350 kVA 3Ф4W LC Converter---------------34
3.2 LCL Filter Design for the 3Ф3W Converter------------------------35
3.2.1 Converter-side Inductor Design--------------------------------36
3.2.2 Grid-side Inductor Design-------------------------------------41
3.2.3 Filter Capacitor Design---------------------------------------42
3.2.4 Limitations of the Designed Filter Parameters-----------------43
3.2.5 Filter Design Procedure---------------------------------------49
3.2.6 Design Example with a 33 kVA 3Ф3W LCL Converter---------------55
3.3 Discussion------------------------------------------------------58
CHAPTER 4 CURRENT TRACKING CAPABILITY AND STABILITY ANALYSES OF 3Ф4W LC AND 3Ф3W LCL CONVERTERS------------------------------------------59
4.1 Analyses of the 3Ф4W LC Converter-------------------------------60
4.1.1 Current Tracking Capability-----------------------------------61
4.1.2 System Stability----------------------------------------------65
4.1.3 Comparison of the Stability for Inductance Variation----------68
4.2 Analyses of the 3Ф3W LCL Converter------------------------------70
4.2.1 Derivation of Input-to-output Current Transfer Function-------71
4.2.2 Performance Comparison Between Two Types of Control Laws------78
4.2.3 Stability Comparison Between Coupled and Decoupled Analytical Approaches----------------------------------------------------------84
4.3 Discussion------------------------------------------------------95
CHAPTER 5 SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATIONS OF THE 3Ф4W LC AND 3Ф3W LCL CONVERTERS-------------------------------------------------96
5.1 Validation of the 3Φ4W LC Converter-----------------------------96
5.1.1 Practical Considerations and Solutions------------------------97
5.1.2 Power Injection and Current Tracking--------------------------99
5.1.3 DC-link Voltage Regulation-----------------------------------104
5.2 Validation of the 3Φ3W LCL Converter---------------------------107
5.2.1 Practical Considerations and Solutions-----------------------109
5.2.2 Power Injection with Two Scenarios---------------------------111
5.2.3 DC-link Voltage Regulation-----------------------------------117
5.2.4 Three Converters in Parallel---------------------------------121
5.3 Discussion-----------------------------------------------------126
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCHES------------------------128
6.1 Conclusions----------------------------------------------------128
6.2 Future Researches----------------------------------------------130
References---------------------------------------------------------132
VITA---------------------------------------------------------------143
PUBLICATIONS-------------------------------------------------------143
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