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研究生:曹宜蓁
研究生(外文):Tsao, Yi-chen
論文名稱:青春期育兒者轉大人~年輕母親的身分認同發展
論文名稱(外文):From Adolescent Parents to Adults: Identity Development of Young Mothers
指導教授:黃明月黃明月引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hwang, Ming-Yueh
口試委員:陳毓文張思嘉潘淑滿黃鴻文黃明月
口試委員(外文):Chen, Yu-WenChang, Szu-ChiaPan, Shu-ManHuang, Horng-WenHwang, Ming-Yueh
口試日期:2022-06-28
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:社會教育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:中文
論文頁數:198
中文關鍵詞:母職實踐身分認同抉擇主體性發展路徑
外文關鍵詞:lived experience of motherhoodself-identitydecision-makingsubjectivitydevelopment pathway
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在現今婚育年齡普遍延遲的晚熟世代中,「轉大人」成為探索與預備的漫長過程。然晚熟世代中存在著一群「青春期育兒者」,她們的經歷具有特殊性,卻鮮少被關注其邁入成年期的發展經驗,故此本研究以質性研究為取向尋求對其經驗之理解。本研究界定之研究參與者為曾於青春期階段生育子女並養育子女經歷達五年以上,且現已成年之未滿30 歲之年輕母親。研究目的一:探討年輕母親邁向成人期的發展經驗與軌跡、目的二:探討年輕母親承擔身分的界定與身分認同發展經驗。本研究以詮釋現象學方法論為主、以深度訪談法蒐集資料,透過半結構式的訪談綱要理解研究參與者對日常生活世界經驗的敘述。以主題分析法逐步分析及理解年輕母親的生活世界與觀點。
本研究發現:
一、 年輕母親邁向成人期的發展路徑係從生育為起點,由生養育抉擇、親密關
係/婚姻抉擇、生涯抉擇三股線交織成生命軌跡,並針對其發展路徑大致分為:1.以家庭為中心的個人生涯停滯型、2.家庭與個人生涯發展兼顧型、3.個人為中心之生涯持續發展型。
二、 從母職身分而延伸的多重角色建構出成人的樣式,母職身分雖非成人界定的單一指標,卻是成人身分的重要指認基礎。
三、 親密關係中的壓迫與終止喚起身分認同覺醒,當年輕母親從一段被壓迫的關係中作為抉擇的客體轉變為做擁有抉擇的自主性時,身分認同感也在轉換之中有著覺醒與發展的機會。
四、 年輕母親認同型塑的來源分成內在世界的後形式思維發展、.年輕母親對於特定記憶的挑選、智慧與成熟度的增長、宗教信仰及性別平等意識。外在世界包含原生家庭與成長之社區、族群文化、校園教育、伴侶及夫家、親子關係、經濟收入與財務自主性、職場環境、孩子的同儕家長與教育環境及社會支持度等。
五、 提早的母職不盡然是完全不利的影響,從脆弱轉換為堅實的「轉大人」路徑之關鍵為自我認同,擁有「選擇的自主性」經驗是重要關鍵,而成人的自我認同具有延展性的特質對曾經歷創傷或逆境者是彌補與療癒的可能機會。
本研究之建議如下:從生命歷程觀點設計適合身分友善轉銜的制度、從成人教育觀點提供友善的學習平台、性別平等教育推廣有助母職實踐與身分認同。
In a generation of late parenthood, in which women generally marry and give birth later in life, “becoming an adult” has become an extended process, allowing for exploration and preparation. Yet within this late-parenting generation, there is a demographic of adolescent mothers whose experiences of becoming adults rarely receive scholarly attention. This study seeks to understand the unique subjectivities of this demographic through qualitative research. Research participants are mothers over the age of 20 but under the age of 30 who raised children for at least five years.
Objectives: 1) To explore the experiences and development pathways of young mothers towards adulthood; and 2) to explore how these young mothers define their identities and the development of these identities. The study adopts hermeneutic phenomenological methodology, using semi-structured in-depth interviews to understand participants’ narratives of their everyday life experiences. The study uses thematic analysis to examine step-by-step, furthermore, to understand the lifeworlds and views of young mothers. Findings:
1. Young mothers’ pathway to adulthood starts when they give birth. Three strands of decisions regarding parenthood, intimate/marriage partners, and career path intertwine to form their life trajectories. Their development pathways largely fall into one of three categories: 1. Family-oriented, with career on hold; 2. Family and career pursued at the same time; and 3. Individual-oriented career development.
2. The participants’ models of adulthood are constructed from multiple roles flowing from the identity of mother. While motherhood is not the only indicator of adulthood, however, it is an important basis for constructing adulthood.
3. When a young mother leaves an abusive intimate partner relationship, she commonly experiences an awakening of identity. Her transformation from an object upon which decisions are made to an autonomous decision-making subject can encourage self-discovery and development of identity.
4. A young mother’s sense of identity is shaped by a number of sources. Internal sources include the development of post-formal thought, her selection of specific memories, increasing knowledge and maturity, religious beliefs, and understanding of gender equality. External sources include family and community background, culture, education, the background of partners and their families, parent-child relations, income and level of financial freedom, work environment, family background of the child’s peers and the child’s educational environment, and level of social support.
5. Early motherhood does not necessarily have a wholly negative influence on participants’ lives. Key to moving from a vulnerable status to a robust pathway into adulthood is self-identity. The experience of making autonomous decisions is vital. The adaptability of adult self-identity may be an opportunity for remedy and healing of trauma and adversity.
This study makes the following recommendations: from the life course perspective , design policies to encourage constructive transitions of identity; from the perspective of adult and continue education, provide friendly learning platforms; and promote gender equality education that supports young mothers’ lived experience and sense of identity.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與議題背景 2
第二節 研究目的與問題 11
第三節 名詞界定 13
第四節 研究流程 15
第二章 文獻探討 16
第一節 身分認同 16
第二節 成年期相關發展理論 30
第三節 青春期生育的本質與母職 43
第四節 青春期育兒者的發展階段與認同探討 51
第三章 研究設計 57
第一節 研究取向 57
第二節 研究參與者 61
第三節 資料蒐集 64
第四節 資料分析 68
第五節 研究倫理 72
第四章 年輕母親的生活圖像 75
第一節 成長背景 75
第二節 年輕母親的婚姻圖像 85
第三節 蜿蜒的就業路徑 101
第五章 母職的實踐與身分認同的形塑 110
第一節 未成年生育事件歷程與抉擇 110
第二節 母職的實踐經驗 121
第三節 母職的標準與認同形塑來源 143
第六章 年輕母親的快轉人生與身分認同的探索 147
第一節 年輕母親生命歷程中的重大事件 147
第二節 年輕母親的身分認同與轉變 153
第七章 結論與建議 161
第一節 討論 161
第二節 結論 168
第三節 建議 175
第四節 研究反思 180
參考文獻 183
附錄 193
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