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研究生:陳曉微
研究生(外文):Chen, Hsiao-Wei
論文名稱:漢語中的動詞懸置空補語
論文名稱(外文):Verb-stranding Null Complements in Mandarin Chinese
指導教授:颯楊颯楊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Fernandez-Salgueiro, Gerardo
口試委員:颯楊吳曉虹劉啟明
口試委員(外文):Fernandez-Salgueiro, GerardoWu, Hsiao-hung IrisLiu, Chi-Ming Louis
口試日期:2022-01-14
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:英文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:動詞懸置結構論元刪略語意拷貝空指代補語空主語
外文關鍵詞:V-stranding constructionsargument ellipsisLF-copyingNCAPRO
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作為論元刪除分析的延伸,此論文探究漢語動詞懸置結構中的空補語,並將其分類為名詞型、動詞型以及句子型。有一個現象是值得關注的,即於動詞懸置的空缺中,先行詞的某部份意思無法被理解到。從語意拷貝(LF-copying)的角度而言,先行詞中的語義只被部分複製到刪略位置。根據此現象,我發現 (1)對於名詞性空補語,指示限定詞的存在與否可以預測數量附加語(adjunct)是否被包含在空缺中;(2)動詞性空補語並無法存在。
不論是否有明顯的主詞、或是空主語 (PRO),句子型空補語大多為 CP。根據Radford (2004) 的系統,這些補語的動詞為控制動詞或義務情態詞。只有少部分句子型空補語為 TP,即例外格位標記動詞 (ECM verbs) 的補語。針對句子型空補語有以下觀察:(1)所懸置的動詞不受 Goldberg (2015) 的相同動詞要求 (Verbal Identity Requirement) 所限制;(2)其和簡答句的對應性;(3)和時態標記符號的並存。最後,此文也探討了句子型空補語為空指代補語 (null complement anaphora) 的可能性。抽取測試 (extraction test) 以及其他證據指向一個深層回指 (deep anaphora) 和淺層回指 (surface anaphora)並存於句子型空補語中的狀況。總體而言,基於動詞懸置空補語的複雜性,此文認同以綜合的分析來處理之。
As an extension of the argument ellipsis approach, this thesis surveys Verb-stranding null complements in Mandarin Chinese, which are categorized as: nominal, verbal, and clausal. It is shown that the interpretations of some materials may be left-out of the V-stranding gap. From the LF-copying perspective, logical forms of the antecedent are only partial reduplicated to the ellipsis site. With this phenomenon, I argue (a) for the null nominal complements that, the presence of demonstrative determiners predicts the in/exclusion of quantity adjuncts in the gaps and (b) the nonexistence of the null verbal complements.
In addition, the null clausal complements are recognized mainly as CPs, either with an explicit subject or a PRO. They are headed by control lexical verbs or deontic modals, pace Radford (2004). Only a limited number of null clausal complements are TPs, i.e., those headed by ECM verbs. Some features of null CP complements are observed: (a) the freedom of stranded V from Goldberg’s (2015) Verbal Identity Requirement; (b) the analogy to short answers; (c) the co-occurrence of aspectual markers. Lastly, the possibility of the CP gaps being null complement anaphora (the so-called NCA) is also considered. With extraction test and other evidence, I conclude that the V-stranding null clausal complements are comprised of a fusion of deep/surface anaphora. Altogether, this thesis comes to support an integrated approach to V-stranding complement gaps.
Chapter 1. Introduction, Goals, and Outline 1
1.1 Missing Nominals 2
1.2 Setting Object Gaps apart from Null Subjects 4
1.3 The Debate on Ellipsis Structures 7
1.4 Research objectives and organization 9
Chapter 2. Previous Analyses on Null Complements 10
2.1 Topic-variable 10
2.2 VP ellipsis 12
2.3 Truly empty categories 14
2.4 Argument ellipsis 14
2.5 Cheng's (2013) Integrated View 19
Chapter 3. Null Complements with Different Syntactic Categories 22
3.1 Missing Nominal Complements 22
3.2 Missing VP Complements after a Stranded V 26
3.2.1 Chinese Serial Verb Constructions 26
3.2.2 Voice mismatch 30
3.3 Missing CP/TP complements after a stranded V 32
3.3.1 Not TPs, but CPs - considering PRO 32
3.3.2 Three Characteristics of null clausal complement 37
3.3.2.1 The assistance of aspectual markers 37
3.3.2.2 The parallel with short answers 40
3.3.2.3 Verbal Identity Requirement 41
3.3.3 Another possibility: null complement anaphora 45
Chapter 4. Conclusion 52
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