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研究生:Marketa Lepicovsky
研究生(外文):Marketa Lepicovsky
論文名稱:Fear Versus Anxiety: How Emotions Drive Consumer Panic Buying Behavior Under Moderating Effects of Construal Level and COVID Denial
論文名稱(外文):Fear Versus Anxiety: How Emotions Drive Consumer Panic Buying Behavior Under Moderating Effects of Construal Level and COVID Denial
指導教授:謝亦泰謝亦泰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Tai Seih
口試委員:張譯尹陳崇文張硯評張仁和
口試委員(外文):Yi-Ying ChangChung-wen ChenYen-Ping ChangJen-Ho Chang
口試日期:2022-01-12
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:企業管理系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:英文
論文頁數:144
中文關鍵詞:Panic BuyingNegative EmotionsFearAnxietyConstrual Level TheoryCOVID Denial
外文關鍵詞:Panic BuyingNegative EmotionsFearAnxietyConstrual Level TheoryCOVID Denial
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隨著COVID-19 全球性的持續爆發,恐慌性購買成為消費者、零售商與決策者面臨的新議題。這種行為是指當面臨威脅時所體驗之強烈負向情緒所產生的反應,但恐懼(fear)和焦慮(anxiety)這兩種有所關聯卻又分離的情緒對恐慌性購買的影響尚未經實驗檢驗。 人們會因為COVID-19 疫情的流行,透過負向情緒的形式造成心理壓力(主要是恐懼和焦慮)。此外,這些情緒可能與具體的威脅有關,例如生病,或者與較模糊或抽象的威脅有關,例如限制和封城。在解釋水平理論的借鑑下,先前的研究發現操弄具體與抽象兩組心態的受測者,他們在原先密切相關的情緒上產生了差異的結果。因此,本研究透過解釋水平理論來探討恐懼和焦慮對消費者恐慌性購買影響之間的差異。研究 1 使用調查方法來檢驗恐懼、焦慮和恐慌性購買之間的關係。結果表明,恐懼和焦慮是恐慌性購買的唯一預測因素,與焦慮相比,恐懼更具有預測效果。研究 2 和研究 3在解釋水平的交互作用下進行實驗來測試恐懼與焦慮,而解釋水平被操作化為具體與抽象心態的量化變數。最後,在研究 3 中,COVID 否定是一種與恐慌性購買以及防疫忽視相關的新興的現象,看似矛盾的行為,被視為恐慌性購買的情緒和解釋水平之間相互作用的額外調節因素。本研究也討論了理論和實踐意義。
Panic buying, which accompanied the outbreak of the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, emerged as a novel problematic issue for consumers, retailers, and policy makers. The behavior is considered to be a reaction to strong negative emotions experienced when facing a threat, but effects of fear and anxiety, two related yet discrete emotions have not been experimentally examined in relation to panic buying. The COVID-19 pandemic causes psychological strain in the form of negative emotions, primarily fear and anxiety. Moreover, these emotions may be related to specific and concrete threats, such as becoming ill, or to threats that are more ambiguous or abstract in nature, such restrictions and lockdowns. Guided by the construal level theory, previous research found adopting a concrete versus abstract mindset leads to differences in outcomes of closely related emotions. Therefore, this research applies the construal level theory to tease apart differences between the effects of fear and anxiety on consumer panic buying. Study 1 uses a survey method to examine relationships between fear, anxiety, and panic buying. Results show that fear and anxiety uniquely predict panic buying, and that fear is a stronger predictor compared to anxiety. Studies 2 and 3 utilize an experiment designed to test fear versus anxiety under an interaction effect with construal level, operationalized as a concrete (abstract) mindset. Finally, in Study 3, COVID denial, a novel phenomenon associated with panic buying as well as defiance of pandemic prevention measures, seemingly incongruent behaviors, is examined as an additional moderator of the interaction between emotion and construal level on panic buying. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
論文摘要 IV
ABSTRACT V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII
LIST OF TABLES XI
LIST OF FIGURES XII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 Panic Buying 5
2.1.1 Similarities With Other Consumer Phenomena 6
2.1.2 Indicators of Panic Buying 7
2.2 Negative Emotions 8
2.2.1 Emotional Response to Threat 9
2.2.2 Discrete Negative Emotions Fear and Anxiety 10
2.3 Construal Level Theory 13
2.3.1 A Construal Level Theory Perspective on Threat 14
2.3.2 Emotions Interact with Construal Level 16
2.4 COVID Denial 19
2.5 Summary of This Research 21
CHAPTER 3 PILOT STUDY 23
3.1 Method 24
3.1.1 Participants 24
3.1.2 Procedure 24
3.1.3 Measures 26
3.1.4 Manipulation Check 27
3.2 Results 29
3.2.1 Correlation Analyses 29
3.2.2 Reliability 31
3.2.3 Convergent Validity 31
3.2.4 Panic Buying 31
3.3 Discussion 34
CHAPTER 4 STUDY 1 35
4.1 Method 36
4.1.1 Participants 36
4.1.2 Procedure 36
4.1.3 Measures 37
4.2 Results 38
4.2.1 Descriptive Statistics and Correlations 38
4.2.2 Reliability and Validity 38
4.2.3 Hypotheses Testing With Regression Analysis 39
4.3 Discussion 43
CHAPTER 5 STUDY 2 45
5.1 Method 47
5.1.1 Participants 47
5.1.2 Procedure 48
5.1.3 Materials and Measures 48
5.1.4 Manipulation of Emotion and Construal Level 48
5.1.5 A Composite Measure of Panic Buying 49
5.1.6 Manipulation Checks 52
5.2 Results 56
5.3 Discussion 58
CHAPTER 6 STUDY 3 62
6.1 Method 63
6.1.1 Participants 63
6.1.2 Procedure 64
6.1.3 Materials and Measures 64
6.1.3.1 COVID Denial 64
6.1.3.2 Manipulation of Emotion and Construal Level 66
6.1.3.3 A Revised Composite Measure 67
6.1.3.4 Manipulation Checks 68
6.2 Results 71
6.3 Discussion 75
CHAPTER 7 DISCUSSION 78
7.1 Theoretical Contributions 79
7.1.1 Fear and Anxiety as Discrete Emotions 80
7.1.2 Extending the Construal Level Theory 80
7.1.3 Panic Buying Construct 82
7.1.4 COVID Denial as a Consumer Segment 83
7.2 Practical Implications 83
7.2.1 Distinguishing Fear from Anxiety 83
7.2.2 Indicators of Panic Buying 84
7.3 Limitations and Future Directions 85
7.4 Conclusion 86
REFERENCES 88
APPENDIX A PILOT STUDY MATERIALS 116
APPENDIX B STUDY 1 MATERIALS 121
APPENDIX C STUDY 2 MATERIALS 124
APPENDIX D STUDY 3 MATERIALS 128
AUTHOR INFORMATION 132
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