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研究生:李博宬
研究生(外文):Bo-Cheng Li
論文名稱:結合漸進式領域自適應與圖像聚類之物件偵測法
論文名稱(外文):Incremental Domain Adaptation with Image Clustering for Object Detection
指導教授:方文賢陳郁堂
指導教授(外文):Wen-Hsien FangYie-Tarng Chen
口試委員:方文賢陳郁堂賴坤財丘建青呂政修
口試委員(外文):Wen-Hsien FangYie-Tarng ChenKuen-Tsair LayChien-Ching ChiuJenq-Shiou Leu
口試日期:2022-08-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:英文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:物件偵測領域自適應卷積神經網路鑑別器圖片風格轉換
外文關鍵詞:Object detectionDomain adaptationCNNDiscriminatorImage style-transfer
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在傳統未加入領域自適應的監督式學習中,需要仰賴大量的標記數據集來進行訓練,但是標記圖像必須花費許多的人力和時間,且監督學習模型在測試來自不同分佈的圖像時效果也並不理想。為了實現跨越各種場景的物件偵測,模型需要有能力適應訓練和測試數據集之間的領域變化。領域自適應是一種透過學習含有標記的數據集,再將其知識適應到未標記的目標數據集上的方法。然而,領域間的域差讓這個任務變得非常有挑戰性。我們在本論文一種新方法來減輕域差所帶來的影響,其中包含了圖像聚類和漸進式領域自適應。首先,我們使用圖像聚類將源域圖像分配到具有高圖像相似度的集合,從而確保我們輸入到隨後領域自適應流程中的標記圖像之間沒有太大的域差。接下來,我們會實施漸式領域自適應法,其包含兩個步驟。第一步是從源數據和目標數據生成一組風格轉換的圖像,並將這些圖像視為傳遞域。第二步是執行兩階段的領域自適應,先從源域適應到傳遞域,再從傳遞域適應到目標域。如此一來,領域自適應網絡的訓練就可以避免直接橫跨源域和目標域之間顯著的域差。實驗結果顯示我們提出的新方法在虛擬到現實、不同相機角度、不同天氣和城市場景的數據集上都有令人滿意的表現。
The traditional supervised learning without domain adaptation relies on a huge number of bounding box annotations. Making annotations for images cost a lot of manpower and time. Also, supervised learning models do not work well on testing images which are from different distribution. To achieve accurate object detection across a variety of scenarios, the model needs to be adaptable to the domain shifts between the training and test data. Domain adaptation is a method that learns to adapt from the labeled source data to the unlabeled target testing data. However, the domain gap in general makes the task challenging. In this thesis, we consider a new approach which consists of two parts, image clustering and incremental adaptation, to mitigate the impact of domain gap. First, we use a density-based image clustering scheme to distribute the source domain images into a collection of groups with high visual similarity. Thereby, there is no excessive domain gap between the input labeled images in the succeeding domain adaptation process. Afterwards, we consider a new incremental adaptation scheme which consists of two step. The first step is to generate a set of style-transferred images from the source and target data, which are considered as the transitive domain. The second step is to use a two-stage domain adaptation to conduct domain adaptation from the source domain to transitive domain, followed by domain adaptation from the transitive domain to target domain. As the result, the adaptation network can avoid training across a significant domain gap between the source and target domains. Experimental results show that the new approach can produce satisfactory performance in the virtual to real, cross camera and different weather or city scenes.
摘要 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Table of contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
List of Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1 Object Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 Domain Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3 Domain Adaptation for Object Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.4 Density-based Image Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.5 Image Style Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3 Proposed Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1 Proposed Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2 Density-based Image Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3 Incremental Domain Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.1 Transitive Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.2 Adaptation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.4 Loss Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.4.1 Detection Network Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.4.2 Domain Discriminator Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.4.3 Loss Function for Overall Adversarial Training . . . . . . 17
3.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4 Experimental Results and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.1 Dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.1.1 Cityscapes Dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.1.2 Cityscapes Foggy Dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1.3 Sim10k Dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.4 Kitti Dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.1.5 BDD100k Dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.2 Experimental Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.3 Evaluation Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.4 Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.4.1 Weather Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.4.2 Virtual to Real Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.4.3 Scene Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.4.4 Cross Camera Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.5 Failure Cases and Error Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.5.1 Similar Appearance of Different Class Objects . . . . . . . 37
4.5.2 Identification Accuracy of Major Classes . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5 Conclusion and Future Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.1 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.2 Future Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
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