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研究生:Gokana Mohana Rani
研究生(外文):Gokana Mohana Rani
論文名稱:回收廢料和多孔材料應用於奈米摩擦發電裝置之開發與其於綠色潔淨能源捕獲之研究
論文名稱(外文):Development of Recycled Waste and Porous Materials Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator Devices for Green and Clean Energy Harvesting
指導教授:吳昌謀
指導教授(外文):Chang-Mou Wu
口試委員:清大吳志明吳昌謀張志宇蕭育生邱方遒鄭國彬郭霽慶
口試委員(外文):Jyh-Ming WuChang-Mou WuChih-Yu ChangYu-Sheng HsiaoFang-Chyou ChiuKou-Bin ChengChi-Ching Kuo
口試日期:2022-07-18
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:材料科學與工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:英文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:聚氨酯能量收集摩擦納米發電機廢料回收利用廢物振動和聲能
外文關鍵詞:PolyurethaneEnergy harvestingTriboelectric nanogeneratorWaste materialsRecyclingWaste vibration and sound energy
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多孔聚氨酯(PU)膜被廣泛用作摩擦電正極材料為開發具有經濟效益的方法仍然是科學領域的一大挑戰。另一方面,全球人們正面臨著塑料和廢棄廢料的嚴重環境問題。在這種情況下,將廢物轉化為能源是處理塑料和廢料的最有潛力的方法。在此,本論文重點介紹了多孔 PU 膜的經濟效益高的製備方法以及利用回收的廢料產生電能。回收材料用於製造摩擦納米發電機 (TENG) 裝置。隨著開發的 TENG 裝置,使機械能被轉化為電能。
本論文共分為6章。第一章描述了研究的緒論、研究動機及目的。第二章是關於TENG的背景和文獻綜述。在第三章中,我們展示了一種新型且具經濟效益的方法利用具有柔性、輕質、且多孔的薄 PU 膜製備 TENG 設備。在這裡,我們顯著地調整了 PU 膜的孔徑和尺寸厚度。由 5 µm 厚度和 15 µm 孔徑的多孔 PU 膜構成的基於PU的TENG 元件在施加外力4N下產生的最大峰值輸出電壓為 58.5 V,且其對應的峰值電流為 1.37 µA,功率密度為 9.7 mW / m2。當使用串聯連接時,所製造的設備能點亮 24 個綠色商用發光二極管 (LED)。此外,TENG 設備也能成功啟動迷你定時器時鐘的 LCD。且製造的TENG元件表現出穩定的循環充電和放電行為。這種類型的表現對於實際應用上非常重要。因此,還對製造的 TENG 裝置測試了從人體運動產生之能量進行收集。所開發的元件製成方便且非常容易。因此,批量生產是可能的。
在第四章中,我們提出了利用廢棄塑料材料作為負摩擦電材料和廢棄香煙過濾嘴(CFs)作為正摩擦電材料的 TENG 元件開發。其製造的 CF-TENG 設備展示了優秀的電輸出性能。特別是,尺寸為 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm 的裝置在外加壓力10 N 且0.1 Hz 的頻率下可產生 0.86 μA和 42.8 V 之電流電壓。在 40 MΩ 負載電阻下,TENG 元件產生的最大輸出功率密度為 63.2 mW/m2。所製造的 CF-TENG 設備在收集能量下可以點亮 44 個 LED 和便攜式計時器的 LCD顯示螢幕。這表明 CF-TENG 設備具有作為便攜式電子設備供電的潛力。並研究了製造的 CF-TENG 裝置在日常生活中的實際應用,從實驗室離心機中收集振動能量。這項研究為基於廢棄材料的 TENG 可用於環境修復、綠色和可再生能源的生產開創了道路。
在第五章中,我們研究了一種利用廢棄碳纖維材料和塑料廢料分別作為正負摩擦材料的新型聲能採集裝置的設計。進一步地,將非常少量(0.1 wt%)的碳納米管(CNT)添加到 CF 中,以觀察 TENG 器件的能量收集性能的變化。令我們驚訝的是,添加了 CNT 的 TENG 器件顯示出卓越的能量收集性能。製造的設備可以有效地點亮 50 個綠色 LED,並為便攜式計時器的 LCD 顯示器供電。 CF-CNT-TENG 元件在各種外加壓力下表現出強大的電性能,並表現出長期穩定性。所製造的TENG器件可利用聲音進行驅動,可在 100 Hz 至 400 Hz 的頻率範圍內穩定工作。我們認為本研究將為綠色能源及環境修復開創新的道路。第六章總結了本論文的結論。
Porous polyurethane (PU) membrane is widely used as triboelectric positive material. The development of cost-effective procedures is still a great challenge in the scientific field. On the other hand, globally people are facing severe environmental problems with plastics and discarded waste materials. In this scenario, the conversion of waste to energy is the most potential procedure to deal with plastics and waste materials. Herein, the current dissertation highlights the cost-effective preparation methods of porous PU membranes and the utilization of recycled waste materials to generate the electrical energy. The recycled materials were used to fabricate the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) device. With the developed TENG device mechanical energy was harvested and converted into electrical energy.
This thesis is divided into 6 chapters. The first chapter describes the introduction, motivation, and objective of the study. The second chapter specifies the background and literature review. In the third chapter, we demonstrated the development of a cost-effective, novel, and scalable preparation procedure of a flexible, light-weight, porous, and thin PU membrane for the fabrication of a TENG device. Herein, we significantly tuned the pore and size thickness of the PU membrane. The developed PU-based TENG device with the porous polyurethane membrane of 5 µm and 15 µm pore size produced a peak-to-peak output voltage of 58.5 V with a corresponding peak to peak current of 1.37 µA at 4 N and power density of 9.7 mW/m2. Fabricated device was used to light 24 green commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and light up in brighter conditions. Moreover, the TENG device was used to turn on a liquid crystal display (LCD) and it has the potential to display a mini timer clock LCD. The fabricated device also demonstrated stable cyclic discharging and charging behavior, which is important for the real-time applications. Additionally, the energy generating performance of fabricated TENG device was also verified for the body movements, and its present outstanding energy harvesting property from human motion indicates its promising candidacy in smart textiles. The developed industrially compatible procedure is convenient, and easy and mass production is also possible.
In the fourth chapter, we proposed on the fabrication of a TENG device using plastic wastes as the negative tribo material and discarded cigarette filters (CFs) as the positive tribo material and fabricated a CF-TENG device. The developed CF-TENG device demonstrated exceptional electrical output performance. Particularly, the TENG device with a 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm dimension generated 0.86 μA current and 42.8 V voltage under the10 N compression force with a 0.1 Hz frequency. The fabricated TENG device produced a maximum output power density of 63.2 mW/m2 at 40 MΩ load resistance. The energy generated by the synthesized CF-TENG device can light up 44 LEDs and display an LCD of a portable timer clock. This specifies the potential applicability of the CF-TENG device to power the portable electronics. Real-time applicability of the fabricated CF-TENG device in daily life was examined to harvest waste vibration energy from the laboratory centrifuge and the findings display that the device can harvest 3 V an output voltage. Hence, this work paves the way for the design of waste materials-based TENG for the environmental remediation, and generation of green and renewable energy.
In the fifth chapter, we considered the design of a novel sound energy acquisition device by utilizing discarded CFs and the plastic waste materials as positive and negative tribo materials, respectively. Furthermore, very small amounts (0.1 wt%) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to the CFs, to evaluate their effect on the energy harvesting performance of the TENG device. To our surprise, the CNTs incorporated in the TENG device have shown exceptional energy harvesting performance. The fabricated device can efficiently light 50 green LEDs and power the LCD of a portable timer clock. CF-CNT-TENG device exhibited excellent electrical output performances under various compressive forces and long-term stability. Developed device can be used as a sound-driven TENG that can work stably in broad bandwidths ranging from 100 Hz to 400 Hz and 4.6 V and 130 nA current can be harvested from the waste sound. Thus, we anticipate that the present study will pave the way for a green environment in using waste material for waste energy harvesting which could play a crucial role in environmental remediation and solving energy shortages. In the sixth chapter, the overall works of this study were concluded.
大綱 I
Abstract III
Acknowledgments VI
Table of content VIII
List of Figures XII
List of Tables XVIII
Chapter 1 1
1.1 Introduction and background 1
1.2. Motivation and objectives of the study 7
Chapter 2 10
2.0 Literature Review 10
2.1. Energy Harvesting 10
2.2. Triboelectric Nanogenerators 14
2.3. Mechanism of Triboelectric Nanogenerators 15
2.4. Triboelectric Series 19
2.5. Applications of TENG 21
2.5.1. Harvesting Vibration Energy 23
2.5.2. Harvesting Energy from the Human Body Motions 24
2.5.3. Self Powered Active Force Sensors/Strain Sensors 25
2.5.4. Active Self-Powered Chemical Sensors 25
2.6. Surface Engineering Techniques 26
2.6.1. Micro/Nano Surface Structuring 26
2.6.1.1. Photolithography Approach 27
2.6.1.2. Ultrafast Laser Patterning Approach 28
2.7. Fabrication of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Foams 30
2.8. Natural Polymers based TENG 32
2.8.1. Protein-based bio-TENGs 34
2.8.2. Polysaccharide based bio-TENGs 37
2.9. Recycled Waste Materials based TENG 43
2.10. Carbon Nanotubes based TENG 47
Chapter 3 49
Scalable preparation of ultrathin porous polyurethane membrane based triboelectric nanogenerator for mechanical energy harvesting
49
3.1. Introduction 49
3.2. Experimental 52
3.2.1. Materials 52
3.2.2. Fabrication of porous PU membranes with different thicknesses 52
3.2.3. Fabrication of TENG device 53
3.2.4. Characterization 53
3.3. Results and discussion 54
3.4. Conclusions 66
Chapter 4.0 67
Waste-to-energy: Utilization of recycled waste materials to fabricate triboelectric nanogenerator for mechanical energy harvesting 67
4.1. Introduction 67
4.2. Experimental section 71
4.2.1. Materials and methods 71
4.2.2. Fabrication of the CF-TENG 72
4.2.3. Characterization 73
4.3. Results and discussion 73
4.3.1 Characterization 73
4.3.1.1 Field emission scanning electron microscopy 73
4.3.1.2. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy 74
4.3.2. Working mechanism of the developed TENG 76
4.3.3. Study of electrical output behaviors 78
4.3.4. Real time practical applications of the fabricated CF-PTFE TENG in daily life 83
4.4. Conclusions 87

Chapter 5: Innovative and nature-driven triboelectric nanogenerator for energy harvesting from sound energy 88
5.1. Introduction 88
5.2 Experimental 91
5.2.1. Materials and methods 91
5.2.2. Preparation of CF-CNT composite film 92
5.2.3. Fabrication of the CF-CNT-PTFE TENG device ……………………......93
5.2.4. Characterization techniques …………………………………………….93
5.3. Results and discussion ………………………………………………………93
5.4. Conclusions ………………………………………………………………….104
Chapter 6: Conclusions and outlook ……………………………………………….105
6.1. Conclusions ………………………………………………………………….105
6.2. Outlook ………………………………………………………………………107
References ………………………………………………………………………….109
Appendix …………………………………………………………………………...143
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