( 您好!臺灣時間:2023/09/25 13:45
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::


研究生(外文):Ricardo Neftali Pontaza Rodas
論文名稱(外文):Post-quantum Algebraic Cryptography Algorithms Designed and Developed for the Internet of Things Eco-systems
指導教授(外文):Lin, Ying-Dar
口試委員(外文):Yang, Bo-YinChou, TungChung, Kai-MinLai, Yuan-ChengTzeng, Wen-GueyLai, Ching-Yi
外文關鍵詞:Cryptographic protocolsO2MD2Post-quantumMultiplicative InverseM2MID-spoofingOne-way Hash FunctionHomomorphismuser authentication
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:138
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:14
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0

我們的第一個項目是 O2MD2 密碼系統,它是Ring Learning With Errors(RLWE)問題,結合環中的算術函數和單向雜湊函數作為其安全基礎,該系統提供具有分佈式密鑰刷新的一對多私鑰/公鑰架構,它具有三種不同的框架,可達到 AES-256 等效安全性,並提供消息完整性和真實性驗證,我們還提出了六種不同的實現,它們達到了 NIST 後量子密碼標準化項目中提出的安全級別 1、3 和 5,最後,我們使用 NIST 統計測試套件來驗證我們生成密文對抗隨機生成干擾的不可區分性。

我們的第二個項目提出了O2MD2 密碼系統的兩個概念可行性驗證fixed-point FPGA 實現,其中計算了整數陣列多項式乘法逆運算的符號封閉形式解,它被嵌入到一個預先計算好的表中,從而產生 O2MD2 密鑰生成、加密和解密算法,同時在所有模塊中保持定點運算,第一個實現在加密和解密時的吞吐量分別為 473.875 Mbps 和 448.129 Mbps,而第二個實現的吞吐量分別為 416.56 Mbps 和 335.35 Mbps,我們展示了三種算法的總gate count、估計的時脈週期、綜合後和實施後的時序分析,以及實現的延遲和間隔,最後,我們將我們的硬件實現與其對應的軟件以及 NTRU 框架系列的硬件實現進行速度比較。

我們第三個項目介紹了信任鏈身份驗證協議 (DHCT) 框架中的分佈式雜湊,該框架基於挑戰執行分佈式及動態雜湊基礎的使用者身份驗證。每個挑戰對於每次通信嘗試都是獨一無二的,並為控制面帶來安全性,防止暴力、字典和重放攻擊。DHCT 框架以線性時間運行,創建一個信任鏈,其中消息僅通過受信任的實體傳輸,並提供重新握手協議,使得當用戶重新連接到網絡時,無需再次執行整個握手。在測試環境中,DHCT 框架允許受信任的實體忽略和丟棄來自假用戶的通信嘗試,並保持信任鏈以在受信任的用戶之間進行通信。

我們最後的項目提出了基於單向雜湊和同態基礎的物聯網設備供應鏈安全協議 (OHSA) 框架,該框架允許硬件製造商向供應鏈中的其他製造商提供對硬件組件內部數據的訪問,而不需明確披露嵌入的憑據。 OHSA 框架使用憑證的metadata和meta-meta data工作,允許硬件組件授權用戶,通過密封-解密封-重新密封(seal-deseal-reseal)保護firmware更新。在測試環境中,OHSA 框架不僅可以檢測損壞的firmware更新,還可以通過firmware安全封條檢測來自未經授權製造商的有效更新。
Polynomial-time attacks designed to run on quantum computers and capable of breaking traditional cryptographic protocols are already known. Quantum-strong algorithms capable of providing data integrity, messages confidentiality, user authentication and authorization are highly desirable. In order to design quantum-strong protocols with these capabilities, new approaches on how to use well-known cryptographic tools should be explored. In this work, we present four different results where one-way hash functions used in a clever way with additional mathematical objects like homomorphisms, symbolic computed closed-form solutions, polynomial rings and many more can provide the required capabilities.

Our first work is the O2MD2 cryptosystem, which uses the ring learning with errors (RLWE) problem combined with arithmetic functions and one-way hash functions in rings as its security basis. This system provides a one-to-many private/public key architecture with a distributed key refresh. It has three different frameworks that reach AES-256 equivalent security, and provides message integrity and authenticity verifications. We also propose six different implementations that reach the security levels 1, 3 and 5 proposed in the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization project. Finally, we used the NIST Statistical Test Suite to verify the indistinguishability of our produced ciphertexts against randomly generated noise.

Our second work presents two proof-of-concept fixed-point FPGA implementations of the O2MD2 cryptosystem, where the symbolic closed-form solution of the polynomial multiplicative inverse of an array of integers was calculated. It was embedded in a library of pre-computed tables, yielding as result the O2MD2 key generation, encryption and decryption algorithms, while maintaining a fixed-point arithmetic throughout all the modules. The first implementation has a throughput of 473.875 Mbps and 448.129 Mbps while encrypting and decrypting, while the second has a throughput of 416.56 Mbps and 335.35 Mbps, respectively. We show the total gates count, the estimated clock cycles, timing analysis for post-synthesis and post-implementation of the three algorithms, and achieved latencies and intervals. Finally, we present a speed comparison of our hardware implementation versus its software counterpart, and against hardware implementations of the NTRU frameworks family.

Our third work introduces the Distributed Hashing in Chain-of-Trust Authentication Protocols (DHCT) framework, which performs a distributed and dynamic hash-based user authentication based on challenges. Each challenge is unique for each communication attempt, and brings security to the control plane, preventing brute-force, dictionary and replay attacks. The DHCT framework runs in linear time, creates a chain-of-trust where messages are transported only via trusted entities, and provides a re-handshake protocol which makes unnecessary to perform a whole handshake over again when a user reconnects to the network. In test environments, the DHCT framework allowed trusted entities to ignore and discard communication attempts from fake users and keep a chain-of-trust to communicate between trusted ones.

Our final work presents the One-way Hash and Homomorphisms-based Protocol for Supply Chain Security in IoT Devices (OHSA) framework, which allows to hardware manufacturers to provide access to other manufacturers down in the supply chain to the inner data of the hardware components, without explicitly disclosing the embedded credentials. The OHSA framework works using metadata and meta-metadata of the credentials, allowing the hardware components to authorize users, protecting firmware updates by means of a seal-deseal-reseal. In test environments, the OHSA framework can detect not only corrupted firmware updates, but also valid updates coming from unauthorized manufacturers, by means of the firmware security seal.

摘要 i
Abstract iii
Contents v
List of Tables x
List of Figures xiii

1 Introduction 1
1.1 Roadmap 3
1.2 O2MD2: A new post-quantum cryptosystem with one-to-many distributed key management based on prime modulo double encapsulation 5
1.3 A Closed-form Solution to Polynomial Ring Multiplicative Inverses: an FPGA Implementation of the Post Quantum O2MD2 Cryptosystem 12
1.4 DHCT: Distributed Hashing in Chain-of-Trust Authentication Protocols for Secure M2M Communications 14

2 O2MD2: A new post-quantum cryptosystem with one-to-many distributed key management based on prime modulo double encapsulation 16
2.1 Introduction 16

2.2 Related work 19
2.3 Problem statement and solution overview 24
2.4 Solution 28
2.5 Proof of correctness 46
2.6 Security analysis 53
2.7 Performance analysis 66
2.8 Conclusion and future work 66
2.9 Appendix - Example 69

3 A Closed-form Solution to Polynomial Ring Multiplicative Inverses: an FPGA Implementation of the Post-Quantum O2MD2 Cryptosystem 73
3.1 Introduction 73
3.2 Background 75
3.3 Problem statement and solution overview 78
3.4 Hardware design 83
3.5 Hardware implementation 95
3.6 Experimental Results and Performance Analysis 99
3.7 Conclusions and future work 106

4 DHCT: Distributed Hashing in Chain-of-Trust Authentication Protocols for Secure M2M Communications 108
4.1 Introduction 108
4.2 Background 112
4.3 Problem Statement 115
4.4 The DHCT Framework 116
4.5 Proof of correctness 128
4.6 Analysis 132
4.7 Implementation and Performance Evaluation 135
4.8 Conclusions and future work 139

5 OHSA: One-way Hash and Homomorphisms-based Protocol for Supply Chain Security in IoT Devices 140
5.1 Introduction 140
5.2 Background 141
5.3 Problem Statement 144
5.4 Solution 144
5.5 Performance Evaluation 152
5.6 Conclusions and Future Work 152

6 Conclusions and Future Work 153
6.1 Conclusions 153
6.2 Future Work 155

A O2MD2: Additional Examples 156
A.1 Introduction 156
A.2 Preliminaries 156
A.3 Example 157
A.4 Multiple sessions 167
A.5 Conclusions 170
A.6 Appendix 170

B O2MD2: MATLAB Library 1.0 & c Implementation User Manual 174
B.1 Introduction 174
B.2 MATLAB Library 174
B.3 MATLAB: Installation 184
B.4 MATLAB: Execution 184
B.5 MATLAB: Results 184
B.6 c implementation 193

References 207

[1] Dennis Hofheinz, Kathrin Hövelmanns, and Eike Kiltz. “A modular analysis of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation”. In: Theory of Cryptography Conference. Springer. 2017, pp. 341–371.

[2] Daniel J Bernstein et al. “Quantum algorithms for the subset-sum problem”. In: International Workshop on Post-Quantum Cryptography. Springer. 2013, pp. 16–33.

[3] Peter W Shor. “Algorithms for quantum computation: Discrete logarithms and factoring”. In: Foundations of Computer Science, 1994 Proceedings., 35th Annual Symposium on. IEEE. 1994, pp. 124–134.

[4] Stephane Beauregard. “Circuit for Shor’s algorithm using 2n+3 qubits”. In: arXiv preprint quant-ph/0205095 (2002). Available at https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0205095.

[5] Lov K Grover. “A fast quantum mechanical algorithm for database search”. In: Proceedings of the twenty-eighth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing. ACM. 1996, pp. 212–219.

[6] Markus Grassl et al. “Applying Grover’s algorithm to AES: quantum resource estimates”. In: International Workshop on Post-Quantum Cryptography. Springer. 2016, pp. 29–43.

[7] Miklós Ajtai. “Generating hard instances of lattice problems”. In: Proceedings of the twenty-eighth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing. 1996, pp. 99–108.

[8] Miklós Ajtai and Cynthia Dwork. “A public-key cryptosystem with worst-case/averagecase equivalence”. In: Proceedings of the twenty-ninth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing. 1997, pp. 284–293.

[9] Johannes Buchmann and Jintai Ding. “Post-quantum cryptography”. In: Second International Workshop, PQCrypto. 2008, pp. 17–19.

[10] Oded Regev. “On lattices, learning with errors, random linear codes, and cryptography”. In: Journal of the ACM (JACM) 56.6 (2009), pp. 1–40.

[11] Daniel J Bernstein. “Comparing proofs of security for lattice-based encryption”. In: target 1 (2019), p. 2.

[12] Jeff Hoffstein et al. “NTRU: A public key cryptosystem”. In: NTRU Cryptosystems, Inc. (1999).

[13] Daniel J Bernstein et al. “NTRU Prime: reducing attack surface at low cost”. In: International Conference on Selected Areas in Cryptography. Springer. 2017, pp. 235–260.

[14] Joppe Bos et al. “Frodo: Take off the ring! practical, quantum-secure key exchange from LWE”. In: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. 2016, pp. 1006–1018.

[15] Joppe Bos et al. “CRYSTALS-Kyber: a CCA-secure module-lattice-based KEM”. In: 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P). IEEE. 2018, pp. 353–367.

[16] Mike Hamburg. “Post-quantum cryptography proposal: ThreeBears”. In: NIST Post- Quantum Cryptography Standardization (2019).

[17] Christof Paar and Jan Pelzl. Understanding cryptography: a textbook for students and practitioners. Springer Science & Business Media, 2009.

[18] Sanjit Chatterjee and Palash Sarkar. Identity-based encryption. Springer Science & Business Media, 2011.

[19] Ricardo Neftali Pontaza Rodas and Ying-Dar Lin. Post-quantum asymmetric key cryptosystem with one-to-many distributed key management based on prime modulo double encapsulation. US Patent App. 16/448,445. 2020.

[20] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization. Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/Projects/post-quantumcryptography/Post-Quantum-Cryptography-Standardization. 2021.

[21] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Round 2 Submissions. Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/Projects/post-quantum-cryptography/round-2-submissions. 2021.

[22] VAMPIRE Virtual Applications and Implementations Research Lab. eBACS: ECRYPT Benchmarking of Cryptographic Systems. Available at https://bench.cr.yp.to/supercop.html. 2021.

[23] VAMPIRE Virtual Applications and Implementations Research Lab. VAMPIRE - Virtual Applications and Implementations Research Lab. Available at http://hyperelliptic.org/ECRYPTII/vampire/. 2021.

[24] Open Quantum Safe. Liboqs. Available at https://github.com/open-quantumsafe/liboqs.

[25] Xianhui Lu et al. “LAC: Lattice-based Cryptosystems”. In: NIST PQC Round 2 (2019), p. 4.

[26] Erdem Alkim et al. “NewHope: Algorithm Specifications and Supporting Documentation”.

[27] Roberto Avanzi et al. “CRYSTALS-Kyber Algorithm Specifications And Supporting Documentation”. In: Submission to the NIST post-quantum project 9 (2017), p. 11.

[28] Cong Chen et al. “NTRU Algorithm Specifications And Supporting Documentation”. In: Second PQC Standardization Conference. 2019.

[29] Hamid Nejatollahi et al. “Post-quantum lattice-based cryptography implementations: A survey”. In: ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 51.6 (2019), pp. 1–41.

[30] Erdem Alkim et al. “FrodoKEM learning with errors key encapsulation”. In: (2017).

[31] ROUND 2 OFFICIAL COMMENT: Frodo. Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/CSRC/media/Projects/Post-Quantum- Cryptography/documents/round-2/official-comments/FrodoKEM-round2-official-comment.pdf. 2019.

[32] NewHope Cryptosystem. NIST NewHope Round 2 official comments. Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/CSRC/media/Projects/post-quantum-cryptography/documents/round-2/official-comments/NewHope-round2-official-comment.pdf. 2019.

[33] LAC Lattice-based Cryptosystems. NIST LAC Round 2 official comments. Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/CSRC/media/Projects/post-quantum-cryptography/documents/round-2/official-comments/LAC-round2-official-comment.pdf. 2019.

[34] OFFICIAL COMMENT: Three Bears. Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/CSRC/media/Projects/Post-Quantum-Cryptography/documents/round-2/official-comments/Three-Bears-round2-official-comment.pdf.

[35] Daniel J Bernstein, Tanja Lange, and Christine van Vredendaal. “NTRU Prime: round 2 20190330”. In: (2019). Available at http://ntruprime.cr.yp.to/nist/ntruprime-20190330.pdf.

[36] ROUND 2 OFFICIAL COMMENT: NTRU Prime. Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/CSRC/media/Projects/post-quantum-cryptography/documents/round-2/official-comments/NTRU-Prime-round2-official-comment.pdf. 2019.

[37] James Howe et al. Standard Lattice Based Key Encapsulation on Embedded Devices. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zAfPwuBKixk.

[38] James Howe et al. “Standard lattice-based key encapsulation on embedded devices”. In: IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (2018), pp. 372–393.

[39] Vadim Lyubashevsky, Chris Peikert, and Oded Regev. “On ideal lattices and learning with errors over rings”. In: Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques. Springer. 2010, pp. 1–23.

[40] Lawrence E Bassham et al. A Statistical Test Suite for Random and Pseudorandom Number Generators for Cryptographic Applications | NIST. Tech. rep. Available at https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-22r1a.pdf. 2010.

[41] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST SP 800-22: Download Documentation and Software. Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/Projects/Random-Bit-Generation/Documentation-and-Software. 2020.

[42] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Guide to the Statistical Tests. Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/Projects/Random-Bit-Generation/Documentation-and-Software/Guide-to-the-Statistical-Tests. 2020.

[43] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Security (Evaluation Criteria). Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/post-quantum-cryptography/post-quantum-cryptography-standardization/evaluation-criteria/security-(evaluation-criteria). 2021.

[44] Arduino. Data Type: Unsigned long. Available at https://www.arduino.cc/reference/en/language/variables/data-types/unsignedlong/. 2021.

[45] Ricardo Pontaza et al. O2MD2 - Official software repository. Available at https://github.com/pontazaricardonctu/o2md2.

[46] Indira Kalyan Dutta, Bhaskar Ghosh, and Magdy Bayoumi. “Lightweight Cryptography for Internet of Insecure Things: A Survey”. In: 2019 IEEE 9th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). 2019, pp. 0475–0481. DOI:10.1109/CCWC.2019.8666557.

[47] Mohammed El-Haii et al. “Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms on IoT Hardware platforms”. In: 2018 2nd Cyber Security in Networking Conference (CSNet). 2018, pp. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/CSNET.2018.8602942.

[48] Dindayal Mahto and Dilip Kumar Yadav. “RSA and ECC: a comparative analysis”. In: International journal of applied engineering research 12.19 (2017), pp. 9053–9061.

[49] Tiago M. Fernandez-Carames. “From Pre-Quantum to Post-Quantum IoT Security: A Survey on Quantum-Resistant Cryptosystems for the Internet of Things”. In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal 7.7 (2020), pp. 6457–6480. DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2019.2958788.

[50] Vaishali Bhatia and K.R. Ramkumar. “An Efficient Quantum Computing technique for cracking RSA using Shor’s Algorithm”. In: 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Computing Communication and Automation (ICCCA). 2020, pp. 89–94. DOI: 10.1109/ICCCA49541.2020.9250806.

[51] Kapil Kumar Soni and Akhtar Rasool. “Cryptographic Attack Possibilities over RSA Algorithm through Classical and Quantum Computation”. In: 2018 International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). 2018, pp. 11–15. DOI: 10.1109/ICSSIT.2018.8748675.

[52] Aamir Mandviwalla, Keita Ohshiro, and Bo Ji. “Implementing Grover’s Algorithm on the IBM Quantum Computers”. In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). 2018, pp. 2531–2537. DOI: 10.1109/BigData.2018.8622457.

[53] Prakhar Shrivastava, Kapil Kumar Soni, and Akhtar Rasool. “Evolution of Quantum Computing Based on Grover’s Search Algorithm”. In: 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). 2019, pp. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/ICCCNT45670.2019.8944676.

[54] Gayathree M. Vinod and Anil Shaji. “Finding Solutions to the Integer Case Constraint Satisfiability Problem Using Grover’s Algorithm”. In: IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering 2 (2021), pp. 1–13. DOI: 10.1109/TQE.2021.3120449.

[55] Konstantin Braun et al. “Secure and Compact Full NTRU Hardware Implementation”. In: 2018 IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSISoC). 2018, pp. 89–94. DOI: 10.1109/VLSI-SoC.2018.8645015.

[56] Qingxuan Wang, Chi Cheng, and Ling Zuo. “Analysis and Improvement of a NTRUBased Handover Authentication Scheme”. In: IEEE Communications Letters 23.10 (2019), pp. 1692–1695. DOI: 10.1109/LCOMM.2019.2927204.

[57] Wei-Lun Huang, Jiun-Peng Chen, and Bo-Yin Yang. “Power Analysis on NTRU Prime”. In: IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems 2020.1 (2019), 123–151. DOI: 10.13154/tches.v2020.i1.123-151.

[58] Sedat Akleylek et al. “Fast NTRU Encryption in GPU for Secure IoP Communication in Post-Quantum Era”. In: 2018 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Cloud Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). 2018, pp. 1923–1928. DOI: 10.1109/SmartWorld. 2018.00322.

[59] Naina Gupta et al. “PQC Acceleration Using GPUs: FrodoKEM, NewHope, and Kyber”. In: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 32.3 (2021), pp. 575–586. DOI: 10.1109/TPDS.2020.3025691.

[60] Joppe Bos et al. “CRYSTALS - Kyber: A CCA-Secure Module-Lattice-Based KEM”. In: 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). 2018, pp. 353–367. DOI: 10.1109/EuroSP.2018.00032.

[61] Ferhat Yaman et al. “A Hardware Accelerator for Polynomial Multiplication Operation of CRYSTALS-KYBER PQC Scheme”. In: 2021 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). 2021, pp. 1020–1025. DOI: 10.23919/DATE51398.2021.9474139.

[62] Neng Zhang et al. “Highly Efficient Architecture of NewHope-NIST on FPGA using Low-Complexity NTT/INTT”. In: IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems 2020.2 (2020), 49–72. DOI: 10.13154/tches.v2020.i2.49-72. URL: https://tches.iacr.org/index.php/TCHES/article/view/8544.

[63] Benjamin Lac et al. “Thwarting Fault Attacks against Lightweight Cryptography using SIMD Instructions”. In: 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). 2018, pp. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2018.8351693.

[64] Tim Fritzmann, Georg Sigl, and Johanna Sepúlveda. “Extending the RISC-V Instruction Set for Hardware Acceleration of the Post-Quantum Scheme LAC”. In: 2020 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). 2020, pp. 1420–1425. DOI: 10.23919/DATE48585.2020.9116567.

[65] Ricardo Neftali Pontaza Rodas et al. “O2MD2: A New Post-Quantum Cryptosystem With One-to-Many Distributed Key Management Based on Prime Modulo Double Encapsulation”. In: IEEE Access 9 (2021), pp. 109260–109288. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3100551.

[66] Tim Fritzmann et al. “Efficient Hardware/Software Co-design for NTRU”. In: VLSISoC: Design and Engineering of Electronics Systems Based on New Computing Paradigms. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 257–280. ISBN: 978-3-030-23425-6.

[67] Erdem Alkim et al. Polynomial Multiplication in NTRU Prime: Comparison of Optimization Strategies on Cortex-M4. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/1216. https://ia.cr/2020/1216. 2020.

[68] Jipeng Zhang et al. “An Efficient and Scalable Sparse Polynomial Multiplication Accelerator for LAC on FPGA”. In: 2020 IEEE 26th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS). 2020, pp. 390–397. DOI: 10.1109/ICPADS51040.2020.00059.

[69] Ahmet Can Mert, Erdinç Öztürk, and Erkay Sava¸s. “Design and Implementation of a Fast and Scalable NTT-Based Polynomial Multiplier Architecture”. In: 2019 22nd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). 2019, pp. 253–260. DOI: 10.1109/DSD.2019.00045.

[70] Piotr Luszczek, Ichitaro Yamazaki, and Jack Dongarra. “Increasing Accuracy of Iterative Refinement in Limited Floating-Point Arithmetic on Half-Precision Accelerators”. In: 2019 IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (HPEC). 2019, pp. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/HPEC.2019.8916392.

[71] Gurrala Purushotham Kumar and Chinthala Ramesh. “Implementation of an Area Efficient High Throughput Architecture for Sparse Matrix LU Factorization”. In: 2019 3rd International Conference on Electronics, Materials Engineering Nano-Technology (IEMENTech). 2019, pp. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/IEMENTech48150.2019.8981319.

[72] Aydin Aysu, Michael Orshansky, and Mohit Tiwari. “Binary Ring-LWE hardware with power side-channel countermeasures”. In: 2018 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). 2018, pp.1253–1258. DOI: 10.23919/DATE.2018.8342207.

[73] Sung Kim et al. “MATIC: Learning around errors for efficient low-voltage neural network accelerators”. In: 2018 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). 2018, pp. 1–6. DOI: 10.23919/DATE.2018.8341970.

[74] Sujoy Sinha Roy et al. “FPGA-Based High-Performance Parallel Architecture for Homomorphic Computing on Encrypted Data”. In: 2019 IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA). 2019, pp. 387–398. DOI: 10.1109/HPCA.2019.00052.

[75] Liejun Ma, Xingjun Wu, and Guoqiang Bai. “A Low Cost High Performance Polynomial Multiplier Design For FPGA Implementation”. In: 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Electronics Technology (ICET). 2020, pp. 83–86. DOI: 10.1109/ICET49382.2020.9119654.

[76] Jan Richter-Brockmann et al. Racing BIKE: Improved Polynomial Multiplication and Inversion in Hardware. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2021/1344. https://ia.cr/2021/1344. 2021.

[77] Mark A. Poletti and Paul D. Teal. “A Superfast Toeplitz Matrix Inversion Method for Single- and Multi-Channel Inverse Filters and Its Application to Room Equalization”. In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing 29 (2021), pp. 3144–3157. DOI: 10.1109/TASLP.2021.3120650.

[78] Feiran Yang and Jun Yang. “A fast affine projection algorithm based on a modified Toeplitz matrix”. In: 2017 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC). 2017, pp. 1378–1381. DOI: 10.1109/APSIPA.2017.8282248.

[79] Huiping Huang et al. “Toeplitz Matrix Completion for Direction Finding Using a Modified Nested Linear Array”. In: ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). 2019, pp. 4474–4478. DOI:10.1109/ICASSP.2019.8682693.

[80] Fabio Borges, Paulo Ricardo Reis, and Diogo Pereira. “A Comparison of Security and its Performance for Key Agreements in Post-Quantum Cryptography”. In: IEEE Access 8 (2020), pp. 142413–142422. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3013250.

[81] Amirhosein Imani et al. “Security Challenges and Attacks in M2M Communications”. In: 2018 9th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST). 2018, pp. 264–269. DOI: 10.1109/ISTEL.2018.8661044.

[82] Arno Mittelbach and Marc Fischlin. “Collision Resistance”. In: The Theory of Hash Functions and Random Oracles: An Approach to Modern Cryptography. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021, pp. 161–208. ISBN: 978-3-030-63287-8. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-63287-8_4. URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-63287-8_4.

[83] Daniel J. Bernstein and Andreas Hülsing. “Decisional Second-Preimage Resistance: When Does SPR Imply PRE?” In: Advances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2019. Ed. by Steven D. Galbraith and Shiho Moriai. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 33–62. ISBN: 978-3-030-34618-8.

[84] Zhao Huang and Quan Wang. “A PUF-based unified identity verification framework for secure IoT hardware via device authentication”. In: World Wide Web 23.2 (2020), pp. 1057–1088.

[85] Mohammed El-hajj et al. “Analysis of authentication techniques in Internet of Things (IoT)”. In: 2017 1st Cyber Security in Networking Conference (CSNet). 2017, pp. 1–3.DOI: 10.1109/CSNET.2017.8242006.

[86] Yahya Atwady and Mohammed Hammoudeh. “A Survey on Authentication Techniques for the Internet of Things”. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Future Networks and Distributed Systems. ICFNDS ’17. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Association for Computing Machinery, 2017. ISBN: 9781450348447. DOI: 10.1145/3102304.3102312. URL: https://doi.org/10.1145/3102304.3102312.

[87] Sergio D. Castilho, Eduardo P. Godoy, and Fadir Salmen. “Implementing Security and Trust in IoT/M2M using Middleware”. In: 2020 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). 2020, pp. 726–731. DOI: 10.1109/ICOIN48656.2020.9016435.

[88] Gurkan Tuna et al. “A survey on information security threats and solutions for Machine to Machine (M2M) communications”. In: Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 109 (2017), pp. 142–154. ISSN: 0743-7315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jpdc.2017.05.021. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0743731517301867.

[89] Tong Jian et al. “MAC ID Spoofing-Resistant Radio Fingerprinting”. In: 2019 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP). 2019, pp. 1–5. DOI: 10.1109/GlobalSIP45357.2019.8969163.

[90] Wenhao Li, Yubin Xia, and Haibo Chen. “Research on ARM TrustZone”. In: GetMobile: Mobile Comp. and Comm. 22.3 (Jan. 2019), 17–22. ISSN: 2375-0529. DOI: 10.1145/3308755.3308761. URL: https://doi.org/10.1145/3308755.3308761.

[91] Wenhao Li et al. “TEEv: Virtualizing Trusted Execution Environments on Mobile Platforms”. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM SIGPLAN/SIGOPS International Conference on Virtual Execution Environments. VEE 2019. Providence, RI, USA: Association for Computing Machinery, 2019, 2–16. ISBN: 9781450360203. DOI: 10.1145/3313808. 3313810. URL: https://doi.org/10.1145/3313808.3313810.

[92] Tu Dinh Ngoc et al. “Everything You Should Know About Intel SGX Performance on Virtualized Systems”. In: Proc. ACM Meas. Anal. Comput. Syst. 3.1 (Mar. 2019). DOI: 10.1145/3322205.3311076. URL: https://doi.org/10.1145/3322205.3311076.

[93] Omer Shwartz et al. “Shattered trust: when replacement smartphone components attack”. In: Proceeings of the USENIX Workshop on Offensive Technologies (WOOT). USENIX Association. 2017.

[94] Balu L. Parne, Shubham Gupta, and Narendra S. Chaudhari. “SEGB: Security Enhanced Group Based AKA Protocol for M2M Communication in an IoT Enabled LTE/LTE-A Network”. In: IEEE Access 6 (2018), pp. 3668–3684. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2788919.

[95] Antonio Faonio et al. “Structure-Preserving and Re-randomizable RCCA-Secure Public Key Encryption and Its Applications”. In: Advances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2019. Ed. by Steven D. Galbraith and Shiho Moriai. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 159–190. ISBN: 978-3-030-34618-8.

[96] OMNeT++. OMNeT++ Discrete Event Simulator. https://omnetpp.org/. Accessed:2018-05.

[97] Ivan Niven, Herbert S Zuckerman, and Hugh L Montgomery. An introduction to the theory of numbers. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

[98] Adeline Langlois and Damien Stehlé. “Worst-case to average-case reductions for module lattices”. In: Designs, Codes and Cryptography 75.3 (2015), pp. 565–599.

[99] Jeffrey Hoffstein et al. An introduction to mathematical cryptography. Vol. 1. Springer, 2008.

[100] Chris Peikert. “A decade of lattice cryptography”. In: Foundations and Trends® in Theoretical Computer Science 10.4 (2016), pp. 283–424.

[101] GCC. Double-Word Integers. Available at https://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc/Long-Long.html.

[102] ROUND 2 OFFICIAL COMMENT: NTRUEncrypt & NTRU. Available at https://csrc.nist.gov/CSRC/media/Projects/post-quantum-cryptography/documents/round-2/official-comments/NTRU-round2-official-comment.pdf. 2019.

[103] Abderrahmane Nitaj. “The Mathematics of the NTRU Public Key Cryptosystem”. In: Mathematical Concepts IGI Global (2015).

[104] Thorsten Kleinjung et al. “Factorization of a 768-bit RSA modulus (version 1.4)”. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6223 (2010), p. 20.

[105] Daniel J Bernstein. “Introduction to post-quantum cryptography”. In: Post-quantum cryptography. Springer, 2009, pp. 1–14.

[106] David A Patterson and John L Hennessy. Computer Organization and Design MIPS Edition: The Hardware/Software Interface. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc, 2013.

[107] Daniel V Bailey et al. “NTRU in constrained devices”. In: International Workshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems. Springer. 2001, pp. 262–272.

[108] Joseph H Silverman. The arithmetic of elliptic curves. Vol. 106. Springer Science & Business Media, 2009.

[109] Joseph H Silverman. Advanced topics in the arithmetic of elliptic curves. Vol. 151. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

[110] Johannes Buchmann. Introduction to cryptography. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

[111] Arthur Engel. Problem-Solving Strategies. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1976.

[112] Roberto De Prisco and Moti Yung. Security and cryptography for networks. Springer, 2006.

[113] Edmund Hlawka, Johannes Schoissengeier, and Rudolf Taschner. Geometric and analytic number theory. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

[114] Michael Sipser. Introduction to the Theory of Computation. Vol. 2. Thomson Course Technology Boston, 2006.

[115] Christos H Papadimitriou. Computational complexity. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 2003.

[116] Henri Cohen. A course in computational algebraic number theory. Vol. 138. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

[117] TomMApostol. “Some properties of completely multiplicative arithmetical functions”. In: The American Mathematical Monthly 78.3 (1971), pp. 266–271.

[118] Alfred J Menezes, Paul C Van Oorschot, and Scott A Vanstone. Handbook of applied cryptography. CRC press, 1996.

[119] Jorge Guajardo Merchan. “Arithmetic Architectures for Finite Fields GF (pm) with Cryptographic Applications”. PhD thesis. PhD thesis, Ruhr-Universität-Bochum, Germany, 2004.

[120] Nils Gura et al. “Comparing elliptic curve cryptography and RSA on 8-bit CPUs”. In: International Workshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems. Springer. 2004, pp. 119–132.

[121] Jorge Guajardo et al. “Efficient hardware implementation of finite fields with applications to cryptography”. In: Acta Applicandae Mathematica 93.1-3 (2006), pp. 75–118.

[122] Ricardo Neftali Pontaza Rodas et al. O2MD2: A new post-quantum cryptosystem with one-to-many distributed key management based on prime modulo double encapsulation (Additional examples). Available at https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1HYXsBSPjREaSXZWUgxedy7iHVUsEHJ96. 2021.

[123] Gustavus J Simmons. “Symmetric and asymmetric encryption”. In: ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 11.4 (1979), pp. 305–330.

[124] Robert M Gray et al. “Toeplitz and circulant matrices: A review”. In: Foundations and Trends in Communications and Information Theory 2.3 (2006), pp. 155–239.

[125] Ronald L Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. “A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems”. In: Communications of the ACM 21.2 (1978), pp. 120–126.

[126] Ravikanth Pappu et al. “Physical one-way functions”. In: Science 297.5589 (2002), pp. 2026–2030.

[127] Roel Maes and Ingrid Verbauwhede. “Physically unclonable functions: A study on the state of the art and future research directions”. In: Towards Hardware-Intrinsic Security. Springer, 2010, pp. 3–37.

[128] Miodrag Potkonjak and Vishwa Goudar. “Public physical unclonable functions”. In: Proceedings of the IEEE 102.8 (2014). Available at https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6856138, pp. 1142–1156.

[129] Jeffrey Hoffstein, Jill Pipher, and Joseph H Silverman. “NTRU: A ring-based public key cryptosystem”. In: International Algorithmic Number Theory Symposium. Springer. 1998, pp. 267–288.

[130] Arjun Chopra. “GLYPH: A New Insantiation of the GLP Digital Signature Scheme.” In: IACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch. 2017 (2017). Available at https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/766.pdf, p. 766.

[131] Johannes A Buchmann et al. “Post-Quantum Cryptography: State of the Art”. In: The New Codebreakers. Springer, 2016, pp. 88–108.

[132] Erdem Alkim et al. “Post-quantum key exchange-a new hope.” In: USENIX Security Symposium. Vol. 2016. 2016.

[133] Don Coppersmith and Adi Shamir. “Lattice attacks on NTRU”. In: International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques. Springer. 1997, pp. 52–61.

[134] Nick Howgrave-Graham. “A hybrid lattice-reduction and meet-in-the-middle attack against NTRU”. In: Annual International Cryptology Conference. Springer. 2007, pp. 150–169.

[135] Nick Howgrave-Graham et al. “The impact of decryption failures on the security of NTRU encryption”. In: Annual International Cryptology Conference. Springer. 2003, pp. 226–246.

[136] Alwin Zulehner and Robert Wille. “Advanced Simulation of Quantum Computations”. In: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems 38.5 (2019), pp. 848–859. DOI: 10.1109/TCAD.2018.2834427.

[137] Rajat Chaudhary et al. “Lattice-Based Public Key Cryptosystem for Internet of Things Environment: Challenges and Solutions”. In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal 6.3 (2019), pp. 4897–4909. DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2018.2878707.

[138] Avinash Ray et al. “Comparative study of AES, RSA, genetic, affine transform with XOR operation, and watermarking for image encryption”. In: 2017 International Conference on Recent Innovations in Signal processing and Embedded Systems (RISE). 2017, pp. 274–278. DOI: 10.1109/RISE.2017.8378166.

[139] Sidharth S Prakash and Visakha K. “Ensemble of AES - RSA Cryptographic Model for Securing Sensitive Laptop Data”. In: 2021 Third International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). 2021, pp. 445–450. DOI: 10.1109/ICIRCA51532.2021.9544612.

[140] Shahriar Ebrahimi, Siavash Bayat-Sarmadi, and Hatameh Mosanaei-Boorani. “Post-Quantum Cryptoprocessors Optimized for Edge and Resource-Constrained Devices in IoT”. In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal 6.3 (2019), pp. 5500–5507. DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2019.2903082.

[141] Viet B. Dang et al. “Implementing and Benchmarking Three Lattice-Based Post-Quantum Cryptography Algorithms Using Software/Hardware Codesign”. In: 2019 International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology (ICFPT). 2019, pp. 206–214. DOI: 10.1109/ICFPT47387.2019.00032.

[142] Zhaohui Chen et al. “Towards Efficient Kyber on FPGAs: A Processor for Vector of Polynomials”. In: 2020 25th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC). 2020, pp. 247–252. DOI: 10.1109/ASP-DAC47756.2020.9045459.

[143] Bo-Yuan Peng et al. “Streamlined NTRU Prime on FPGA”. In: Cryptology ePrint Archive (2021).

[144] Weiqiang Liu et al. “Optimized Schoolbook Polynomial Multiplication for Compact Lattice-Based Cryptography on FPGA”. In: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 27.10 (2019), pp. 2459–2463. DOI: 10.1109/TVLSI.2019.2922999.

[145] Hexuan Yu, Chaoyu Zhang, and Hai Jiang. “A FPGA-Based Heterogeneous Implementation of NTRUEncrypt”. In: Advances in Parallel & Distributed Processing, and Applications. Ed. by Hamid R. Arabnia et al. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021, pp. 461–475. ISBN: 978-3-030-69984-0.

[146] Rashmi Agrawal et al. “Open-Source FPGA Implementation of Post-Quantum Cryptographic Hardware Primitives”. In: 2019 29th International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL). 2019, pp. 211–217. DOI: 10.1109/FPL.2019.00040.

[147] Khaled Salah Mohamed. “Introduction to Cyber Security”. In: New Frontiers in Cryptography: Quantum, Blockchain, Lightweight, Chaotic and DNA. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2020, pp. 1–12. ISBN: 978-3-030-58996-7. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-58996-7_1. URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58996-7_1.

[148] Zhen Ling et al. “Secure boot, trusted boot and remote attestation for ARM TrustZonebased IoT Nodes”. In: Journal of Systems Architecture 119 (2021), p. 102240. ISSN: 1383-7621. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sysarc.2021.102240. URL:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383762121001661.

[149] Pengfei Guo et al. “Research on Arm TrustZone and Understanding the Security Vulnerability in Its Cache Architecture”. In: Security, Privacy, and Anonymity in Computation, Communication, and Storage. Ed. by Guojun Wang et al. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021, pp. 200–213. ISBN: 978-3-030-68851-6.

[150] Dalton Cézane Gomes Valadares et al. “Achieving Data Dissemination with Security using FIWARE and Intel Software Guard Extensions (SGX)”. In: 2018 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). 2018, pp. 1–7. DOI: 10.1109/ISCC.2018.8538590.

[151] Sadman Sakib et al. “An Aging-Resistant NAND Flash Memory Physical Unclonable Function”. In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 67.3 (2020), pp. 937–943. DOI: 10.1109/TED.2020.2968272.

[152] Johannes Obermaier et al. “An embedded key management system for PUF-based security enclosures”. In: 2018 7th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO). 2018, pp. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/MECO.2018.8406028.

[153] Hideo Nishimura, Yoshihiko Omori, and Takao Yamashita. “Secure Authentication Key Sharing between Personal Mobile Devices Based on Owner Identity”. In: Journal of Information Processing 28 (2020), pp. 292–301.

[154] Shuyi Chen et al. “Machine-to-Machine Communications in Ultra-Dense Networks—A Survey”. In: IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials 19.3 (2017), pp. 1478–1503. DOI:10.1109/COMST.2017.2678518.

[155] Randa Zarrouk et al. “Clone-Resistant Secured Booting Based on Unknown Hashing Created in Self-Reconfigurable Platform”. In: Applied Reconfigurable Computing. Architectures, Tools, and Applications. Ed. by Steven Derrien et al. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021, pp. 203–217. ISBN: 978-3-030-79025-7.

[156] Daniel Moghimi et al. “TPM-FAIL: TPM meets Timing and Lattice Attacks”. In: 29th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 20). USENIX Association, Aug. 2020, pp. 2057–2073. ISBN: 978-1-939133-17-5. URL: https://www.usenix.org/conference/usenixsecurity20/presentation/moghimi-tpm.

[157] Marouene Boubakri, Fausto Chiatante, and Belhassen Zouari. “Towards a firmware TPM on RISC-V”. In: 2021 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). 2021, pp. 647–650. DOI: 10.23919/DATE51398.2021.9474152.

[158] Pooja Lokhande and A.M. Shah. “Strong Authentication and Encryption Modeling using Physical Unclonable Function based on FPGA”. In: 2021 6th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). 2021, pp. 192–195. DOI:10.1109/ICCES51350.2021.9489024.

[159] Holger Boche et al. “On the Algorithmic Computability of the Secret Key and Authentication Capacity Under Channel, Storage, and Privacy Leakage Constraints”. In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 67.17 (2019), pp. 4636–4648. DOI: 10.1109/TSP.2019.2929467.

[160] Md Shahed Enamul Quadir and John A. Chandy. “Embedded Systems Authentication and Encryption Using Strong PUF Modeling”. In: 2020 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). 2020, pp. 1–6. DOI: 10.1109/ICCE46568.2020.9043104.
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top