跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.211.239.1) 您好!臺灣時間:2023/01/31 06:35
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳亮宇
研究生(外文):CHEN,LIANG-YU
論文名稱:陶瓷光固化成型技術製備剛玉多孔材之研究
論文名稱(外文):Porous Corundum by Ceramic Photo-polymerization Technology
指導教授:王子奇王子奇引用關係
指導教授(外文):WANG,TZU-CHI
口試委員:陳延平陳彥友
口試委員(外文):CHEN,YAN-PINGCHEN,YAN-YOU
口試日期:2021-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:化學工程與材料工程學系奈米材料碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:光聚合固化剛玉多孔材料陶瓷光聚合紫外光光固化成型技術
外文關鍵詞:Vat Photopolymerizationcorundum,porous materialsceramic photopolymerizationceramic sinteringultravioletstereolithography.
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:49
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究主要的目的是以陶瓷光固化成型技術製備剛玉多孔材之配方與製程研究。使用剛玉粉體為起始原料,利用添加光引發劑的丙烯酸酯單體為載體,經過行星式高速球磨分散後,將前驅物使用波長405nm的UV光線進行光固化反應,得到的生胚樣品經過熱脫脂與高溫燒結後,可以得到剛玉多孔材。剛玉多孔材樣品分別使用掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)進行微結構分析、X繞射分析儀(XRD)進行結晶相分析、阿基米德法進行體密度之量測與孔隙率計算、以及滲透率測試等。在16%剛玉粉末比例中,1300℃孔隙率為28.89%、1400℃為28.16%、1500℃為26.44%;20%剛玉粉末比例中,1300℃孔隙率為28.62%、1400℃為21.24%、1500℃為20.53%。結果顯示固含量大於16 vol%的剛玉生胚經過600度的熱脫脂處理後可以保持樣品的原型,經過1300度以上燒結熱處理後可以得到多孔的剛玉樣品,達成本研究以陶瓷光固化技術製備剛玉多孔材的目的。
The main purpose of this research is to study the processes to prepare the porous corundum samples by a ceramic photopolymerization technology. The corundum powder as the starting material, and the photoinitiator-added acrylate monomer as the carrier, after mixed and dispersed by a planetary high-speed ball miller, the precursors were photo-cured by UV light with a wavelength of 405 nm, and the green compacts were obtained. After thermal debinding and high-temperature sintering, the porous corundum samples can be obtained. In this study, the porous corundum samples were analyzed including microstructures by scanning electron microscope (SEM), crystalline phases by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method, bulk density and porosity by Archimedes method, as well as the permeability test, etc. In the 16% corundum powder ratio, the porosity at 1300°C is 28.89%, 1400°C is 28.16%, and 1500°C is 26.44%; in the 20% corundum powder ratio, the porosity at 1300°C is 28.62%, 1400°C is 21.24%, 1500°C °C is 20.53%. The results show that the corundum green compact with solid content greater than 16 vol% can be maintained, after thermal treatment at 600 oC. After sintering at 1300 oC, the porous corundum samples can be obtained. That coincides the purpose of this study.
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 光固化簡介 2
1-3 研究背景 4
1-4 實驗目的 4
1-5 論文架構 5
第二章 文獻回顧 7
2-1 3D列印技術簡介 7
2-2 3D列印技術應用 10
2-2-1 製造列印應用 10
2-2-2 醫療列印應用 13
2-2-3 生物列印應用 13
2-2-4 藥物列印製程 14
2-2-5 工業列印應用 14
2-2-6 社會文化應用 17
2-3 3D列印技術分類 18
2-3-1 光聚合固化成型技術( Vat Photopolymerization) 20
2-3-2 噴墨成型技術( Inkjet Technology) 20
2-3-3 黏合性噴膠成型技術( Binder Jetting) 21
2-3-4 粉體床河熔融成型技術( Powder Bed Fusion) 22
2-3-5 材料擠壓成型 ( Material Extrusion) 24
2-3-6 定向能量沉積成型技術 ( Directed Energy Deposition) 24
2-3-7 板層擠壓成型技術 ( Sheet Lamination) 25
2-4 光固化樹脂簡介 26
2-4-1 光固化樹脂的起源 26
2-4-2 光固化反應機制 28
2-4-3 常見的光固化樹脂 32
2-5 剛玉簡介 35
2-6 多孔陶瓷介紹 36
第三章 實驗 39
3-1 實驗藥品與設備 40
3-1-1 實驗藥品 40
3-1-2 實驗設備 41
3-2 實驗步驟 48
3-2-1 原料製備 48
3-2-2 研磨(桌上型行星式球磨機) 48
3-2-3 光固化成型(UV放射光儀器) 48
3-2-4 熱脫脂(桌上型真空高溫管型爐) 49
3-2-5 燒結(箱型高溫爐) 51
3-2-6 樣品分析 52
3-3 配方成分與燒結條件 57
第四章 結果與討論 58
4-1 熱重分析儀(TGA) 58
4-2 X射線繞射儀(XRD)分析 59
4-3 燒結密度與孔隙率 62
4-4 14%樣品燒窯試片整理 66
第五章 結論 70
參考文獻 71





[1]Chris, W. (1 April 2021). EXPLAINTHATSTUFF, Ceramics. from https://www.explainthatstuff.com/ceramics.html#1
[2]Robert, B. H. (7 October 2010). Classic and Advanced Ceramics: From Fundamentals to Applications. ISBN:9783527325177. DOI:10.1002/9783527630172
[3]Fluid-Painting, Epoxy Resin. (26 March 2021). UV Resin Guide – Mastering the Fast Curing Resin for Your Projects. From https://fluid-painting.com/en/uv-resin-guide/
[4]Craig, H. , DDS. Dentaleconomics. (1 June 2020). Using 3-D printing to improve removable denture workflow. Science & Tech, CAD/CAM and 3D printing. from https://www.dentaleconomics.com/science-tech/cad-cam-and-3d-printing/article/14177517/using-3d-printing-to-improve-removable-denture-workflow.
[5]Narayan, K. Lalit (2008). Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India. p. 3.
[6]Excell, Jon. (2010). The rise of additive manufacturing.
[7]Justin ,R.(17 March 2020). The Pros, the Cons, and the Future of 3D Printing.
[8]TWI.What are the advantages and disadvantages of 3D printing?
[9]Taufik, M, Jain Prashant K. (10 December 2016). Additive Manufacturing: Current Scenario. Proceedings of International Conference on: Advanced Production and Industrial Engineering.p. 380-386.
[10]Economist Technology(10 February 2011). Print me a Stradivarius , How a new manufacturing technology will change the world.
[11]Sherman, L. M.( August 2004). 3D Printers Lead Growth of Rapid Prototyping .
[12]Leslie, H . (27 August 2013). 3D Hubs: Like Airbnb For 3D Printers.
[13]Wohlers , T. T. (2009). State of the Industry Annual Worldwide Progress Report on Additive Manufacturing . Wohlers Associates
[14]Friedrich, B. P. , Clinton, L. A. , Joseph, J. B. , Robert, L. B. , Paul , S. F. , & Allan, J. L. ( March 1997 ) . Rapid Prototyping in Europe and Japan.
[15]Aaron , P .( 26 March 2020 ). Revolutionary new electric car built and tested with Objet1000 multi-material 3D production system.
[16]Liu, Z. , Zhang, M. , Bhandari, B. , & Wang, Y. (2017). 3D printing: Printing precision and application in food sector. Trends in Food Science & Technology . P. 83-94.
[17]Liu , Z. , Zhang, M. , Bhandari, B. , & Yang, C. (2018). Impact of rheological properties of mashed potatoes on 3D printing. Journal of Food Engineering, 220, P. 76-82.
[18]Hao, L., Mellor, S., Seaman, O., Henderson, J., Sewell, N., & Sloan, M. (2010). Material characterization and process development for chocolate additive layer manufacturing. Virtual and Physical Prototyping, 5, 57-64.
[19]NASA. (23 May 2013). 3D Printing: Food in Space.
[20]Erickson, D. M.; Chance, D.; Schmitt, S.; Mathis, J. (1 September 1999). An opinion survey of reported benefits from the use of stereolithographic models. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 57 , 1040-1043.
[21]Zopf, D. A. , Hollister, S. J. , Nelson, M. E. , Ohye, R. G. , Green, G. E. (23 May 2013). Bioresorbable Airway Splint Created with a Three-Dimensional Printer. N Engl J Med. 368 (21) , 2043-2045.
[22]Emily, W. fiercebiotech. (23 July 2014). 3-D printing grows to scale within industry. from https://www.fiercebiotech.com/medical-devices/3-d-printing-grows-to-scale-within-industry
[23]Harrison, J. (17 February 2014). A UK Surgeon Successfully 3D Printed And Implanted A Pelvis. from https://www.businessinsider.com/uk-surgeon-implanted-a-3d-printed-pelvis-2014-2
[24]Daniel, L. C. , Evan, M. , Hod. L. , & Lawrence. J. B.(13 June 2006). Direct Freeform Fabrication of Seeded Hydrogels in Arbitrary Geometries. Tissue Engineering. 12 (5), 1325-1335.
[25]Leroy, L. C.(June 2012). Print your own medicine. TED Global.
[26]Kate , C. (23 May 2010). Building body parts with 3D printing.
[27]Alvaro, G. , Pamela, R. M. , Asma, B. , Abdul, W. B. , & Simon, G. (30 October 2015). Effect of geometry on drug release from 3D printed tablets. Int J Pharm. 494 (2), 657-633.
[28]Eric, P. (3 August 2015). Company builds plant for 3DP pill making as it nails first FDA approval. fiercepharma.com. from https://www.fiercepharma.com/regulatory/company-builds-plant-for-3dp-pill-making-as-it-nails-first-fda-approval
[29]ResinsOnline.(17 June 2013). 3D Printed Clothing Becoming a Reality.from http://www.resins-online.com/blog/3d-printed-clothing
[30]Michael, F. (15 May 2013). With 3-D Printing, the Shoe Really Fits.from https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/with-3-d-printing-the-shoe-really-fits
[31]Materialise. Transforming Eyewear and the Eyewear Industry: Yuniku.from https://www.materialise.com/en/cases/yuniku-transforming-eyewear-industry
[32]EnvisionTEC. Global Leaders In Jewelry 3D Printers For Castable Parts —. from https://envisiontec.com/3d-printing-industries/professional/jewelry
[33]Alex , D. (1 May 2014). A Swedish Automaker Is Using 3D Printing To Make The World's Fastest Car. from https://www.businessinsider.com/koenigsegg-one1-comes-with-3d-printed-parts-2014-2
[34]Yoav, Z. (27 July 2015). The 3D printer revolution comes to the IAF. from https://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4684682,00.html
[35]Nathalie, L. , Anders, R. ,Bendik , M. , Petra, R. (December 2016). Additive construction: State-of-the-art, challenges and opportunities. Automation in Construction. P.347-366.
[36]Eric, L. K. ,Mengan, A. K. ,Michael, P. C. (August 2019). Development of the construction processes for reinforced additively constructed concrete. Additive Manufacturing. P. 39-49
[37]Michael, M. H. (30 December 2014). MORE EMERGES ABOUT THE FIRST MANUFACTURER OF 3D HOUSE PRINTERS. 3D Printing Industry. from https://3dprintingindustry.com/news/emerges-first-manufacturer-3d-house-printers-38801
[38]Andy, G. (23 August 2012). 'Wiki Weapon Project' Aims To Create A Gun Anyone Can 3D-Print At Home. Forbes. from https://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2012/08/23/wiki-weapon-project-aims-to-create-a-gun-anyone-can-3d-print-at-home/?sh=916e0c738600
[39]PCMag. (24 August 2012). COULD A 'PRINTABLE GUN' CHANGE THE WORLD? from https://www.pcmag.com/archive/could-a-printable-gun-change-the-world-301934
[40]Carl, F. (20 October 2014). 3D-printed gun maker in Japan sentenced to two years in prison. South China Morning Post. from https://www.theverge.com/2014/10/20/7022809/3d-printed-gun-maker-in-japan-sentenced-2-years.
[41]Dragos, C. (15 January 2015). 3&DBot: An Arduino 3D printer-robot with wheels. from https://web.archive.org/web/20150205052842/http://www.intorobotics.com/3dbot-arduino-3d-printer-robot-wheels/
[42]Andrew, W. (31 December 2014). THE MOBILE 3&D 3D PRINTING BOT: THE PROOF IS IN A CYCLE OF INSPIRATION. from https://3dprintingindustry.com/news/3dbot-3d-printing-mobile-38823/
[43]SPIE Newsroom. (1 April 2015). New horizons open with space-based 3D printing. From https://spie.org/news/0331-madeinspace-video?SSO=1
[44]Brooks, H. UPI Newsroom. (19 December 2014). NASA just emailed the space station a new socket wrench. from https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2014/12/19/NASA-just-emailed-the-space-station-a-new-socket-wrench/1111419017637/
[45]Heidi, M. (18 June 2014). Barack Obama Has Become the First President to be 3D Scanned and Printed. from https://3dprint.com/6595/obama-3d-printed/
[46]Shashank, P. , Barun, G. , Ajay, N. ( June 2013). Complex Geometry Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides Created via 3D Printing. CLEO: 2013. OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013). P. CTh1K.2
[47]Nancy, P. (1 August 2013). Underwater City: 3D Printed Reef Restores Bahrain’s Marine Life. From https://web.archive.org/web/20130812155340/http://blogs.ptc.com/2013/08/01/underwater-city-3d-printed-reef-restores-bahrains-marine-life/
[48]Alec. 3ders org. (14 July 2015). Museum uses 3D printing to take fragile maquette by Thomas Hart Benton on tour through the States. from https://web.archive.org/web/20151117014241/http://www.3ders.org/articles/20150714-museum-uses-3d-printing-to-take-fragile-maquette-by-thomas-hart-benton-on-tour.html
[49]Martin, R. (14 June 2016). The art of copying. from https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/arts-and-books/the-art-of-copying-digital-archeology-palmyra
[50]International Organization for Standardization. ( January 2015). Additive manufacturing — General Principles — Overview of process categories and feedstock. ISO International Standard. 17296-2:2015.
[51]Crivello, J. V. , Elsa, R. (25 September 2013). Photopolymer Materials and Processes for Advanced Technologies. Chem. Mater. 2014, 26, 1, 533–548
[52]Hod, L. , Francis, C. M. , Jimmy, H. , Carlo, P. ( September 2005). 3-D Printing the History of Mechanisms. Journal of Mechanical Design. 127(5)
[53]Kenyon, R. W. (1996). Chemistry and Technology of Printing and Imaging Systems. Springer, Dordrecht. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-011-0601-6_5. P.113
[54]Le, H. P. ( January 1998). Progress and Trends in Ink-jet Printing Technology. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Volume 42, Number 1, January 1998, pp. 49-62(14).
[55]Papageorgiou, D. T. (July 1995). On the breakup of viscous liquid threads. Physics of Fluids, Volume 7, Issue 7, July 1995, pp.1529-1544. DOI: 10.1063/1.868540
[56]INKJET INC. How Does Thermal Inkjet Printing Work?
[57]3D printing – additive. Introduction to 3D printing - additive processes. from https://make.3dexperience.3ds.com/processes/introduction-to-additive-processes
[58]Prashanth, K. G. , Sri, K. , Jurgen, E. (June 2017). Additive Manufacturing Processes: Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Binder Jetting—Selection Guidelines. Juergen Stampfl, Academic Editor. Doi : 10.3390/ma10060672.
[59]Niranjan, D. P. , John, E. B. , Cang, Z. , Ross, W. C. , Kamel, F. , Anthony, D. R. & Tao, S. (September 2019). Real time observation of binder jetting printing process using high-speed X-ray imaging. Scientific ReportsPMC6385361. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-38862-7.
[60]Autonomous Manufacturing , AMFG. (3 July 2019). All You Need to Know About Metal Binder Jetting. from https://amfg.ai/2019/07/03/metal-binder-jetting-all-you-need-to-know/
[61]Mohammadreza, N. , Ahmadreza, J. , Mohammad, J. M. , Mohammad, E. (2019). Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials. Metals for Biomedical Devices. doi: 10.1016/C2017-0-03429-8.
[62]Nesma, T. A. , Marco, S. , Luke P. , Lan, A. , Christopher, T. , Richard, H. (December 2019). Progress in Materials Science Volume 106. 3D printing of Aluminium alloys: Additive Manufacturing of Aluminium alloys using selective laser melting. ISSN 0079-6425. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2019.100578.
[63]Eslam, M. F. , Mohammad, S. , Davood, S. , Vladimir, B. , Mohammad, J. Mamoun, M. (21 January 2021). Effect of homogenization and solution treatments time on the elevated-temperature mechanical behavior of Inconel 718 fabricated by laser powder bed fusion. scientific reports.
[64]EOS. DMLS Metal Materials for EOS 3D printer. from https://www.eos.info/en/additive-manufacturing/3d-printing-metal/dmls-metal-materials
[65]Chaolin, T. , Kesong, Z. , Wenyou, M. Bonnie, A. , Panpan, Z. Tongchun, K. (18 April 2018). Selective laser melting of high-performance pure tungsten: parameter design, densification behavior and mechanical properties. Sci Technol Adv Mater. 2018; 19(1): 370–380. doi:10.1080/14686996.2018.1455154.
[66]Fuda, N. , Weilong, C. , Jinging, Q. , Junhua, W. , Shiren, W. (October 2015). Additive manufacturing of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites using fused deposition modeling. Composites Part B: Engineering Volume 80. P. 369-378. ISSN 1359-8368. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2015.06.013.
[67]Cesarano, J III. (10 February 2011). A Review of Robocasting Technology. MRS Online Proceedings Library 542, 133-139 (1998). doi: 10.1557/PROC-542-133.
[68]Imen, G. , Julian, R. G. E. (April 2003). Extrusion freeforming of ceramics through fine nozzles. Journal of the European Ceramic Society Volume 23, Issue 5, P. 629-635. ISSN 0955-2219, doi: 10.1016/S0955-2219(02)00163-2.
[69]Kedarnath, R. ,Luca, D. L. ,Matteo, S. (1 March 2019). Processability of SS316L powder - binder mixtures for vertical extrusion and deposition on table tests. Powder Technology Volume 345, P. 553-562. ISSN 0032-5910, doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2019.01.010.
[70]Jie, S. , Weibiao, Z. , Dejian, H. , Jerry, Y. H. F. , Geok, S. H. (21 April 2015). An Overview of 3D Printing Technologies for Food Fabrication. Food and Bioprocess Technology volume 8, pages1605–1615 (2015). doi: 10.1007/s11947-015-1528-6.
[71]Beese, A. M. , Carroll, B. E. (March 2016). Review of Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Made by Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing Using Powder Feedstock. JOM, Volume 68, Issue 3, p.724-734. ISBN: 978-1-4939-2113-3. doi: 10.1007/s11837-015-1759-z.
[72]Ian, G. , David, R. , Brent, S. (2015). Additive Manufacturing Technologies 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping, and Direct Digital Manufacturing. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2113-3.
[73]SBIR STTR, America’s Seed Fund. (1996). Rapid Fabrication of Fully Functional Models by Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM). Agency: Department of Defense. Agency Tracking Number: 28696.
[74]Michael, M. H. (28 March 2014). WHAT’S GOING ON WITH SOLIDO? from https://3dprintingindustry.com/news/whats-going-solido-25400/
[75]Rapidtoday, MultiPurpose. 3D Printer Uses Standard Paper . The Independent Resource for all Users of Rapid Prototyping, Rapid Manufacturing, & 3D Printing Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest RSS.
[76]EnvisionTEC. (2017). Yes, We’re 3D Printing Woven Fiber Composites Now. from https://envisiontec.com/yes-3d-printing-woven-fiber-composites-now/
[77]EnvisionTEC , Jenna, F. (17 May 2016). EnvisionTEC Reveals SLCOM 1 at RAPID. from https://envisiontec.com/envisiontec-reveals-slcom-1-rapid/
[78]Baatz, Willfried (1997). Photography: An Illustrated Historical Overview. New York: Barron's. p. 16.
[79]World's oldest photo sold to library. BBC News. (21 March 2002. Retrieved 17 November 2011). The image of an engraving depicting a man leading a horse was made in 1825 by Nicéphore Niépce, who invented a technique known as heliogravure. from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1885093.stm
[80]Newhall, Beaumont (1982). The History of Photography: from 1839 to the present (5th ed.). New York: Museum of Modern Art.
[81]Young,L. C. (1973) Material in Printing Pricess. , Focal Press. p. 210 .
[82]彭志成(1998)。紫外光可硬化之聚胺酯,國立台灣大學化學工程研究所碩士論文。
[83]劉瑞祥,感光性高分子,台南市:復文書局,2002,第6-7頁。
[84]Cowie, J. M. G. , Valeria, A. (27 July 2007). Polymers Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition. ISBN 9780849398131.
[85]Polymer Properties Database, UV-CURABLE RESINS, From http://polymerdatabase.com
[86]Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, Kenneth W.; Nichols, Monte C., eds. (1997). "Corundum". Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF). III Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0962209724.
[87]Corundum.Mindat.org. from https://www.mindat.org/min-1136.html
[88]Giuliani, Gaston; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Fallick, Anthony E.; Groat, Lee; Fagan; Andrew J. (2014). "The Geology and Genesis of Gem Corundum Deposits". Gem Corundum. Research Gate: Mineralogical Association of Canada. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0-921294-54-2.
[89]Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis (1985). Manual of Mineralogy (20th ed.). Wiley. pp. 300–302. ISBN 0-471-80580-7.
[90]Rickwood, P. C. (1981). "The largest crystals" (PDF). American Mineralogist. 66: 885–907.
[91]"Rubicon Technology grows 200 kg "super boule"". LED Inside. 21 April 2009. from https://www.ledinside.com/news/2009/4/Rubicon_Technology_Grows_Super_boule_of_200kg_Weight_20090421
[92]Duroc-Danner, J. M. (2011). "Untreated yellowish orange sapphire exhibiting its natural colour" (PDF). Journal of Gemmology. 32 (5): 175–178. doi:10.15506/jog.2011.32.5.174. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2013.
[93]Bahadur (1943). "A Handbook of Precious Stones". Retrieved 19 August 2007.
[94]Walsh, Andrew (February 2010). "The commodification of fetishes: Telling the difference between natural and synthetic sapphires". American Ethnologist. 37 (1): 98–114. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1425.2010.01244.x.
[95]百度百科,多孔陶瓷,2021/01/27網址 : https://baike.baidu.hk/item/%E5%A4%9A%E5%AD%94%E9%99%B6%E7%93%B7/2261761

電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20270214)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top