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研究生:張昊成
研究生(外文):ZHANG, HAO-CHENG
論文名稱:豆麴酵素粗萃液對麻竹筍管質地軟化效果之評估
論文名稱(外文):Texture softening evaluation of bamboo(Dendrocalamus latiflorus) shoots(new culms) by crude enzyme extract from soybean koji
指導教授:王培銘王培銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):WANG, PEI-MING
口試委員:鍾雲琴許成光
口試委員(外文):CHUNG, YUN-CHINHSU, CHENG-KUANG
口試日期:2022-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:中文
論文頁數:49
中文關鍵詞:麻竹筍管豆麴酵素粗萃液質地軟化冷凍解凍真空含浸法
外文關鍵詞:Dendrocalamus latiflorusbamboo shoots(new culms)soybean koji crude enzyme extracttexture softeningfreeze–thaw enzyme vacuum impregnation method
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「醬筍」是一種台灣傳統的鹽漬竹筍產品,使用新鮮筍管、食鹽與豆麴作為材料,經由豆麴中的酵素作用,在 2~3個月後使筍管原本韌硬的質地變為軟綿。本研究利用市售豆麴製備豆麴酵素粗萃液,以麻竹筍管片為材料,探討反應溫度、加工方式等操作條件對豆麴酵素軟化筍管片質地的影響,並建立質地軟化的動力學模式,未來可以藉由反應溫度、反應時間與加工方式調控筍管的質地軟硬程度。實驗上,使用豆麴酵素粗萃液,以冷凍解凍真空含浸法進行麻竹筍管片軟化反應,由實驗數據可知麻竹筍管片軟化符合一次反應模式,可以求得不同溫度之反應速率常數 k,進一步計 算出活化能 Ea之數值為 4.97 kcal/mol。本研究同時使用 10種商業酵素進行麻竹筍管片軟化反應,結果發現使用冷凍解凍真空含浸法進行試驗時, Celluclast 1.5L、 Ceremix 6X MG與豆麴酵素粗萃液對筍片軟化有較佳的效果。Celluclast 1.5L酵素的主要活性是 Cellulase,使得筍片結構崩解,失去原來外型。而 Ceremix 6X MG酵素與豆麴酵素粗萃液都是複合型酵素,除了可以軟化筍片外,也都保留了筍片原來的形狀。在市售麻竹嫩筍、杏鮑菇、牛蒡與胡蘿蔔之質地軟化應用上,發現豆麴 酵素粗萃液對杏鮑菇幾乎完全沒有作用,但對市售麻竹嫩筍、胡蘿蔔與牛蒡有一定程度上的軟化效果,而且能夠保持原來的形狀。因此,利用豆麴酵素粗萃液的軟化反應可以開發無鹽醬筍產品,而且縮短了製作時程。另外,也可以應用於其他食材,開發能夠保留食材原型但質地軟化的高齡者友善食品。
Bamboo(Dendrocalamus latiflorus) shoots(new culms), pickled with addition of salt and soybean koji, was a traditional product in Taiwan. This product had a very soft texture resulted from enzyme activity of soybean koji after 2-3 months and retained original shape. In this study, bamboo shoots(new culms) were softened by crude enzyme extract from soybean koji. The effects of reaction temperature and processing methods on the texture were investigated. A kinetic model of texture softening was also established. The results showed that texture softening of bamboo shoots(new culms) by soybean koji crude enzyme extract followed a first order kinetic reaction. The activation energy was 4.97 kcal/mol by freeze–thaw enzyme vacuum impregnation method. Ten commercial enzymes were also used to soften bamboo shoots(new culms). It was found that Celluclast 1.5L, Ceremix 6X MG and soybean koji crude enzyme extracts were the most effective enzymes. The main activity of Celluclast 1.5L was contributed by Cellulase, the structure of bamboo shoot collapsed and vanished their original shape. Ceremix 6X MG and the soybean koji crude enzyme extract were both complex enzymes that softened the bamboo shoots and retained their original shapes. By applying on tender bamboo shoots, king oyster mushrooms, burdocks, and carrots, it was found that the soybean koji crude enzyme extract was almost ineffective against the hardness of king oyster mushrooms, but had a certain degree of softening effect toward tender bamboo shoots, carrots, and burdocks. Therefore, the softening effect of the soybean koji crude enzyme extract could be applied to salt-free pickled bamboo shoots products and shorten the pickling time. It can also be used to soften the texture of many ingredients to develop elderly friendly foods that maintained their original shapes of food materials with a softened texture.
摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
第一章、前言 1
第二章、文獻回顧 3
一、人口老齡化 3
二、質地軟化食品 11
三、麻竹筍的加工利用 12
第三章、材料與方法 16
一、 實驗架構 16
二、材料 18
(一)、豆麴酵素粗萃液 18
(二)、商業酵素 19
(三)、食材樣品 20
(四)、豆麴酵素粗萃液之辐射照射殺菌 20
三、酵素軟化反應 22
四、質地分析 22
六、實驗儀器 27
第四章、結果與討論 28
一、 麻竹筍管片硬度之測量 28
二、 反應溫度對豆麴酵素粗萃液軟化麻竹筍管片之影響 30
三、 γ射線照射豆麴酵素粗萃液進行滅菌對軟化麻竹筍管片之影響 32
四、 不同加工方式對麻竹筍管片軟化效果之影響 34
五、 不同酵素作用對軟化食材效果之影響 36
六、 豆麴酵素粗萃液軟化麻竹筍管片之動力學分析 40
七、 豆麴酵素對不同食材質地軟化的影響 42
第五章、結論 44
參考文獻 46
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