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研究生:圖佳
研究生(外文):TOLGA ERDOGAN
論文名稱:疫情對土耳其酒店的影響及其對策之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research on the Impact of the Epidemic on Hotels and lts Countermeasures in Turkey
指導教授:翁興利翁興利引用關係
指導教授(外文):WONG, SENG-LEE
口試委員:葉一璋李元和
口試日期:2022-06-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:世新大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所(含碩專班)
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2022
畢業學年度:110
語文別:英文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:Covid-19大流行酒店
外文關鍵詞:Covid-19pandemichotel
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摘要

酒店業的興衰影響旅遊業至鉅,因為酒店業在觀光產業中的收入佔有重要份額。
本研究旨在探討土耳其酒店業在 covid-19 期間所面臨的經營問題及其對策。

本研究首先針對土耳其12位酒店經營專家進行深度訪談。根據深度訪談的結果,本研究設計專家問卷,並於2022年2月1日到3月25日期間,針對32家土耳其觀光飯店及民宿業者發放50份專家問卷,總共回收34份有效問卷。

本研究主要發現如下:
1、疫情期間,政府並未提供足夠必要的防疫工具給予酒店及民宿業者。
2、與歐洲各國比較,土耳其政府對酒店及民宿業者在貸款及財政補助方面,不但不足,而且並不公平。
3、疫情期間,旅遊產業從業人員(例如導遊、酒店工作人員)的工作權並未受到應有合理的保障。

針對以上幾點發現,本研究另提出幾點建議,供政府及酒店業者在未來管理上的決策參考。

Abstract
The rise and fall of the hotel industry has a huge impact on the tourism industry, as the hotel industry accounts for a significant share of the revenue of the tourism industry.
This study aims to explore the operational issues faced by the Turkish hotel industry during covid-19 and their countermeasures.

This study firstly conducted in-depth interviews with 12 hotel management experts in Turkey. According to the results of the in-depth interviews, this study designed an expert questionnaire, and from February 1 to March 25, 2022, 50 expert questionnaires were distributed to 32 Turkish tourist hotels and homestay operators, and a total of 34 valid questionnaires were recovered.

The main findings of this study are as follows:
1. During the epidemic, the government did not provide enough necessary epidemic prevention tools to hotel and homestay operators.
2. Compared with European countries, the Turkish government is not only insufficient in terms of loans and financial subsidies to hotel and homestay companies, but also unfair.
3. During the epidemic, the work rights of tourism industry practitioners (such as tour guides and hotel staff) have not been properly guaranteed.

In response to the above findings, this study also puts forward some suggestions for the government and hotel industry decision-making reference in the future management.


Table of Contents ………………………………………… I
• List of Figures …………………………………………… III
• List of Tables …………………………………………… IV
• Abbreviations …………………………………………… IV
• Abstract ………………………………………………… VI
• Abstract Chinese………………………………………… VII
1) Chapter 1 Introduction ……………………………… 1
2) Chapter 2. Literature Review………………………… 2
2.1 Covid-19 and Its Effects……………………………… 2
2.2 The Concept of Tourism……………………………… 4
2.2.1 Tourism history and tourism in Turkey……………… 5
2.2.2 Tourism Types of Tourism and Hotels in Turkey…… 7
2.2.3 Types of Tourism in Turkey………………………… 10
2.3 Hotel Industry in Turkey……………………………… 13
2.3.1 Accommodation Sector in Turkey in the Last 10 Years... 14
3) Chapter 3 Research Design………………………………15
3.1 Purpose and Method…………………………………… 15
3.1.1 Research Question …………………………………… 15
3.1.2 Data Collection & Questionnaire……………………… 17
3.1.3 Aggregate Data……………………………………… 23
4) Chapter 4 Analysis and Findings……………………….. 26
4.1 Data of Tourists and Hotels in Turkey Before and After the Pandemic………………………………………………………... 26
4.1.1 Nationalities of Tourists Preferring Turkey…………… 26
4.1.2 Star Hotel Numbers in Turkey………………………… 28

4.1.3 2018-2019 Domestic and Foreign Tourists Staying in Turkey Hotels……………………………………………………………. 29
4.2 Hotel Data Responding to the Survey…………………… 30
4.2.1 Number of Guests and Occupancy Rate of the Hotels Participating in the Pre-Pandemic Survey…………………………. 32
4.3 Tourist Data Before and During the Pandemic…………... 33
4.3.1 Changing Number of Tourists in Hotels with the Effect of the Pandemic………………………………………………………… 33
4.3.2 Support Given to Hotels During the Pandemic Period…… 34
4.3.3 Covid-19 Measures Implemented by the State and Supports Given to Hotels…………………………………………………… 36
4.3.4 Change in Omicron Variant and Post Vaccination Hotels… 37
4.3.5 The Effects of the Pandemic on the Future Investments and Plans of the Hotels…………………………………………………38
5) Chapter 5 Conclusion………………………………………39
5.1 Research Questions Findings……………………………... 39
5.2 Conclusion &Recommendations …………………………. 53
References …………………………………………………… 56
Survey ………………………………………………………… 59


REFERENCES

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Behsudi, 2020 Tourism-dependent economies are among those harmed the most by the pandemic https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/fandd/issues/2020/12/impact-of-the-pandemic-on-tourism-behsudi

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Culture and Tourism Ministry. (2020). Tourism Statistics: General Evaluation 2019. Accessed: https://yigm.ktb.gov.tr/Eklenti/69320,turizmistatistikleri2019-4pdf.pdf?0 (Access Date: 20.05.2020)


Dinarto, D., Wanto, A., & Sebastian, L. C. (2020). Global health security–Covid-19: impact on Bintan’s tourism sector. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), 033, 1-3.

European Parliament. (2020). Covid-19: EU Support for the Tourism Industry. Access: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/society/20200429STO78175/covid-19-eu-support-for-the-tourism-industry (Access Date: 24.05.2020)

IMF COVID-19 https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/ar/2020/eng/spotlight/covid-19/

Konstanty, 1993: 17 What is tourism? http://www.turismeproactiu.com/en/what-is-tourism/

Lovelance,2020 Epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343974/


Ministry of Culture and Tourism (2020). Tourism Statistics. https://yigm.ktb.gov.tr/TR-9851/turizmistatistikleri.html Access Date: 22.09.2020


Mc Kinsey & Company, 2020 When will the COVID-19 pandemic end? https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/healthcare-systems-and-services/our-insights/when-will-the-covid-19-pandemic-end

NTV News Wuhan'da corona virüs salgını ağustosta mı başladı? https://www.ntv.com.tr/video/dunya/wuhanda-corona-virus-salgini-agustosta-mi-basladi,yGwdt56cp0uAJfqHYpxOaw

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