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研究生(外文):I-Chin Wu
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng Saponins Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Arginine Absorption.
指導教授(外文):You-Cheng Shen
口試委員(外文):Chin-Kun WangDeng-Jye Yang
中文關鍵詞:黃耆人參皂苷萃取物(APS)L-精胺酸不對稱二甲基精胺酸(ADMA)一氧化氮 (NO)環磷酸鳥苷 (cGMP)
外文關鍵詞:Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng saponin extracts (APS)L-arginineAsymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)Nitric oxide (NO)Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)
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黃耆或人參的皂苷萃取物會增加動物內皮一氧化氮(NO)和環磷酸鳥苷(cGMP)的生成,具有血管舒張之潛力。由於尚未有同時添加黃耆與人參皂苷對於人體一氧化氮生成影響的相關研究。本研究目的為探討補充黃耆人參皂苷萃取物(APS)是否能夠透過增加人體對於精胺酸的吸收及抑制不對稱二甲基精胺酸(ADMA),而增加一氧化氮的生成。試驗採隨機雙盲交叉試驗,受試者為20到80歲之健康成年人。試驗分兩次進行,受試者每次服用1顆APS膠囊或安慰劑及L-精胺酸粉末5公克,並進行3小時的藥動學研究,兩次試驗間有排空期1星期。收集血漿與尿液檢測,觀察血漿胺基酸、ADMA及尿液硝酸鹽與cGMP等。共招募30位受試者,排除6位個體差異較大者,最後24位進行分析,結果發現補充APS後,L-精胺酸曲線下面積(AUC)顯著上升17.3% (p=0.041),Arg/ADMA顯著上升167.1% (p=0.007), 且尿液硝酸鹽、cGMP有上升趨勢,分別上升18.8%、18.9%。表示APS可顯著增加精胺酸吸收及抑制ADMA,促進一氧化氮生成,可能對於運動前(pre-workout)和心血管健康有益。
Saponin extracts from Astragalus membranaceus or Panax ginseng have been shown to increase the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in endothelial cells, demonstrating potential vasodilation properties. However, existing research has yet to fully examine the combined effects of these saponin extracts on NO generation in humans.. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with Astragalus membranaceus and Panax ginseng saponin extracts (APS) could enhance NO production in humans by promoting the absorption of arginine and inhibiting asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA).
A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial was carried out with healthy adult participants ranging from 20 to 80 years of age. The trial consisted of two phases, where participants ingested one capsule of APS or a placebo along with 5 grams of L-arginine powder. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted over a period of 3 hours, interspersed with a washout period of one week between the trials. For analysis of plasma amino acids, ADMA, nitrate/nitrite, and cGMP, plasma, and urine samples were collected. Out of the 30 initially recruited participants, 6 were excluded due to considerable interindividual variations, leaving 24 participants in the final analysis.The findings indicated a substantial increase in L-arginine area under the curve (AUC) by 17.3% (p=0.041) following APS supplementation. The Arginine/ADMA ratio also experienced a significant rise of 167.1% (p=0.007). Furthermore, urine nitrate/nitrite and cGMP displayed an upward trend, increasing by 18.8% and 18.9%, respectively. These results suggest that APS supplementation can significantly enhance arginine absorption, inhibit ADMA, and promote NO production, With these findings, the addition of APS to arginine supplements could be advantageous for pre-workout and cardiovascular health.
謝誌 I
中文摘要 II
Abstract III
目次 IV
圖次 VI
表次 VII
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻探討 2
第一節 一氧化氮生成途徑 2
一、 尿素循環 (Urea Cycle) 2
二、瓜胺酸-一氧化氮循環(Cit-NO cycle) 3
第二節 L-Arginine代謝機制 4
一、 精胺酸 (L-Arginine, Arg) 4
二、 一氧化氮 (Nitric oxide; NO) 5
三、非對稱性二甲基精胺酸 6
四、cGMP(Cyclic guanosine monophosphate)的生成 8
五、亞硝酸鹽和硝酸鹽(Nitrite and nitrate) 9
第三節 黃耆皂苷(Astragalosides) 11
第四節 人參皂苷(Ginsenosides) 12
第三章 研究方法 15
第一節 研究目的 15
第二節 試驗設計 16
第三節 試驗材料 18
第四節 試驗設計方法 19
第五節 試驗儀器 23
第六節 統計分析 25
第四章 結果與討論 26
第一節 受試者特性及體位測量 26
第二節 營養吸收藥物動力學 27
第三節 ADMA、硝酸鹽和Arg/ADMA的變化 30
第四節 尿液硝酸鹽和環磷酸鳥苷含量 33
第五節 研究限制 35
第伍章 結論 36
參考文獻 37
附錄 44
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