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研究生:翁巧鈴
研究生(外文):Qiao-Ling Weng
論文名稱:成年初期的性別、親密關係與自評健康
論文名稱(外文):Gender,Intimate Relationship and Self-Rated Health in Emerging Adults
指導教授:汪淑娟汪淑娟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Chuan Wang
口試委員:李孟智侯建州
口試日期:2023-07-21
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中山醫學大學
系所名稱:醫學社會暨社會工作學系
學門:社會服務學門
學類:社會工作學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:成年初期性別親密關係自評健康
外文關鍵詞:Emerging AdultsGenderIntimate RelationshipSelf-Rated Health
DOI:10.6834/csmu202300106
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目的:
  研究指出,婚姻對自評健康具有保護性的作用,而成年初期的年輕人大部分未婚,親密關係是否也對健康具保護作用,本研究旨在討論性別、親密關係與自評健康的影響。具體研究目的為(1)了解成年初期性別、親密關係與自評健康之情況(2)探討性別與親密關係對自評健康的調節作用(3)探討自評健康的影響因素
方法:
  本研究採用次級資料分析,並以成年初期者為研究對象,研究資料取自「台灣青少年成長歷程研究」中的學生問卷,選取其中國三學生第七波樣本之問卷資料,並利用 SPSS 26.0統計套裝軟體進行分析。
結果:
  本研究主要發現如下: (1)成年初期者之男性占51.2%;女性占48.8%,比例相距不大;無親密關係者為711人,占38.5%,可以發現比例偏低,表示成年初期者大多擁有親密關係的伴侶;生理影響因素的頭痛、頭暈的人數分別為47.6%和45.4%,肌肉痠痛比例更多達62.6%,這也說明成年初期者的生理健康狀況不佳;心理因素的負向人格雖僅占35.1%,但心理健康的鬱卒和擔心過度卻分別占55%和53.4%,代表超過半數的成年初期者的心理健康需要被關注;社會因素的社區親切感雖然高達82.3%,但實際上參與社區和宗教活動的成年初期者分別僅有27%和26.7%。(2)進一步由單因子及二因子變異數分析得知雖親密關係滿意度和自評健康有顯著相關,且男性自評健康優於女性,而親密關係不滿者的自評健康是其中更為弱勢者,同時發現性別、親密關係對自評健康無交互作用產生。(3)再以多層次迴歸分析檢驗自評健康影響發現親密關係只有在控制社會因素後才不顯著,其中生理的頭痛、頭暈和肌肉痠痛顯示具有反向的自評健康統計顯著結果;心理因素的正向、負向人格和有無力感皆具有統計顯著性,正向人格顯示正向的結果;則負向人格及有無力感皆顯示為反向的自評健康結果;社會經濟地位、家庭概況以及社會支持中的在學、無薪資、母親教育程度高中職、母親教育程度大專以上和無向人求助皆具有統計顯著性,無薪資為正向的自評健康結果;則其他皆為反向的自評健康結果。
結論:
  本研究聚焦成年初期者的面貌。除了檢驗男性和女性的自評健康有差異之外還發現與婚姻關係不同,親密關係對自評健康沒有產生保護性作用;但可以發現生理、心理及社會因素對自評健康具有顯著的正向或反向的影響性。另外,筆者更建議未來研究上可以針對成年初期弱勢者深入探討之外;在校園中可以更可關注陷於情感困惑中的大專生。
Purposes:
Past studies indicated that marriage has a protective effect on self-rated health. Young people in early adulthood are mostly unmarried. Does intimate relationship also have a protective effect on health? This study aims to investigate the effect of gender and intimate relationship on self-rated health. The specific research purposes are: (1) to understand the effect of gender and intimate relationship in early adulthood on self-rated health; (2) to investigate the moderating effect of gender and intimate relationship on self-rated health; (3) to investigate the factors affecting self-rated health.
Methods:
This study performed secondary data analysis. The research subjects were young people in early adulthood. The research data were collected from the student questionnaires used in the “study on growth process of adolescents in Taiwan.” This study selected the questionnaire data from the 7th wave of samples of the 9th graders and analyzed the data using SPSS 26.0 statistical package software.
Results:
The main findings are as follows: (1) for the young adults in early adulthood, 51.2% of them were male, while 48.8% of them were female, with no significant difference in proportion. 711 subjects (38.5%) had no intimate relationship. In other words, the proportion was low, suggesting that in early adulthood, most of the subjects had a partner of intimate relationship. In terms of physiological factors, 47.6% and 45.4% of the subjects suffered from headache and dizziness, respectively. In addition, as high as 62.6% of the subjects suffered from muscle ache, indicating that the physiological health of young people in early adulthood was poor. In terms of psychological factors, although only 35.1% of the subjects had a negative personality, 55% and 53.4% of the subjects suffered from depression and excessive worrying, respectively. In other words, the psychological health of more than a half of young people in early adulthood needs attention. In terms of social factors, although as high as 82.3% of the subjects experienced community friendliness, as a matter of fact, only 27% and 26.7% of the young people in early adulthood participated in community and religious activities, respectively. (2) This study further performed one-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA and found that although there is a significant correlation between intimate relationship satisfaction and self-rated health and the self-rated health of male subjects is significantly better than that of female ones, the self-related health of those dissatisfied with intimate relationship is the poorest. Moreover, this study also found that there is no interaction between gender and intimate relationship on self-rated health. (3) This study also performed multiple regression analysis on the effect on self-rated health and found that the effect of intimate relationship on self-rated health is insignificant only when the social factors are controlled. On the contrary, headache, dizziness, and muscle ache in physiological factors have a statistically significant negative effect on self-rated health. The positive personality, negative personality, and sense of helplessness in psychological factors all do not have a statistically significant effect. Positive personality has a positive effect on self-rated health; negative personality and sense of helplessness both have a negative effect on self-rated health. Socioeconomic status, family status, and in-school, no salary, vocational/senior high school as mother’s educational level, college and above as mother’s educational level, and failure to ask for help in social support all have a statistically significant effect. No salary has a positive effect on self-rated health, while other factors all have a negative effect on self-rated health.
Conclusions:
This study focused on the status of young people in early adulthood. In addition to detecting the difference in self-rated health between male and female subjects, this study also found that unlike marriage, intimate relationship does not have a protective effect on self-rated health. However, this study also found that physiological, psychological, and social factors have a significantly positive or negative effect on self-rated health. Moreover, future studies are advised to probe into young people in early adulthood with poor self-rated health, in order to pay more attention to college students on campus trapped in emotional relationship.
目次
誌謝 II
中文摘要 III
英文摘要 V
目次 VII
圖次 IX
表次 X
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 3
第二節 研究重要性 4
第三節 研究目的 5
第二章 文獻探討 6
第一節 成年初期 6
一、成年初期的生命發展論 6
二、成年初期之性別發展 10
三、成年初期之親密關係發展 11
四、成年初期大學生 12
五、成年初期非大學生 14
第二節 自評健康 15
一、自評健康概念 15
二、自評健康重要性 19
三、台灣使用自評健康的現況 20
第三節 性別、親密關係對自評健康影響 21
一、性別與健康 21
二、親密關係、婚姻與健康 23
三、性別、親密關係與健康 25
第四節 影響自評健康的社會因素 26
一、社會經濟地位 26
二、社會支持與鄰里環境 27
三、宗教 29
第五節 影響自評健康的心理因素 30
一、人格特質 30
二、心理健康 31
三、健康信念 33
第六節 影響自評健康的生理因素 34
一、健康狀況或疾病 35
二、健康行為 36
第三章 研究方法 39
第一節 研究資料 39
一、研究對象 40
第二節 研究架構 41
一、自變項 42
二、依變項 48
第三節 資料處理與分析 49
第四章 研究分析結果 50
第一節 研究對象基本資料分析 50
第二節 t檢定和變異數分析結果 57
第三節 多層次迴歸分析結果 60
第五章 討論與建議 64
第一節 討論 64
一、性別、親密關係關係與自評健康影響 65
二、生理、心理及社會經濟地位與自評健康影響 67
三、母親教育程度與自評健康影響 68
四、其他自評健康影響 69
五、其他 69
第三節 研究限制與未來建議 70
一、本研究限制 70
二、未來研究建議 70
三、未來實務建議 71
參考文獻 72
附錄一 82
附錄二 83

圖次
圖 2-1 Garbarski的理論架構 16
圖 2-1 Garbarski的理論架構(續) 17
圖 3-1 研究架構圖 41
圖 4-1性別x親密關係之二因子變異數分析 60

表次
表 3-1性別題項 42
表 3-2親密關係題項 43
表 3-3社會因素題項 45
表 3-4心理因素題項 46
表 3-5生理因素題項 48
表 3-6依變項題項 49
表 4-1研究對象基本資料、社會經濟地位及家庭概況 51
表 4-2研究對象生理因素 52
表 4-3研究對象心理因素 54
表 4-4研究對象社會因素 55
表 4-5自評健康的t檢定分析(按性別分組) 57
表 4-6親密關係滿意度對自評健康之單因子變異數分析 58
表 4-7性別x親密關係之描述性統計結果 59
表 4-8性別x親密關係之二因子變異數分析 59
表 4-9性別和親密關係及生理、心理與社會對自評健康的作用 61
表 5-1研究目的檢驗 64
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三、網路資訊

衛生福利部統計處 ( 2019 )。世界心理健康日衛生福利統計通報。上網日期 : 2023-05-10。
https://dep.mohw.gov.tw/DOMHAOH/np 389 107.html

馮靖惠 ( 2022 )。輔導有漏洞/每所大學至少500名學生有憂鬱困擾 心輔師疲憊撐不起三級預防。聯合報。上網日期 : 2023-05-04。
https://vip.udn.com/vip/story/122866/6759672?from=vipudn_series。

Karen ( 2023 )。「我的職場,我做主」從安靜辭職、憤怒找工作到直播離職,Z世代新職場學。DQ 地球圖輯隊。上網日期 : 2023-05-04。
https://dq.yam.com/post/15353。

行政院內政部統計處 ( 2021 )。上網日期 : 2023-05-04。
https://www.moi.gov.tw/News_Content.aspx?n=4&sms=9009&s=266501。

行政院衛生福利部 ( 2017 )。「105年度國衛院政策成果發表會」新聞發表。上網日期 : 2023-05-04。
https://www.mohw.gov.tw/cp-2634-9492-1.html

行政院勞動部 ( 2023 )。「勞動統計查詢網」。上網日期 : 2023-07-03。
https://statfy.mol.gov.tw/statistic_DB.aspx。

行政院主計總處 ( 2023 )。「家庭收支調查」。上網日期 : 2023-07-03。
https://www.dgbas.gov.tw/News.aspx?n=3991&sms=11024。

四、資料庫

伊慶春(2021)。台灣青少年成長歷程研究:國三樣本(J3)第七波,青少年問卷(公共版)(C00250_2)【原始數據】。取自中樣研究院人文社會科學研究中心調查研究專題中心學術調查研究資料庫。
https://doi.org/10.6141/TW-SRDA-C00250_2-3
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