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研究生:沈睿翔
研究生(外文):SHEN, RUEI-SIANG
論文名稱:邁向成人期之認知評估、心理堅韌力與分手調適之關係:以擴展建立理論探討
論文名稱(外文):Exploring the Relationships Among Cognitive Appraisal, Resilience and Breakup Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood from the Perspective of the Broaden-Build Theory
指導教授:陳坤虎陳坤虎引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHEN, KUN-HU
口試委員:徐儷瑜李怡真
口試日期:2022-05-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:臨床心理學系碩士班
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:心理堅韌力認知評估正向情緒發現益處分手調適擴展建立理論路徑分析
外文關鍵詞:ResilienceCognitive AppraisalPositive EmotionBenefit FindingBreakup AdjustmentThe Broaden-Build TheoryPath Analysis
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正向心理學研究聚焦於個體的正向發展,並藉由了解個體如何增強心理素質、辨明情境脈絡下所具有的正向情緒,進而提升心理健康狀態。分手是邁向成人期階段的重大逆境事件,若調適不良會影響個體往後親密關係的建立以及產生許多身心症狀,因此如何讓邁向成人期個體有良好的分手調適、迎接下段戀情,亦為正向心理學之範疇。過去文獻顯示,心理堅韌力、正向情緒以及發現益處皆為適應逆境的重要因素,但是卻未曾以正向心理學之基礎探討分手調適。據此,本研究將採Fredrickson(2001)所提出的擴展-建立理論(The Broaden-Build Theory)分析個體藉由心理堅韌力、正向情緒、發現益處來調適分手的路徑模式,並輔以壓力、評估及因應理論(Stress, Appraisal and Coping Theory)中的認知評估,以釐清個體在不同的壓力認知評估下之分手調適歷程。
本研究於網路平台招募有效樣本共339位,平均年齡為24.23歲,其中女性佔75.2%、學生佔59.3%。研究工具包含:基本資料調查表、心理堅韌力量表、分手認知評估量表、區別情緒量表修訂版、發現益處以及分手調適量表修訂版。研究結果顯示:(1)心理堅韌力與正向情緒、分手調適間有顯著正相關(2)正向情緒與發現益處間有顯著正相關;而發現益處與分手調適間亦有顯著正相關(3)威脅認知評估與心理堅韌力間有顯著負相關;反之,挑戰認知評估與心理堅韌力間有顯著正相關(4)當認知評估為威脅時,個體將會透過正向情緒,增加發現益處,進而提高分手調適之路徑(5)當認知評估為挑戰時,個體將透過心理堅韌力提升正向情緒,增加發現益處,進而提高分手調適之路徑。
本研究結果意涵,心理堅韌力能藉由提升正向情緒,並透過擴展-建立理論中正向情緒的向上螺旋效果,在分手事件中幫助個體擁有比較多的思考-行動力,擴展個體當下的知覺與思考能力並且發現益處,進而提升分手調適。另一方面,納入認知評估後,威脅認知評估不透過心理堅韌力,而是直接透過正向情緒影響發現益處、分手調適;相反地,挑戰認知評估將會藉由擴展-建立理論之路徑影響分手調適。
Positive psychology emphasized the better development of individual and how they increased their positive psychological resources, found the positive emotion from the context, to promote the own state of psychological health. Breakup was one of the significant adversities in emerging adulthood stage. Coping with this adversity badly could affect the intimate relationships of individual in the future and make lots of somatic symptoms as well. Therefore, how to make individual have better breakup adjustment, and get better romantic relationship is one of the fields of positive psychology. Past researches indicated that resilience, positive emotion and benefit finding are the important factors for individual’s adjustment in the adversity, but never investigating the breakup adjustment on the foundation of positive psychology. As a result, the aim of this study is to investigate the pathway from “The Broaden-Build Theory” presented by Fredrickson(2001)which proposed individuals could overcome breakup though resilience, positive emotion, and benefit finding. The purpose of this study also investigated cognitive appraisals from “Stress, Appraisal and Coping Theory” presented by Lazarus and Folkman(1984)to understanding how to improve breakup adjustment under different cognitive appraisals.
The study recruited 339 volunteers (mean age= 24.23, 75.2% were female, and 59.3% were student). The study included Background investigation scale, Ego resiliency scale, Breakup cognitive appraisal scale, Modified differential emotions scale(mDES), Benefit finding scale, and Breakup adjustment scale(revised version)as research tools. The result of the study shows(1)Resilience had positively significant correlation of positive emotion and breakup adjustment.(2)Positive emotion had positively significant correlation of benefit finding which has positively significant correlation of breakup adjustment.(3)Threat cognitive appraisal had negatively significant correlation of resilience, in contrast, challenge cognitive appraisal had positively significant correlation of resilience.(4)When cognitive appraisal was threat, the individual would use the pathway of increasing benefit finding through positive emotion, and improving breakup adjustment.(5)When cognitive appraisal was challenge, the individual would use the pathway of increasing positive emotion and benefit finding through resilience, and improving breakup adjustment.
Present study implies that resilience could increase positive emotion and positive emotion in “The Broaden-Build Theory” could help breakup individuals to have more thought-action repertoire and find benefit by broadening the abilities of perceiving and thinking, thereby improving breakup adjustment. On the other hand, after considering cognitive appraisal, we found threat cognitive appraisal affects benefit finding through positive emotion (not through resilience), in contrast, challenge cognitive appraisal affects breakup adjustment by the pathway of “The Broaden-Build Theory”.
摘要I
AbstractIII
目錄V
表目次VII
圖目次VIII
第一章 緒論1
第一節 研究緣起與動機1
第二章 文獻探討3
第一節 分手調適3
一、邁向成人期之分手歷程3
二、分手調適之定義與相關研究5
第二節 心理堅韌力7
一、心理堅韌力的發展脈絡7
二、心理堅韌力的定義8
三、心理堅韌力與分手歷程之相關研究9
第三節 正向情緒11
一、正向情緒發展脈絡與定義11
二、正向情緒與擴展-建立理論13
三、正向情緒與分手歷程之關係15
第四節 認知評估17
一、認知評估發展脈絡與定義17
二、認知評估與壓力事件之關係19
三、認知評價測量工具之評析20
第五節 發現益處22
一、發現益處發展脈絡與定義22
二、發現益處與心理堅韌力、正向情緒之關係24
三、發現益處在分手調適中的角色26
第六節 研究目的與架構27
第三章 研究方法30
第一節 研究對象30
第二節 研究工具32
第三節 研究流程35
第四節 資料處理與分析37
第四章 研究結果38
第一節 相關分析38
第二節 路徑分析41
第五章 綜合討論44
第一節 心理堅韌力、正向情緒、發現益處以及分手調適之關聯性44
第二節 認知評估與分手調適之路徑分析46
第三節 研究貢獻與臨床應用47
第四節 研究限制49
第五節 未來研究方向51
參考文獻53
附錄 研究同意書和量表內容71
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