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研究生:申相允
研究生(外文):Sang-Yun Shin
論文名稱:韓國基督新教的性別角色刻板印象之型塑
論文名稱(外文):Gender Role Stereotypes of Korean Protestantism
指導教授:邱炫元邱炫元引用關係
指導教授(外文):Syuan-yuan Chiou
口試委員:申相允
口試委員(外文):Sang-Yun Shin
口試日期:2023-04-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:社會學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:社會學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:基要主義韓國教會基督新教父權文化性別角色刻板印象性別歧視
外文關鍵詞:FundamentalismProtestant ChurchKorean ChurchGender ConflictGender role StereotypesPatriarchy
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摘要
本論文探討的主題是韓國基督新教教會的信徒,如何在他們的宗教活動與教會參與中經歷性別不平等,以及他們對於性別刻板化的態度。雖然教會中的婦女信徒比例佔大多數,也從早期教會的建立至今貢獻良多,然而她們多半還是會將教會的父權文化和基要主義的價值合理化。本研究的目的是探討教會的父權文化和基要主義的宗教價值根源,如何使得信徒內化這些價值觀,以及他們如何看待性別平等。因此,我們對汝矣島純福音教會、乙支路長老教會和東灘監理教會三個具有代表性的教會組織成員進行個案訪談,依照他們在教會中的職位、性別和年齡,比較不同社會背景對於性別議題的體驗與觀點。本文認為,父權文化和基要主義乃是兩個導致教會普遍存在的性別不平等最核心的成因。前者衍生教會中對女性的穿著形象刻板化、男女教會職務的分工不平等,以及存在於以男性為主導的管理階層之權威。而後者,則執著於對聖經的字面解讀,反對同性戀加上對母職的刻板化,又加深了教會性別不平等的問題。
我們發現,儘管不同世代的女性受訪者對父權文化的感受有所不同,但她們不否認性別不平等的現象存在。教會無法趕上社會快速變遷的潮流,不願意選派女性擔任牧師與長老的領導職務,否定了女性可以帶領教會的能力。男性受訪者則承認大部分性別不平等的問題,但他們卻認為這是因為男女天生的差別而不可避免所造成。由此本文認為性別不平等的問題非來自於生理性別的差異,而是教會信徒對男女角色的認知有巨大的差異。此外,教會的基要主義價值觀反映在歧視婦女、反對女性擔任牧師、禁止墮胎,並認為性別角色的不同是上帝對個人的安排。基於上述所發現的性別不平等,本研究主張教會的聖經解釋應當強化對生命的尊重的再教育、建立女性帶領的教會,並重新定位母職。教會應該帶頭面對社會的衝突與性別矛盾,並提供給社會邊緣者更多不同的空間,而非一味地壓迫他們。
Abstract
This study analyzes how Christians in Korea's Protestant Church experience gender inequality and gender role stereotypes in their religious activities. Women constitute the majority of the Protestant churches in Korea and have contributed greatly to the development of the church through activities ranging from the early church to the present. However, the patriarchal culture and fundamentalism of the Korean Church legitimized gender discrimination. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the patriarchal culture and fundamentalist characteristics of Korean Protestant churches affect the Protestant experience and internalize gender discrimination in their respective religious activities and whether they practice gender equality. To this end, I conducted case studies and in-depth interviews with members of three Korean churches, including the Yeouido Full Gospel Church (The assemblies of the god of Korea) and the Methodist Church, which are representative denominations of Korean Protestantism. I also interviewed people by position, sex, and age in the church to compare perceptions and experiences of gender inequality. The results of this study are as follows. The researchers analyzed gender inequality in Protestant churches in Korea as 'patriarchy' and 'fundamentalism'. Anti-evolutionism based on fundamentalism, anti-Islam, anti-homosexuality, and justification of gender discrimination based on Biblical literalism, as well as patriarchal culture, gender division of labor, and authoritarian culture, are characteristics of the Korean Church.
Korea In particular, women's organizations in the church point out that generations have different views on patriarchy and gender inequality. The men's group acknowledged most of the gender inequalities pointed out by the women's group but considered them inevitable because of the nature of men and women. From the differences in thinking between male and female interviewees, we can see that the root cause of gender conflict is not the difference between the sexes, but the difference in the roles of men and women. In addition, the Korean churches investigated in this study exhibit fundamentalist characteristics. Specifically, Korean churches discriminate against women, oppose female priests, force women into auxiliary roles, prohibit abortion, and stereotype individuals as roles assigned by God from birth to men and women. Based on the above findings, this paper proposes an action plan for the Korean Church to address the problem of women's oppression and exclusion due to gender inequality. I suggest continuous re-education of biblical interpretation and respect for life, establishment of women's churches, and reorientation of traditional motherhood. On this basis, through the participation of the Korean Church in society, this paper hopes to discuss religious sociology so that the church can take the lead in resolving conflicts in society, including gender conflict.
目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 前言 1
第二節、研究動機與歷史背景 3
(一) 、 韓國基督新教基要主義的發長背景 4
1、美國基督新教文化的淵源 6
2、基要主義在韓國的本土化 6 
3、兩韓分立與冷戰軍事威權體制中的政教關係 9
(二) 、 汝矣島純福音教會:反共、資本主義與儒家文化 11
第三節 理論概念與分析框架 13
一、 宗教與威權 13
二、 基要派教會與社會性別(Gender) 14
三、 社會與性別意識形態(Gender Ideology) 15
第四節 文獻回顧 17
一、 現在韓國基督新教會與女性 17
二、 基要派教會、威權與性別 19
三、 基督新教會與解放女性 20
第五節 研究設計與問題意識 23
第六節 章節架構 26
第七節 研究預期 27
第二章 基督新教父權文化下的性別觀 28
第一節 前言 28
第二節 韓國社會及基督新教會內部是否存在父權文化? 29
第三節 韓國基督新教會的父權制文化與性別分工 31
一、 女性受訪者 31
二、 男性受訪者 39
第四節 韓國基督新教會內的威權主義文化 46
一、韓國基督新教會內部領導者追求權力之文化 47
二、資本主義與韓國教會 51
第五節 小結 55
第三章 基要主義因素分析_基要主義 56
第一節 前言 56
第二節 聖經解釋問題與基要主義 57
一、 基要主義與進化論 57
二、 基要主義與同性戀 61
三、 伊斯蘭教 67
第三節 基要主義的女性言論 71
一、 基要主義對女性的影響 71
二、 抵抗基要主義形成的性別角色刻板印象 77
第四節 小結 80
第四章 教會內性別平等的方法 82
第一節 前言 82
第二節 《聖經》的再詮釋 83
一、 對《聖經》再詮釋的教會教育 83
二、 生命倫理的再教育 87
第三節 韓國基督新教會性別認知與實踐的方案 92
一、 傳統母親角色的重新定位 93
二、 女性的教會 97
第四節 小結 100
第五章 結論 103
第一節 研究發現 103
第二節 研究限制與展望 106
參考文獻 107
附錄一 受訪者的基本資料 118
附錄二 基督徒的訪談大綱 119
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