跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.211.31.134) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/21 06:21
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:蘇柏維
研究生(外文):Su, Bo-Wei
論文名稱:探討人際不公正對工作投入之影響: 以反芻性思考與損耗為中介變數
論文名稱(外文):Interpersonal Injustice and Job Engagement: The Mediating Role of Affective Rumination and Depletion
指導教授:史習安史習安引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih, Hsi-An
口試委員:簡俊成曾瓊慧
口試日期:2023-07-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:國際企業研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:英文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:人際不公正反芻性思考損耗工作投入恆毅力攻擊行為感知制裁資源保留理論自我損耗理論
外文關鍵詞:Interpersonal injusticeAffective ruminationDepletionJob engagementGritPerceived sanctions for aggressive behaviorConservation of resources theoryEgo depletion theory
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:42
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
職場上主管對部屬人際不公正是層出不窮且難以杜絕,過去有關人際不公正之研究已證實其對組織帶來許多負面影響,包括降低能帶來組織競爭優勢的員工工作投入程度。然而,鮮少研究針對人際不公正及工作投入間之潛在機制進行探討,本研究認為此機制是極為重要,不僅能使後續學者及經理人更精準預測其他人際不公正可能帶來的負面後果外,也能使其更合理預測可減緩前述負面後果之因素。基於上述動機,本研究以資源保留理論及自我損耗理論為基礎,以「反芻性思考」及「損耗」為中介變數,探討「人際不公正」及「工作投入」之關係。此外,亦同時納入不同面向之調節變數,我們以「恆毅力」作為性格特徵,「攻擊行為感知制裁」作為情境特徵,探討其會如何影響人際不公正帶來之負面後果。

本項研究以問卷作為研究資料搜集工具,共採用197份有效樣本進行分析,研究對象涵括台灣多項產業,例如:銀行業、服務業及保險業等。本研究結果顯示,部屬在遭遇主管人際不公正後,確實會進行反芻性思考。此時,部屬將需執行自我控制以調節負面心情,然而,這將導致部屬呈現損耗狀態。此外,本研究還顯示,人們在損失其有限資源的情況下,將採取減少工作投入作為防禦性應對策略以保留剩餘資源。藉由以上研究成果,本研究提出結論及建議供學術界及業界作為參考。
Supervisory interpersonal injustice prevails in the workplace and is difficult to eliminate. Prior studies on interpersonal injustice have confirmed its several adverse effects on the organization, including reducing employee job engagement. However, few studies explored the potential mechanism between interpersonal injustice and job engagement. We believe that identifying the mechanism is significant since it will not only enable scholars and managers to predict what possible consequences interpersonal injustice could cause through the same mechanism but allows them to alleviate the harmful consequence of interpersonal injustice by possible moderators. Based on the above motivations, we explore the relationship between interpersonal injustice and job engagement through affective rumination and depletion by drawing on the conservation of resources theory and ego depletion theory in this study. Moreover, we also take “grit” and “perceived sanctions for aggressive behavior” as moderators to examine how they intervene in the negative effect of interpersonal injustice on affective rumination.

This study is analyzed with 197 valid samples across several industries in Taiwan. The results show that subordinates will indeed engage in affective rumination after encountering interpersonal injustice. At this time, subordinates will need to exercise self-control to regulate negative moods. However, this will cause them to be depleted. Furthermore, our study also presents that depleted subordinates will take disengagement as a defensive coping strategy to preserve remaining resources.
ABSTRACT I
中文摘要 II
誌謝 III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION 1
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 4
1.3 RESEARCH STRUCTURE 5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 INTERPERSONAL INJUSTICE AND AFFECTIVE RUMINATION 6
2.2 AFFECTIVE RUMINATION AND DEPLETION 7
2.3 DEPLETION AND JOB ENGAGEMENT 9
2.4 INTERPERSONAL INJUSTICE, AFFECTIVE RUMINATION, DEPLETION, AND JOB ENGAGEMENT 10
2.5 INTERPERSONAL INJUSTICE, GRIT, AND AFFECTIVE RUMINATION 11
2.6 INTERPERSONAL INJUSTICE, PERCEIVED SANCTIONS FOR AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, AND AFFECTIVE RUMINATION 12
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 15
3.1 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK 15
3.2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 16
3.3 MEASUREMENT AND QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 16
3.3.1 Interpersonal Injustice 17
3.3.2 Affective Rumination 17
3.3.3 Depletion 18
3.3.4 Job Engagement 19
3.3.5 Grit 19
3.3.6 Perceived Sanctions For Aggressive Behavior 20
3.3.7 Control Variable 21
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS METHODS 23
3.4.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis 23
3.4.2 Reliability Analysis 23
3.4.3 Confirmatory Factor And Validity Analysis 24
3.4.4 Pearson Correlation Coefficient 24
3.4.5 Common Method Variance (CMV) And Non-Response Bias 25
3.4.6 Hypothesis Testing 25
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 26
4.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS ANALYSIS 26
4.2 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS 27
4.2.1 Interpersonal Injustice 28
4.2.2 Affective Rumination 28
4.2.3 Depletion 29
4.2.4 Job Engagement 29
4.2.5 Grit 30
4.2.6 Perceived Sanctions For Aggressive Behavior 31
4.3 CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (CFA) AND VALIDITY TEST 31
4.3.1 Interpersonal Injustice 32
4.3.2 Affective Rumination 32
4.3.3 Depletion 33
4.3.4 Job Engagement 34
4.3.5 Grit 34
4.3.6 Perceived Sanctions For Aggressive Behavior 35
4.4 ALTERNATIVE MODELS 36
4.5 NON-RESPONSE BIAS TEST 37
4.6 COMMON METHOD VARIANCE (CMV) 37
4.7 PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENT 38
4.8 HYPOTHESIS TESTING 40
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 48
5.1 RESEARCH RESULT SUMMARY 48
5.2 THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS 49
5.3 PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS 51
5.4 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH 52
REFERENCES 54
APPENDENCIES 61
Agarwal, U. A. (2014). Linking justice, trust and innovative work behaviour to work engagement. Personnel Review, 43(1), 41-73.
Agarwal, U. A., Avey, J., & Wu, K. (2022). How and when abusive supervision influences knowledge hiding behavior: evidence from India. Journal of Knowledge Management, 26(1), 209-231.
Albrecht, S. L., Bakker, A. B., Gruman, J. A., Macey, W. H., & Saks, A. M. (2015). Employee engagement, human resource management practices and competitive advantage: An integrated approach. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(1), 7-35.
Andrew, O. C., & Sofian, S. (2012). Individual factors and work outcomes of employee engagement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 498-508.
Barclay, L. J., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2009). Healing the wounds of organizational injustice: Examining the benefits of expressive writing. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 511-523.
Baumeister, R. F., Gailliot, M., DeWall, C. N., & Oaten, M. (2006). Self‐regulation and personality: How interventions increase regulatory success, and how depletion moderates the effects of traits on behavior. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1773-1802.
Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. Mcgraw-Hill Book Company.
Bin, A. S., & Shmailan, A. (2015). The relationship between job satisfaction, job performance and employee engagement: An explorative study. Issues in Business Management and Economics, 4(1), 1-8.
Blalock, D. V., Young, K. C., & Kleiman, E. M. (2015). Stability amidst turmoil: Grit buffers the effects of negative life events on suicidal ideation. Psychiatry Research, 228(3), 781-784.
Brewer, G. A., Lau, K. K., Wingert, K. M., Ball, B. H., & Blais, C. (2017). Examining depletion theories under conditions of within-task transfer. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146(7), 988-1008.
Brown, T. J., & Sumner, K. E. (2006). Perceptions and Punishments of Workplace Aggression: The Role of Aggression Content, Context, and Perceiver Variables. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(10), 2509-2531.
Caillier, J. G. (2021). The impact of workplace aggression on employee satisfaction with job stress, meaningfulness of work, and turnover intentions. Public Personnel Management, 50(2), 159-182.
Cao, Y. (2022). Effect of interpersonal injustice on knowledge hiding behavior: moderating role of high-performance work stress. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 858669.
Caza, A., Caza, B. B., & Baloochi, M. E. (2020). Resilient personality: is grit a source of resilience? In Research Handbook on Organizational Resilience. Edward Elgar Publishing, 25-38.
Choi, J., Sohn, Y. W., & Lee, S. (2020). The effect of corporate social responsibility on employees’ organizational citizenship behavior: A moderated mediation model of grit and meaning orientation. Sustainability, 12(13), 5411.
Colligan, T. W., & Higgins, E. M. (2006). Workplace stress: Etiology and consequences. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 21(2), 89-97.
Colquitt, J. A. (2001). On the dimensionality of organizational justice: a construct validation of a measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 386-400.
Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425-445.
Colquitt, J. A., & Rodell, J. B. (2011). Justice, trust, and trustworthiness: A longitudinal analysis integrating three theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, 54(6), 1183-1206.
Courtright, S. H., Gardner, R. G., Smith, T. A., McCormick, B. W., & Colbert, A. E. (2016). My family made me do it: A cross-domain, self-regulatory perspective on antecedents to abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 59(5), 1630-1652.
Credé, M., Tynan, M. C., & Harms, P. D. (2017). Much ado about grit: A meta-analytic synthesis of the grit literature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113(3), 492-511.
Cropley, M., & Zijlstra, F. R. (2011). Work and rumination. Handbook of Stress in the Occupations, 487-503.
Dam, A., Perera, T., Jones, M., Haughy, M., & Gaeta, T. (2019). The relationship between grit, burnout, and well‐being in emergency medicine residents. AEM Education and Training, 3(1), 14-19.
Datu, J. A. D., Yuen, M., & Chen, G. (2017). Grit and determination: A review of literature with implications for theory and research. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 27(2), 168-176.
Deepa, S. (2020). The effects of organizational justice dimensions on facets of job engagement. International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, 23(4), 315-336.
Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087-1101.
Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the Short Grit Scale (GRIT–S). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174.
Ferris, D. L., Spence, J. R., Brown, D. J., & Heller, D. (2012). Interpersonal injustice and workplace deviance: The role of esteem threat. Journal of Management, 38(6), 1788-1811.
Francis, L., & Barling, J. (2005). Organizational injustice and psychological strain. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 37(4), 250-261.
Gabriel, A. S., Koopman, J., Rosen, C. C., & Johnson, R. E. (2018). Helping others or helping oneself? An episodic examination of the behavioral consequences of helping at work. Personnel Psychology, 71(1), 85-107.
Ghran, L. A. Z., Jameel, A. S., & Ahmad, A. (2019). The effect of organizational justice on job satisfaction among secondary school teachers. International Review, 3(3-4), 82-90.
Giumetti, G. W., Hatfield, A. L., Scisco, J. L., Schroeder, A. N., Muth, E. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (2013). What a rude e-mail! Examining the differential effects of incivility versus support on mood, energy, engagement, and performance in an online context. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(3), 297-309.
Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis 7th Edition Pearson Prentice Hall: JOUR.
Hamesch, U., Cropley, M., & Lang, J. (2014). Emotional versus cognitive rumination: Are they differentially affecting long‐term psychological health? The impact of stressors and personality in dental students. Stress and Health, 30(3), 222-231.
Heale, R., & Twycross, A. (2015). Validity and reliability in quantitative studies. Evidence-based Nursing, 18(3), 66-67.
Hobfoll, S. E., Halbesleben, J., Neveu, J.-P., & Westman, M. (2018). Conservation of resources in the organizational context: The reality of resources and their consequences. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5, 103-128.
Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Evaluating model fit: a synthesis of the structural equation modelling literature. 7th European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies
Houle, S. A., Rich, B. L., Comeau, C. A., Blais, A.-R., & Morin, A. J. (2022). The Job Engagement Scale: Development and Validation of a Short Form in English and French. Journal of Business and Psychology, 37(5), 1-20.
Hung, T.-K., Chi, N.-W., & Lu, W.-L. (2009). Exploring the relationships between perceived coworker loafing and counterproductive work behaviors: The mediating role of a revenge motive. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24(3), 257-270.
Inness, M., LeBlanc, M. M., & Barling, J. (2008). Psychosocial predictors of supervisor-, peer-, subordinate-, and service-provider-targeted aggression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1401-1411.
Janssen, O., Lam, C. K., & Huang, X. (2010). Emotional exhaustion and job performance: The moderating roles of distributive justice and positive affect. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(6), 787-809.
Johnson, A., Nguyen, H., Groth, M., & White, L. (2018). Workplace aggression and organisational effectiveness: The mediating role of employee engagement. Australian Journal of Management, 43(4), 614-631.
Johnson, R. E., Lanaj, K., & Barnes, C. M. (2014). The good and bad of being fair: Effects of procedural and interpersonal justice behaviors on regulatory resources. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(4), 635-650.
Jordan, S. L., Hochwarter, W. A., Ferris, G. R., & Ejaz, A. (2018). Work grit as a moderator of politics perceptions: Workplace outcomes relationships: A three-study convergent investigation. Career Development International, 23(6/7), 576-594.
Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management journal, 33(4), 692-724.
Kannangara, C. S., Allen, R. E., Waugh, G., Nahar, N., Khan, S. Z. N., Rogerson, S., & Carson, J. (2018). All that glitters is not grit: Three studies of grit in university students. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1-15.
Karam, E. P., Hu, J., Davison, R. B., Juravich, M., Nahrgang, J. D., Humphrey, S. E., & Scott DeRue, D. (2019). Illuminating the ‘face’of justice: A meta‐analytic examination of leadership and organizational justice. Journal of Management Studies, 56(1), 134-171.
Kim, H., & Newman, M. G. (2023). Worry and rumination enhance positive emotional contrast based on the framework of the Contrast Avoidance Model. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 94, 102671.
Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Publications.
Lee, F.-H., Lee, T.-Z., & Wu, W.-Y. (2010). The relationship between human resource management practices, business strategy and firm performance: evidence from steel industry in Taiwan. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(9), 1351-1372.
Liang, J., & Ma, H. (2021). Interpersonal injustice and perceived legitimacy of authority: The role of institutional trust and informational justice. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 184-197.
Lin, S.-H. J., & Johnson, R. E. (2015). A suggestion to improve a day keeps your depletion away: Examining promotive and prohibitive voice behaviors within a regulatory focus and ego depletion framework. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5), 1381-1397.
Liu, E., & Wang, J. (2021). Examining the relationship between grit and foreign language performance: Enjoyment and anxiety as mediators. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 666892.
Meyer, G., Shatto, B., Kuljeerung, O., Nuccio, L., Bergen, A., & Wilson, C. R. (2020). Exploring the relationship between resilience and grit among nursing students: a correlational research study. Nurse Education Today, 84.
Miller, D. T. (2001). Disrespect and the experience of injustice. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 527-553.
Mireille LeBlanc, M., & Barling, J. (2004). Workplace aggression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(1), 9-12.
Motro, D., Comer, D. R., & Lenaghan, J. A. (2021). Examining the effects of negative performance feedback: the roles of sadness, feedback self-efficacy, and grit. Journal of Business and Psychology, 36(4), 367-382.
Mullen, P. R., Backer, A., Chae, N., & Li, H. (2020). School counselors’ work-related rumination as a predictor of burnout, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and work engagement. Professional School Counseling, 24(1), 1-10.
Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 247-259.
Muraven, M., Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Self-control as a limited resource: Regulatory depletion patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3), 774-789.
Musumari, P. M., Tangmunkongvorakul, A., Srithanaviboonchai, K., Techasrivichien, T., Suguimoto, S. P., Ono-Kihara, M., & Kihara, M. (2018). Grit is associated with lower level of depression and anxiety among university students in Chiang Mai, Thailand: A cross-sectional study. PloS One, 13(12), 1-16.
Nifadkar, S., Tsui, A. S., & Ashforth, B. E. (2012). The way you make me feel and behave: Supervisor-triggered newcomer affect and approach-avoidance behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 55(5), 1146-1168.
Pacheco, E., Cunha, M., & Duarte, J. (2016). Violence, aggression and fear in the workplace. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 27-41.
Power, J. L., Brotheridge, C. M., Blenkinsopp, J., Bowes-Sperry, L., Bozionelos, N., Buzády, Z., Chuang, A., Drnevich, D., Garzon-Vico, A., & Leighton, C. (2013). Acceptability of workplace bullying: A comparative study on six continents. Journal of Business Research, 66(3), 374-380.
Puig-Perez, S., Cano-López, I., Martínez, P., Kozusznik, M. W., Alacreu-Crespo, A., Pulopulos, M. M., Duque, A., Almela, M., Aliño, M., & Garcia-Rubio, M. J. (2022). Optimism as a protective factor against the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic through its effects on perceived stress and infection stress anticipation. Current Psychology, 1-15.
Reb, J., Goldman, B. M., Kray, L. J., & Cropanzano, R. (2006). Different wrongs, different remedies? Reactions to organizational remedies after procedural and interactional injustice. Personnel Psychology, 59(1), 31-64.
Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617-635.
Roberts, D. R., & Davenport, T. O. (2002). Job engagement: Why it's important and how to improve it. Employment Relations Today, 29(3), 21-29.
Rosen, C. C., Gabriel, A. S., Lee, H. W., Koopman, J., & Johnson, R. E. (2021). When lending an ear turns into mistreatment: An episodic examination of leader mistreatment in response to venting at work. Personnel Psychology, 74(1), 175-195.
Rothbard, N. P. (2001). Enriching or depleting? The dynamics of engagement in work and family roles. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(4), 655-684.
Rupp, D. E., Shapiro, D. L., Folger, R., Skarlicki, D. P., & Shao, R. (2017). A critical analysis of the conceptualization and measurement of organizational justice: Is it time for reassessment? Academy of Management Annals, 11(2), 919-959.
Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619.
Sigmundsson, H., Haga, M., & Hermundsdottir, F. (2020). Passion, grit and mindset in young adults: Exploring the relationship and gender differences. New Ideas in Psychology, 59, 1-7.
Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2017). Short and extra-short forms of the Big Five Inventory–2: The BFI-2-S and BFI-2-XS. Journal of Research in Personality, 68, 69-81.
Sousa, T., & Neves, P. (2021). Two tales of rumination and burnout: Examining the effects of boredom and overload. Applied Psychology, 70(3), 1018-1044.
Stoffel, J. M., & Cain, J. (2018). Review of grit and resilience literature within health professions education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 82(2), 124-134.
Syrek, C. J., Weigelt, O., Peifer, C., & Antoni, C. H. (2017). Zeigarnik’s sleepless nights: How unfinished tasks at the end of the week impair employee sleep on the weekend through rumination. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(2), 225-238.
Tripp, T. M., Bies, R. J., & Aquino, K. (2007). A vigilante model of justice: Revenge, reconciliation, forgiveness, and avoidance. Social Justice Research, 20(1), 10-34.
Twenge, J., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. (2004). Measuring state self-control: Reliability, validity, and correlations with physical and psychological stress. Unpublished manuscript, San Diego State University.
Vahle-Hinz, T., Baethge, A., & Van Dick, R. (2019). Beyond one work day? A daily diary study on causal and reverse effects between experienced workplace incivility and behaving rude towards others. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(2), 272-285.
Vahle-Hinz, T., Mauno, S., De Bloom, J., & Kinnunen, U. (2017). Rumination for innovation? Analysing the longitudinal effects of work-related rumination on creativity at work and off-job recovery. Work & Stress, 31(4), 315-337.
Van Veldhoven, M., Prins, J., Van der Laken, P., & Dijkstra, L. (2014). VBBA2. 0: Update van de standaard voor vragenlijstonderzoek naar werk, welbevinden en prestaties.
Watkins, E., & Mason, A. (2002). Mood as input and rumination. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(4), 577-587.
Watkins, T., & Umphress, E. E. (2020). Strong body, clear mind: Physical activity diminishes the effects of supervisor interpersonal injustice. Personnel Psychology, 73(4), 641-667.
Yean, T. F. (2016). Organizational justice: A conceptual discussion. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219, 798-803.
Zellars, K. L., Hochwarter, W. A., Perrewe, P. L., Hoffman, N., & Ford, E. W. (2004). Experiencing job burnout: The roles of positive and negative traits and states. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(5), 887-911.
電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20280731)
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top