跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(100.28.0.143) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/23 10:41
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳志韋
研究生(外文):Chen, Zhi-Wei
論文名稱:可調整之慣性人偶設計與模擬
論文名稱(外文):Design of an Adjustable Inertial ATD to Measure Occupant Field of View
指導教授:黃才烱黃才烱引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Tsai-Jeon
口試委員:陳家豪劉建聖
口試日期:2023-07-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:視野慣性駕駛安全人體模擬測試裝置H點人偶
外文關鍵詞:Field of ViewInertiaDriving SafetyAnthropometric Test Device
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:15
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
視覺是汽車駕駛人很重要的能力,此能力與駕駛安全息息相關,許多國家的考駕照流程皆包含視覺能力的檢驗,可見視覺對駕駛安全的重要性。影響其視覺的因素大致可分為視力、對比靈敏度、夜視力、視野、辨色力等,其中又以視野對駕駛安全的影響較大。視野是指駕駛的可見範圍,而影響視野的因素包括眼睛病變、提眼瞼肌老化以及駕駛本身之頭部運動,而在一般駕駛情境中,不論是有意識或無意識的運動,乘員所受的慣性力皆為改變頭部運動的主因,進而改變駕駛的視野,造成駕駛安全的隱患,其中一個隱患比如未注意車前狀況造成的車禍,根據我國交通部道路交通安全督導委員會統計,在近五年來肇事件數前十的肇因中,未注意車前狀況的肇事死傷率高達19%位居第一,且此肇因的肇事件數有逐年增加的趨勢,因此瞭解慣性力對於乘員頭部運動及視野的影響有其必要性。
在研究乘員在不同情境下的反應時,通常會透過人體模擬測試裝置或稱人偶(Anthropomorphic Test Device, ATD)代替乘員進行實驗,而目前的碰撞人偶(Crash Dummy)是設定在高加速度、高衝擊力的情境,其產生的反應並不適用於一般駕駛情境所產生相對較低的加速度。因此本研究開發一個慣性人偶,人偶設計參考H點人偶,並設計新的頭頸裝置,以重現一般駕駛情境的乘員姿態反應,並可以量測乘員的視野。再者人體體形會影響人體運動,本研究利用可調結構與配重,使人偶可代表三個標準體型乘員,為了驗證其生物擬真性(Biofidelity),使用了人體測量數據、一般駕駛情境下之乘員頭部平均峰值角度進行驗證,最後與相近的真實數據進行比對,完成人偶驗證,供後續對慣性力與視野的實驗、量測與研究。
The purpose of this paper is to develop an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to measure occupant field of view under normal driving conditions. Inertial force is one of the factors that influence the driver’s head motion which can potentially affect the driver’s field of view (FOV). The change in the driver’s FOV can lead to driving safety hazards. Furthermore, different body shapes also influence the head motion. In this study, several devices are reviewed and served as references in designing the ATD, including H-Point Machine and Head Restraint Measure Device. Adjustable mechanisms are designed so that the ATD can represent three standard forms of human occupant. Biofidelity validations are based on anthropometric data and the normalized actual response of the human occupants in three scenarios: linear acceleration, constant speed cornering, and linear deceleration. Finite element model of the ATD is established to simulate the response of the ATD in the three scenarios and the results of head tilt angles are calculated by rotation matrices. The results of the biofidelity verifications showed that the differences between the anthropometric data and the adjustable inertial ATD are within 5% tolerance and the peak angles of the ATD met the goal of average peak angles from normalized actual responses. Finally, the ATD undergoes one subject’s actual experiment condition whose height and weight are close to the ATD using the finite element model. The result shows the ATD is acceptable to represent the human occupant in normal driving conditions to measure FOV.
摘要 I
誌謝 VI
目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.3 研究動機與目的 5
1.4 論文架構 6
第二章 研究背景 9
2.1 SAE Standard 9
2.2 SAE H-Point Machine 9
2.3 SAE H-Point Machine之附加裝置 13
2.3.1 安全帶測試裝置 (Belt-fit Test Device, BTD) 13
2.3.2 頭枕量測裝置(Head Restraint Measuring Device, HRMD) 14
2.4 駕駛眼點與視野定義 15
2.5 乘員人體測量計測資料 19
第三章 可調式慣性人偶設計 24
3.1 設計目標 24
3.2 設計方法 25
3.3 可調式慣性人偶設計流程 28
3.4 可調式身體設計 30
3.4.1 身軀 32
3.4.2 大腿 35
3.4.3 小腿 37
3.5 頭頸結構設計 40
3.5.1 頭部 41
3.5.2 頸部 44
3.5.3 頭頸部連接裝置 46
3.6 設計結果與人體測量學需求驗證 47
第四章 人偶模擬與驗證 50
4.1 驗證目標 50
4.1.1 一般駕駛情境之乘員頭部反應 50
4.1.2 頸部反應標準化 52
4.1.3 人偶驗證目標 54
4.2 模擬驗證 56
4.2.1 有限元素模型 56
4.2.2 模擬情境與輸入設定 58
4.2.3 模擬結果與討論 59
4.3 真實實驗模擬觀察 62
第五章 結論與建議 67
5.1 結論 67
5.2 未來發展與建議 68
參考文獻 70
附錄 A 多功能慣性人偶之質心與質量 73
附錄 B 黏彈性材料拉伸試驗模擬 76
[1]C. A. Johnson and M. E. Wilkinson, "Vision and driving: the United States," Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 170-176, 2010.
[2]張建彥, 吳繼虹, and 王世杰, "視覺能力對安全駕駛之影響分析與換照制度之探討," (in 繁體中文), 危機管理學刊, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 95-104, 2006, doi: 10.6459/jcm.200609_3(2).0010.
[3]C. Owsley and G. McGwin, Jr., "Vision impairment and driving," (in eng), Surv Ophthalmol, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 535-50, May-Jun 1999, doi: 10.1016/s0039-6257(99)00035-1.
[4]小型車事故肇因排行. 交通部道路交通安全督導委員會. https://roadsafety.tw/ (accessed 5/26, 2023).
[5]D. C. Zikovitz and L. R. Harris, "Head tilt during driving," Ergonomics, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 740-6, May 1999, doi: 10.1080/001401399185414.
[6]T. Wada and K. Yoshida, "Effect of passengers' active head tilt and opening/closure of eyes on motion sickness in lateral acceleration environment of cars," Ergonomics, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 1050-9, Aug 2016, doi: 10.1080/00140139.2015.1109713.
[7]K. Sakurai and H. Tamura, "A Study on the Gaze Range Calculation Method During an Actual Car Driving Using Eyeball Angle and Head Angle Information," Sensors (Basel), vol. 19, no. 21, Nov 2 2019, doi: 10.3390/s19214774.
[8]J. Lee, M. Munoz, L. Fridman, T. Victor, B. Reimer, and B. Mehler, "Investigating the correspondence between driver head position and glance location," PeerJ Comput Sci, vol. 4, p. e146, 2018, doi: 10.7717/peerj-cs.146.
[9]W. T. Dempster, Space Requirement of the Seated Operator: Geometrical, Kinematic, and Mechanical Aspects of the Body with Special Reference to the Limbs, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Wright Air Development Center., WADC Technical Report 55-159, 1955.
[10]S. P. Geoffrey, "A 2-D Mannikin - The Inside Story X-Rays Used to Determine a New Standard for a Basic Design Tool," SAE Technical Paper 610175, 1961.
[11]V. Kaptur and M. Myal, "The General Motors Comfort Dimensioning System," SAE Technical Paper 610174, 1961, doi: https://doi.org/10.4271/610174.
[12]J. Kohara and T. Sugi, "Development of Biomechanical Manikins for Measuring Seat Comfort," Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Technical Paper 720006, 1972.
[13]N. J. Bush, Three Dimensional Computer Model Representing Average Adult Male In Automotive Seated Postures, Master of Science, Department of Material Science and Mechanics, Michigan State University, 1992.
[14]Devices for Use in Defining and Measuring Vehicle Seating Accomodation, SAE Standard J826, 1995.
[15]Motor Vehicle Dimensions, SAE Standard J1100, 2001.
[16]J. A. Newman, D. K. Woods, L. A. Garland, and T. C. V. Humbeck, "Development of a Belt Configuration Test Device," SAE Transactions, vol. 93, Section 2: 840222––840402 (1984), pp. 1105-1111, 1984.
[17]M. P. Reed, Modeling vehicle occupant head and head restraint position, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute, 2001.
[18]J. Gane and J. B. Pedder, "Head restraint measuring device," in Fifteenth International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Proceedings Volume 2, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
[19]M. Edwards, S. Smith, D. S. Zuby, and A. K. Lund, "Improved Seat and Head Restraint Evaluation," in Proceedings 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Washington DC, United States, 2005.
[20]Describing and Measuring the Driver's Field of View, SAE Standard J1050, 2003.
[21]L. W. Schneider, D. H. Robbins, M. A. Pflig, and R. G. Snyder, Development of Anthropometrically Based Design Specifications for an Advanced Adult Anthropomorphic Dummy Family, Volume 1, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute, 1983.
[22]D. H. Robbins, Anthropometric Specifications for Mid-Sized Male Dummy, Volume 2, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute, 1983.
[23]D. H. Robbins, Anthropometric Specifications for Small Female and Large Male Dummies, Volume 3, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute, 1983.
[24]P. Tolmachev. H-Point Mannequin. https://grabcad.com/library/h-point-mannequin-1 (accessed 0325, 2023).
[25]李淳洋, 建立一般駕駛情境下之乘員頭部運動模型, 國立成功大學機械工程學系碩士論文, 未出版, 2023.
[26]T. Shams, T. J. Huang, and N. Rangarajan, "Design requirements for a fifth percentile female version of the THOR ATD," presented at the In 18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Nagoya, Japan, 2003, pp. 19-22.
[27]R. H. Eppinger, J. H. Marcus, and R. M. Morgan, "Development of Dummy and Injury Index for NHTSA's Thoracic Side Impact Protection Research Program," SAE Transactions, vol. 93, pp. 359-387, 1984. [Online]. Available: http://www.jstor.org/stable/44734175.
[28]H. J. Mertz, "A Procedure for Normalizing Impact Response Data," SAE Transactions, vol. 93, pp. 351-358, 1984. [Online]. Available: http://www.jstor.org/stable/44734174.
[29]LSTC. Hybrid III 50% FE Model. https://lsdyna.ansys.com/lstc-dummy-models-overview/ (accessed.
[30]Standard Test Method for Young’s Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus, ASTM E111-17, 2017.
[31]H. J. Qi, K. Joyce, and M. C. Boyce, "Durometer hardness and the stress-strain behavior of elastomeric materials," Rubber Chemistry and Technology, vol. 76, no. 2, p. 419, 2003.
[32]Instrumentation for Impact Test, Part 1, Electronic Instrumentation, SAE Standard J211-1, 1995.
[33]J. H. M. Richard M. Morgan, and Rolf H. Eppinger, "Correlation of Side Impact Dummy/Cadaver Tests," SAE, 1981.
[34]M. P. Reed, R. W. Roe, and L. W. Schneider, "Design and Development of the ASPECT Manikin," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0963, 1999.
電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20280826)
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top