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研究生:周威宇
研究生(外文):Zhou, Wei-Yu
論文名稱:半導體設備精密電源參數實驗設計-非對稱雙極脈衝DC濺鍍氮化鋁薄膜之微觀組織與機械性質最佳化分析
指導教授:傅尹坤傅尹坤引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:反應脈衝直流磁控濺鍍氮化鋁脈衝參數
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在本論文的研究中,使用了非對稱雙極脈衝直流電源在反應式磁控濺鍍系統濺鍍氮化鋁 (AlN) 薄膜,利用Box–Behnken實驗方法和反應曲面法 (Response Surface Method, RSM) 對直流脈衝參數(反向電壓、脈衝頻率和占空比)來進行實驗設計 (Design of Experiment, DOE),以建立數學模型用於解釋自變量和應變量之間的關係。透過使用X射線衍射(X-ray diffraction, XRD),原子力顯微鏡(Atomic Force Microscope, AFM)和超高解析場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡(Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, FE-SEM)來表徵氮化鋁薄膜的晶體微觀結構、取向及表面粗糙度。此外,透過電漿點火及功率升降以模擬實際製程,並採用光譜分析儀 (Optical Emission Spectroscopy, OES) 實時監測電漿體,通過電壓、電流分析其數據以測試電源之穩定性。本研究確定了用於生產高質量 AlN 薄膜之最佳化脈衝參數為50 V的反向電壓、100 kHz的脈衝頻率及81-82% 的佔空比,得到之最佳AlN(002)半高寬在0.20-0.21°之間、表面粗糙度1.76-1.92 nm之間及晶粒尺寸44.38-42.94 nm之間,並成功驗證了用於濺鍍之非對稱雙極脈衝直流電源的穩定性。
In the present study, the sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN) films were processed in a reactive pulsed DC magnetron system. We applied a total of 15 different design of experiments (DOEs) on DC pulsed parameters (reverse voltage, pulse frequency, and duty cycle) with Box–Behnken experimental method and response surface method (RSM) to establish a mathematical model by experimental data for interpreting the relationship between independent and response variables. For the characterization of AlN films on the crystal quality, microstructure, thickness, and surface roughness, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were utilized. AlN films have different microstructures and surface roughness under different pulse parameters. Moreover, by simulating the actual process through plasma ignition and power ramping, and using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to monitor the plasma in real time, the stability of the power supply was tested by analyzing the voltage and current data. This study determined the optimal pulse parameters for producing high-quality AlN films as 50 V reverse voltage, 100 kHz pulse frequency, and 81-82% duty cycle. The obtained optimal AlN(002) full width at half maximum ranged from 0.20 to 0.21°, the surface roughness ranged from 1.76 to 1.92 nm, and the grain size ranged from 44.38 to 42.94 nm, and successfully verified the stability of the pulsed DC power supply for sputtering.
目錄
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究動機與目的 2
1-3 論文架構 4
第二章 材料與背景介紹 5
2-1 物理氣相沉積(PVD) 5
2-2 薄膜沉積原理 7
2-3 脈衝直流濺鍍簡介 9
2-4 電漿簡介 11
2-5 光學放射光譜(OES) 13
2-6 實驗設計(DOE)與反應曲面法(RSM) 15
第三章 研究方法 20
3-1 實驗流程 20
3-2 實驗方法 21
3-2-1參數設定 21
3-2-2試片清洗步驟 23
3-2-3試片製作 23
3-2-4實驗步驟 24
3-3 實驗裝置與量測 25
3-3-1非對稱雙極脈衝直流反應式磁控濺鍍(Pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering) 25
3-3-2光學放射光譜 (Optical Emission Spectroscopy, OES) 28
3-3-3原子力顯微鏡 (Atomic Force Microscope, AFM) 31
3-3-4掃描式電子顯微鏡 (Scanning Electron Microscope,SEM) 33
3-3-6 X-射線繞射分析(X-ray diffraction, XRD) 35
第四章 實驗結果與討論 37
4-1 相異之脈衝參數對薄膜結構及機械性質之影響 37
4-1-1掃描電子顯微鏡對氮化鋁薄膜分析 38
4-1-2原子力顯微鏡(AFM)對氮化鋁薄膜表面粗糙度分析 40
4-1-3 X-射線繞射分析(XRD)對氮化鋁薄膜分析 42
4-2 統計分析及最佳化AlN薄膜品質 44
4-3 電漿點火、功率改變穩定度研究 58
第五章 結論 65
參考文獻 66


圖目錄
圖2-1 反應式磁控濺鍍示意圖 6
圖2-2 薄膜沉積步驟示意圖 8
圖2-3 非對稱脈衝直流濺射的理想電壓波型[26] 9
圖2-4 電漿放電中電子和氣體溫度隨壓力變化之示意圖[27] 12
圖2-5 中央合成設計(a) k = 2,(b) k = 3 18
圖2-6 Box-Behnken設計(k=3) 19

圖3-1反應磁控濺射沉積AlN薄膜之濺鍍系統及實驗流程 20
圖3-2本次實驗室Sputter設備外觀實體圖 27
圖3-3光放射光譜儀裝置圖 29
圖3-4 OES光譜圖 30
圖3-5 AFM設備圖 32
圖3-6中央大學貴儀中心CFE-SEM設備 34
圖3-7 XRD 設備圖 36
圖3- 8 XRD 量測示意圖 36

圖4-1 透過FE-SEM拍攝之氮化鋁薄膜橫截面微觀形貌及厚度 38
圖4-2 透過FE-SEM拍攝氮化鋁薄膜表面微觀形貌及平均晶粒尺寸 39
圖4-3 透過AFM量測氮化鋁薄膜表面之平均粗糙度 40
圖4-4 各脈衝參數下所濺鍍氮化鋁薄膜之表面粗糙度折線圖 41
圖4-5 各種製程參數沉積的氮化鋁的XRD透射光譜量測結果 42
圖4-6 在2D和3D視圖中自變量對AlN(002)結晶性的影響 47
圖4-7 在2D和3D視圖中自變量對AlN表面粗糙度的影響 51
圖4-8 在2D和3D視圖中自變量對AlN晶粒尺寸的影響 54
圖4-9 基於AlN (002)之FWHM、表面粗糙度及晶粒尺寸之優化圖 55
圖4-10 最佳化參數之驗證實驗薄膜品質量測 56
圖4-11 從200 nm到850 nm之OES實時測量光譜 59
圖4-12(a)電漿電火時之電壓電流圖(b)電漿電火瞬間電漿光譜強度圖 60
圖4-13(a)電源提升功率瞬間之電壓電流圖(b)電源提升功率瞬間電漿光譜強度圖 60
圖4-14 功率1000 W,脈衝頻率50 kHz,製程氣體純N2 60 sccm下(a)電漿點火不穩定之電壓電流圖(b)電漿點火不穩定之光譜強度圖 61
圖4-15 功率1200 W,脈衝頻率50 kHz,製程氣體純N2 60 sccm下電源提升功率延遲之功率圖 63

表目錄
表3-1 實驗設計之因子各級的交互變量及濺鍍參數 21

表4-1 AlN(002) FWHM模型二次反應曲面的方差分析 (ANOVA) 45
表4-2 AlN表面粗糙度模型二次反應曲面的方差分析 (ANOVA) 49
表4-3 AlN晶粒尺寸模型二次反應曲面的方差分析 (ANOVA) 53
表4-4 製程參數最佳化 56
表4-5 實際製程之模擬參數 58
表4-6製程氣體放電發光特徵波長參數 59
表4-7不同設置條件下電漿電火達穩定所需時間(T1) 62
表4-8 不同設置條件下電源提升功率達穩定所需時間(T2) 64
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