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研究生:吳佩穎
研究生(外文):Pei-Ying Wu
論文名稱:環境永續的表現: 探究謬爾的荒野保存與國家公園之建立
論文名稱(外文):The Representation of Environmental Sustainability: John Muir’s Wilderness Preservation and His Creation of National Park
指導教授:盧莉茹盧莉茹引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lu,Li-ru
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:英文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:謬爾荒野保存品夏特國家公園環境永續
外文關鍵詞:John Muirwilderness preservationGifford Pinchotnational parkenvironmental sustainability
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謬爾(John Muir,1838-1914)是一位以「國家公園之父」之稱享有盛名的蘇格蘭裔美籍作家。做為自然作家、環境哲學家和冰河學家,謬爾是十九世紀中
後期提倡荒野保存的重要美國作家,他大部分的作品中都有提到和荒野保護相關的旅行經驗和歷險,例如,在謬爾的著作A Thousand-Mile Walk to the Gulf裡即描述到在旅行途中閱覽到的內華達山脈環境。另外,謬爾透過其著作致力於自然荒野保存,優勝美地國家公園的成立是他富有盛名的貢獻之一;謬爾認為優勝美地是一座原始的寶地,他不時在作品中指出這塊寶地面臨圈養家畜(尤其是圈養綿羊)所造成的環境危害。此外,謬爾視國家公園的定義為能提供休息,產生靈感和冥想的珍貴土地。同時,他亦鼓勵住在城市的人能去體驗自然荒野所給予的心靈上的滋養。
事實上,謬爾的《我們的國家公園》裡表達的意象觸及到永續發展相關的理念與目標(「永續」一詞的主要精神乃是「在人為活動的安排不會造成自然資源耗盡的條件下,永續經營能夠達到滿足人類的需求和發展」)(Mensah 5) 。因此,此論文除了著重在謬爾對於荒野上的定義,並指出謬爾對於荒野的態度乃有別於十七世紀至十九世紀早期歐洲移居北美的移民者對荒野所抱持取之不盡,用之不竭的功利主義態度,以及謬爾認為荒野的珍貴及多樣性必須受到保護。另一方面,此論文也會討論謬爾和品夏特 (Gifford Pinchot, 1865-1946)兩人對荒野的保存與維護上,有著不同出發點的看法。最後,此論文又更進一步探討《我們的國家公園》中所衍生出的建立國家公園為目標和渴望達成環境永續的議題。
John Muir (1838-1914), a Scottish-American writer, is known as “father of National Parks.” Muir is one of early nature writers who advocated the preservation of
wilderness in America. Most of his works intended to represent his experiences and adventures in America’s wild nature, and these representations are related to
wilderness preservation. To preserve the wild nature in America, Muir dedicated himself to establishing Yosemite National Park and other national parks in America. He envisioned Yosemite’s gorgeous volcanic environment as the pristine land. In addition, he maintained and advocated that national parks possess the function for healing, inspiration and meditation. Likewise, Muir encouraged the residents in cities
to learn from wild nature’s instructive power of life and wild nature’s spiritual nourishment.
This thesis concentrates on offering an overview of the different attitudes toward America’s wilderness between Muir’s attitude and the attitude of most early European settlers from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth century. Most early pioneers and settlers who came from Europe held utilitarian attitude toward the wild nature: they believed that the natural resources in American wilderness were available and
inexhaustible. In contrast, Muir maintained that the rarity and biodiversity of the wilderness in America need to be perfectly protected. Also, this thesis will compare and discuss Muir’s and Gifford Pinchot’s (1865-1946) different perspectives about protecting the wilderness environment. Finally, this thesis focuses on Muir’s Our National Park to explore the significance of seeking the connection between the creation of National Park and the idea of environmental sustainability. In actuality, the target of Muir’s Our National Parks mainly highlights on the area of sustainable development.
Contents

論文審定書…………………………………………………………………………...i
摘要…………………………………………………………………………………..iii
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………iv
Chapter One: Introduction…………………………………………………………... 1
Chapter Two: The Wilderness and Its Sustainability……………………………….. 19
Chapter Three: John Muir’s Wilderness Preservation and Gifford Pinchot’s Conservation………………………………………………………………………... 32
Chapter Four: John Muir’s Goal to Establish National Parks……………………….48
Chapter Five: Conclusion …………………………………………………………...55
Works Cited……………………………………………………………………….....59



List of Illustrations

Environmental Education in the Curriculum: A Space for the Formation of Environmental Educators……………………………………………………………14
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<https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23311886.2019.1653531>
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