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研究生:劉宥彬
研究生(外文):You-Bing Liu
論文名稱:研發廢潤滑油製備高值化活性碳以提升揮發性有機物之去除效率
論文名稱(外文):Research and development of waste lubricating oil to prepare high-value activated carbon to improve the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds
指導教授:林淵淙
指導教授(外文):Lin,Yuan-Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:活性碳廢潤滑油揮發性有機物污染減量循環經濟
外文關鍵詞:Activated CarbonWaste Lubricating OilVolatile Organic CompoundsPollution ReductionCircular Economy
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廢潤滑油排放之主要源頭為交通工具及工廠所產生之廢油,若不能妥善地回收循環再利用,將會對環境造成極大之影響。廢潤滑油與其他油品相比,其碳組成較多,因此國際上研究認為其相當適合用於生產碳材料。根據統計,台灣高科技產業為揮發性有機物之主要排放源,工廠所產生之揮發性有機物多以丙酮及異丙醇為主,故本研究希望透過自製活性碳吸附揮發性有機物,以期能達到廢棄物減量、資源化再利用、應用於去除污染物及推動產業新方向等。
在碳化時間4小時下的C4A1-500(1:2),觀察出活性碳之吸脫附曲線與IUPAC所定義之I型等溫線之特徵更為明顯,可獲得最佳的效果,比表面積達到了1800 m2/g、孔徑0.36 nm、孔體積0.55 cm3/g,較文獻製備之活性碳比表面積高。FTIR分析中,1,622 cm-1處出現的特徵峰推測為羧酸或酚基內酯中的C=O伸縮,3,422 cm-1處出現的特徵峰推測為羧酸官能團,與活性碳的趨勢相符。在ESEM分析中,活性碳通過KOH改質後皆有良好的孔洞產生,當KOH使用量提高時,可以有效地使碳材料活化並產生細微孔洞。
活性碳透過不同丙酮/異丙醇進流濃度進行吸附實驗,結果顯示丙酮/異丙醇趨勢相同,當進流濃度提高時,其貫穿點出現時間逐漸提早,丙酮貫穿點依序從130-75 min出現。在30°C條件下丙酮濃度控制於200、400、600、800和1000 ppm時,其飽和吸附量可達67.6、119.1、158.9、215.5、212.3 mg/g,濃度越高累積吸附量越大,推測是由於較高濃度的污染物分子更容易進入活性碳孔洞,使其更充分地與吸附位點接觸,從而增加了吸附量。探討不同溫度(30、40、50、60、70°C)對VOCs的影響,結果顯示在30°C和40°C的環境條件下 ,本研究所製備的活性碳表現出優異的吸附效果,活性碳在相對較低的溫度下對廢氣中的污染物有較高的去除效率。然而,當環境溫度逐漸升高時,吸附效果則呈現逐步下降的趨勢。
The primary sources of waste lubricating oil emissions in the country are vehicles and industrial factories. If not adequately recovered and recycled, they will have a significant impact on the environment. In comparison to other oil products, waste lubricating oil contains a higher carbon content, making it suitable for carbon material production, as recognized by international research. Statistics reveal that the high-tech industry in Taiwan is a major emitter of volatile organic compounds, with acetone and isopropanol being the primary pollutants released by factories. Therefore, this study aims to utilize self-produced activated carbon for adsorbing volatile organic compounds, with the objectives of waste reduction, resource utilization, pollution removal, and promoting new directions in the industry.
Under a carbonization duration of 4 hours for the C4A1-500(1:2) configuration, a pronounced exhibition of adsorption-desorption characteristics of activated carbon and the features akin to Type I isotherms, as delineated by IUPAC, becomes manifest. This configuration yields optimal outcomes, boasting a specific surface area of 1800 m²/g, a pore diameter of 0.36 nm, and a pore volume of 0.55 cm³/g, surpassing the reported surface area of activated carbon in existing literature. In Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, the distinctive peak appearing at 1622 cm⁻¹ is conjectured to be the stretching vibration of C=O in carboxylic acids or phenolic esters, while the peak at 3422 cm⁻¹ corresponds to the carboxylic functional group, aligning with the trends exhibited by activated carbon. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis elucidates the generation of well-defined pores in activated carbon post modification with KOH. As the quantity of KOH employed increases, it effectively activates the carbon material, instigating the formation of minute pores.
Activated carbon, subjected to varying concentrations of acetone/isopropanol inflow, underwent adsorption experiments. Results indicated parallel trends between acetone and isopropanol. As the inflow concentration increased, breakthrough times progressively advanced. Specifically, the breakthrough time for acetone transitioned sequentially from 130 to 75 minutes. Under conditions of 30°C, when acetone concentrations were controlled at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 ppm, the saturation adsorption capacities reached 67.6, 119.1, 158.9, 215.5, and 212.3 mg/g. Higher concentrations correlated with augmented cumulative adsorption, presumably due to the heightened ease with which pollutant molecules at higher concentrations could infiltrate activated carbon pores. This facilitated more extensive interaction with adsorption sites, consequently amplifying the adsorption quantity. An exploration of the influence of different temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60, 70°C) on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) revealed that under conditions of 30°C and 40°C, the prepared activated carbon displayed exceptional adsorption efficiency. Notably, activated carbon demonstrated heightened pollutant removal efficiency at relatively lower temperatures. However, as the ambient temperature gradually increased, the adsorption efficacy displayed a progressively diminishing trend.
論文審定書 i
摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iii
目錄 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 xii
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2-1 廢油概述 5
2-1-1 潤滑油 5
2-1-2 機油 6
2-1-3 切削油 8
2-2 廢油回收現況 9
2-3 國際廢潤滑油回收再利用研究 11
2-4 活性碳 15
2-4-1 活性碳之特性 15
2-4-3 活性碳影響因子 20
2-4-4 活性碳吸附 21
2-5 揮發性有機物(Volatile Organic Compounds, VOCs) 23
2-5-1 揮發性有機化合物主要來源 23
2-5-2 丙酮化學特性與危害 25
2-5-3 異丙醇之特性及危害 26
第三章 研究方法 31
3-1 研究架構與流程 31
3-1-1 文獻彙整與研究流程設計 31
3-2 實驗使用藥品及儀器設備 37
3-2-1 藥品耗材 37
3-2-2 實驗儀器與設備 38
3-3 品質保證與品質控制 46
3-3-1 污染物採樣 46
3-3-2 活性碳吸附床漏氣測試 49
3-3-3 污染物檢量線 51
第四章 結果與討論 53
4-1 廢潤滑油性質分析 53
4-2 在不同裂解條件下之活性碳鑑定 54
4-2-1 比表面積與孔隙度(BET)分析 55
4-2-2 X光繞射(XRD)分析 61
4-2-3 傅立葉轉換紅外線(FTIR)光譜分析 64
4-2-4 環境掃描式電子顯微鏡(ESEM)分析 65
4-3 活性碳吸附實驗 70
4-3-1 不同溫度下丙酮對活性碳吸附量之影響 70
4-3-2 不同污染物下對活性碳吸附量之影響 75
第五章 結論與建議 89
5-1 結論 89
5-2 建議 91
參考文獻 92
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