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研究生:阮德仁
研究生(外文):Nguyen Duc Nhan
論文名稱:台灣與越南高中/大學生的社交網路使用、外貌比較及身體意象關注程度之比較研究
論文名稱(外文):Social Network Usage, Physical Appearance Comparison, and Body Image Concerns among Taiwanese and Vietnamese High School/College Students
指導教授:鄭雯鄭雯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng, Wen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:教育與人類發展研究全英語博士學位學程
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:英文
論文頁數:185
中文關鍵詞:社交網路使用外貌對比身體意象關注自我意識自戀台灣越南
外文關鍵詞:social network usagephysical appearance comparisonbody image concernssense of selfnarcissismTaiwanVietnam
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基於社會比較理論(Festinger, 1954)在社交網路服務(SNS)中,本研究主要探討以下問題:(1)建立模型-透過外貌對比 (PAC),SNS使用的主動-被動模式對身體意象關注 (BIC) 的影響;(2)在所建立的模型之中,進行高中生與大學生之間的比較;(3)在所建立的模型之中,進行台灣學生與越南學生之間的比較;(4)自我意識 (SOS) 及自戀在所建立的模型中之調節作用;(5)隨著時間的推移,SNS的使用及BIC之間的相互關係。本研究採量化研究法,以匿名問卷調查,在兩個時間點並間隔半個月進行台灣與越南的數據蒐集。研究結果表示:(1)SNS的被動模式在SNS使用與BIC之間有中介作用;(2)在所建立的模型中,高中生與大學生之間未達顯著差異;(3)在所建立的模型中,台灣學生與越南學生之間未達顯著差異;(4)SOS及自戀在一些直接路徑(SNS使用的主動-被動模式→ BIC)或間接路徑(SNS使用的主動-被動模式→ PAC → BIC)都有調節作用;(5)BIC 對未來行為的長期影響比其他因素較大。基於社會比較理論可得知,(1)SNS的使用(尤其是被動使用模式)可能會促進使用者在SNS上將自己的外貌與他人進行比較,從而產生更大的BIC;(2)、(3)過去的研究結果顯示,SNS的使用對BIC的影響可能會影響到高中生與大學生,以及亞洲人與西方人的 BIC,因此任何使用者(高中生/大學生、台灣/越南學生)在使用SNS時都有可能對其身體意象關注產生相同的影響;(4)自我意識及自戀特徵之相關社會比較理論可以解釋其變因在直接路徑與間接路徑中的調節作用;(5)基於認知失調理論,隨著時間的推移,BIC可能與SNS使用相關聯,因為使用者可能傾向於參與SNS的行為以與其先前存在的BIC保持一致。本研究亦提出研究限制及應用,提供後續研究之參考。
The aim of the study. Based on the social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954), in the social network sites context (SNS), the aim of the current study is to investigate: (1) the proposed model―the impacts of active-passive patterns of SNS usage on Body image concerns (BIC) via physical appearance comparison (PAC), (2) the comparison between high school and college students within the proposed model, (3) the comparison between Taiwanese and Vietnamese students within the proposed model, (4) the moderating effects of sense of self (SOS) as well as narcissism within the proposed model, and (5) the reciprocal relationship between SNS usage and BIC over time. Methods. Data collection―at two time points, and a one- and half-month interval―was conducted in Taiwan and Vietnam using an anonymous questionnaire. Results. (1) Passive SNS usage, rather than active SNS usage, mediated the relationship between SNS usage and BIC; (2) no differences between high school and college students were found in the proposed model; (3) no differences between Taiwanese and Vietnamese students were found in the proposed model; (4) both SOS and narcissism moderated some direct paths (active-passive patterns of SNS usage → BIC) or indirect paths (active-passive patterns of SNS usage → PAC → BIC); and (5) BIC had a longer-term effect on future behaviors than the other around. Discussion. Grounded on social comparison theory, (1) SNS usage, especially passive SNS usage, may goad users into comparing their appearance to others’ on SNSs, resulting in greater BIC; (2) and (3) prior evidence showed that the effects of SNS usage on BIC may affect both high school and colleges students’ BIC, and Asian and Western people’s BIC, thus, it is possible that no matter who the users are (high school or college students, Vietnamese or Taiwanese students), SNS usage may produce the same effect on their body image concerns; (4) the social comparison theory in relation with characteristics of SOS and narcissism may explain how these variables may function in direct and indirect paths; and (5) grounded on the cognitive dissonance theory, BIC may be linked SNS usage over time because users may tend to engage in SNS behavior to be consistent with their pre-existing BIC. Limitations and Implications. The limitations and future directions are discussed.
Table of Contents
Thesis validation letter i
Acknowledgements ii
Abstract (Chinese) iii
Abstract (English) iv
Table of Contents v
Table of Figures viii
Table of Tables x
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
Chapter 2. Literature Review and Hypothesis Development 8
2.1. The Social Comparison Theory as a Main Theoretical Framework 8
2.2. Building the Models Research Based on the Social Comparison Theory 9
2.2.1. Active-Passive Patterns of SNS Usage, BIC, and the Mediating Role of PAC 9
2.2.2. Comparing Adolescents (High School Students) and Young Adults (College Students) 15
2.2.3. Comparing Taiwanese Students and Vietnamese Students 16
2.2.4. The Moderating Role of SOS and Narcissism 18
2.3. The Reciprocal Relationships between Active-Passive Patterns of SNS Usage and BIC 23
2.3.1. The Impacts of Active-Passive Patterns of SNS Usage on BIC 23
2.3.2. The Impacts of BIC on Active-Passive Patterns of SNS Usage 24
Chapter 3. Methods 28
3.1. Participants and Procedures 28
3.2. Measurements 28
3.3. Data Analysis 31
Chapter 4. Results 33
4.1. Characteristics of the Study Samples and Descriptive Statistics 33
4.2. Testing the Mediational Effects of PAC 38
4.2.1. Testing the Mediating Effects in Taiwan and Vietnam (Time 1 and Time 2) 38
4.2.2. The Comparison between High School and College Students in Taiwan and Vietnam (Time 1 and Time 2) 46
4.2.3. The Comparison between Taiwanese and Vietnamese Students (Time 1 and Time 2) 48
4.2.4. Testing the Moderating Effects of SOS and Narcissism 50
4.3. Testing the Longitudinal Relationships between Active-Passive Patterns of SNS Usage and BIC 78
4.3.1. Testing the Longitudinal Models among Taiwanese students 81
4.3.2. Testing the Longitudinal Models among Vietnamese students 84
Chapter 5. Discussion 88
Chapter 6. Limitations and Implications 100
Chapter 7. Additional Data Analysis 107
7.1. The Cross-Lagged Panel with PAC 107
7.2. Testing the Moderating Effects of SOS and Narcissism in the Whole Models 114
7.3. Testing the Differences between Taiwanese and Vietnamese Students in the Proposed Model 128
7.4. CFA of the Study Scales 128
References 133
Appendix 150
Appendix 1. Testing the Moderating Effect of Gender in the Proposed Model 150
Appendix 2. Testing the Mean Differences in SOS among Taiwanese and Vietnamese Students 155
Appendix 3. Questionnaire 158
Appendix 4. CFA 166
Appendix 5. Running the Moderating Effects of SOS and Narcissim at the Same Time in the Whole Model 170
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