跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.194.255) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/18 13:10
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林雅芳
研究生(外文):LIN,YA-FANG
論文名稱:耳穴貼壓改善美沙冬病人之便秘成效
論文名稱(外文):The effect of auricular pressure to improve constipation of methadone patients
指導教授:葉美玲葉美玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yeh,MEI-LING
口試委員:王玉珠林昭庚
口試日期:2023-01-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北護理健康大學
系所名稱:護理研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:護理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:中文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:耳穴貼壓便秘美沙冬生活品質情緒
外文關鍵詞:auricular pressureconstipationmethadonequality of lifeemotion
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:54
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
美沙冬在和海洛因有類似藥理作用的替代藥物,其為作用在神經系統鴉片類µ受體,鴉片類藥物會減弱胃腸蠕動,並削弱直腸擴張對刺激的敏感性,而這些會增加迴盲腸張力和肛門內括約肌張力;因此延長了腸內排泄的時間,導致便
秘。
本研究旨在探討耳穴貼壓對美沙冬病人之便秘成效。本研究採隨機控制試驗,以北部某地區醫院的72位的美沙冬便秘病人為對象,分為耳穴組及對照組。實驗組給與耳穴貼壓,而對照組僅使用貼布。兩組於介入前及開始後2週、4週、6週接受測量便秘、中醫體質、焦慮、憂鬱與生活品質。研究資料以SPSS 20.0軟體進行分析,以描述性統計陳述基本資料的特性,以卡方檢定與 t 檢定檢驗二組人口特徵的同質性,再以Mixed Model檢驗重複測量資料。研究結果發現,在組別與時間交互作用下,實驗組的便秘症狀上在第2週、第4週、第6週有統計上顯著差異;在中醫體質上,實驗組在第2週、第4週、第6週追蹤統計上顯著差異;在焦慮症狀上,二組不具差異;在憂鬱症狀上,二組不具差異;在便秘生活品質,實驗組在第2週、第4週、第6週追蹤統計上顯著差異。6週耳穴貼壓能協助美沙冬病人改善便秘。建議未來也能有相似耳穴貼壓介入措施運用於其他美沙冬病人便秘研究,以期望更客觀評估耳穴貼壓協助他美沙冬病人便秘成效。

Methadone is an alternative drug that has similar pharmacological effects to heroin. It acts on opioid µ receptors in the nervous system. and internal anal sphincter tone; thus prolonging the time for intestinal excretion, leading to constipation。
This study aims to investigate the effect of auricular point sticking on constipation in patients with methadone. This study is a randomized controlled trial, taking 72 methadone constipation patients from a hospital in the north as objects, and divided them into an auricular point group and a control group. The experimental group was given auricular point sticking, while the control group only used sticking cloth. The two groups were measured for constipation, TCM constitution, anxiety, depression and quality of life before the intervention and 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after the start.
The two groups were measured for constipation, TCM constitution, anxiety, depression and quality of life before the intervention and 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after the start. The research data was analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software, the characteristics of the basic data were stated with descriptive statistics, the homogeneity of the population characteristics of the two groups was tested with Chi-square test and t test, and the repeated measurement data was tested with Mixed Model. The results of the study found that under the interaction between group and time, the constipation symptoms of the experimental group had statistically significant differences in the second week, the fourth week, and the sixth week; There was a significant difference in tracking statistics at 4 weeks and 6 weeks; there was no difference between the two groups in anxiety symptoms; there was no difference between the two groups in depression symptoms; in the quality of life of constipation, the experimental group was at the 2nd week, 4th week, and 6th week. Statistically significant difference at weekly follow-up。
Six weeks of auricular point sticking can help patients with methadone improve constipation. It is suggested that similar auricular point sticking interventions can be applied to other methadone patients with constipation in the future, in order to more objectively evaluate the effect of auricular point sticking on constipation in other methadone patients。

中文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………… i
英文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………… ii
目次 …………………………………………………………………………… iii

第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機、重要性及背景……………………………………………… 1 1
第二節 研究目的 ………………………………………………………………. .2 2
第三節 研究質疑 ………………………………………………………………. .3
第四節 研究假設……………………………………………………………....….3

第二章 文獻探討
第一節 美沙冬治療海洛因毒癮現況…………………………………….............4 5
第二節 鴉片類藥物引起便秘之相關研究……………………………………….5 6
第三節 耳穴貼壓對便秘症狀之相關研究..…………….……………………… .9
第四節 耳穴貼壓對便秘中醫體質之相關研究. ………………………………..11
第五節 耳穴貼壓對便秘情緒狀態之相關研究…………………………………13
第六節 耳穴貼壓對便秘生活品質之相關研究…………………………………15 7
10
12
12


第三章 研究架構
第一節 研究架構 …………………………………………………………………17
第二節 名詞定義 …………………………………………………………………18
第四章 研究方法
15
16
第一節 研究設計 …………………………………………………………………20 18
第二節 研究地點與研究對象 ………………………………………………….. .21 19
第三節 研究工具…………………………………………………………………. 21 20
第四節 倫理考量………………………………………………………………… .25
第五節 研究過程………………………………………………………………… .25
第六節 資料分析 …………………………………………………………………27 23
24
25
第五章 研究結果
第一節 研究對象之基本屬性及健康特性…………………………………………. 28
第二節 介入耳穴按壓後便秘之分析………………………………………………. 31
第三節 介入耳穴貼壓後中醫體質之成效…………………………………………..41
第四節 介入耳穴貼壓後焦慮性質之成效…………………………………………..45
第五節 介入耳穴貼壓後憂鬱性質之成效………………………………………….47
第六節 介入耳穴貼壓後便秘生活品質之成效……………………………………49
第六章 討論
第一節 研究對象基本資料的分析………………………………………………....51
第二節 介入措施對便秘症狀之成效………………………………………………52
第三節 介入措施對中醫體質之成效………………………………………………53
第四節 介入措施對焦慮和憂鬱性質之成效………………………………………53
第五節 介入措施對便秘生活品質性質之成效……………………………………54
第七章 結論與建議
第一節 結論………………………………………………………………………... 55
第二節 護理上的應用……………………………………………………………... 55
第三節 研究限制與建議……………………………………………………………56
附錄
附錄一……………………………………………………………………………..…67
附錄二………………………………………………………………………………..68


尹慧、秦黎虹 (2012).耳穴貼壓治療氣虛血瘀型中風患者便秘的療效觀察.中醫藥臨
床雜誌,24(6),504-505。
李雅萍、黃馨葆、蔡兆勳、陳慶餘、邱泰源(2012).癌症疼痛控制的現況.安寧療護
誌,17(1), 62-75。
季杰、王豔威、任紹林 (2016).耳穴貼壓配合基礎護理治療腦卒中急性期實證便秘療
效觀察.上海針灸雜誌,35(3),276-278。
金素君 (2016).穴位按摩聯合耳穴壓丸治療腦卒中脾虛氣弱型便秘的效果觀察.當代護
士,8,92-93。
施宏昇、虞凱強、張尚智、黃奎祐、許中華(2018) ‧中藥改善藥癮替代療法(美沙冬)之
療效.中醫內科醫學雜誌,16(1),1-14。
馬榮梨、張曉雲、劉芊葳、顏正芳(2021).精神衛生護理雜誌,16(2),31-41。
游千代、柯乃熒(2010).癌症病人使用鴉片類藥物導致便秘之實證護理.護理雜誌
57(4),100-105。
虞凱強、許中華(2017).探討中醫在海洛因戒毒中扮演的角色.中醫內科醫學雜誌,
15(1),28-39。
衛生福利部國民健康署【國健署】(2020,11月).藥物濫用案件暨檢驗統計資料。
https://www.fda.gov.tw/tc/site.aspx?sid=12083&r=710072047
衛生福利部國民健康署【國健署】(2018,10月12日).健康五蔬果。
https://www.hpa.gov.tw/Pages/Detail.aspx?nodeid=543&pid=715
葉美玲、林慧玉、徐月玲、鍾玉珠( 2022)‧穴位刺激措施改善中風住院病人之便秘:系統性
回顧暨統合分析.榮總護理,39(2),160-171。
蘇岳侯、林恭儀(2017)‧便秘的中西醫探討•台北市中醫醫學雜誌,23(4),23-27。
外文部分
Bharucha, A. E., & Lacy, B. E. (2020, Apr). Mechanisms, Evaluation, and Management of Chronic Constipation. Gastroenterology, 158(5), 1232-1249.e1233. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.034

Blake, M., Raker, J., & Whelan, K. (2016). Validity and reliability of the Bristol Stool Form Scale in healthy adults and patients with diarrhoea‐predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 44(7), 693-703.

Camilleri, M., Ford, A. C., Mawe, G. M., Dinning, P. G., Rao, S. S., Chey, W. D., Simrén, M., Lembo, A., Young-Fadok, T. M., & Chang, L. (2017). Chronic constipation. Nature reviews Disease primers, 3(1), 1-19.

Cha, N. H., & Sok, S. R. (2016, Sep). Effects of Auricular Acupressure Therapy on Primary Dysmenorrhea for Female High School Students in South Korea. J Nurs Scholarsh, 48(5), 508-516. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12238

Cicero, T. J., Ellis, M. S., & Kasper, Z. A. (2017). Increased use of heroin as an initiating opioid of abuse. Addictive behaviors, 74, 63-66.

Digesu, G. A., Panayi, D., Kundi, N., Tekkis, P., Fernando, R., & Khullar, V. (2010). Validity of the Rome III Criteria in assessing constipation in women. International urogynecology journal, 21(10), 1185-1193.

Forootan, M., Bagheri, N., & Darvishi, M. (2018). Chronic constipation: A review of literature. Medicine, 97(20).

Garner, B. K., Hopkinson, S. G., Ketz, A. K., Landis, C. A., & Trego, L. L. (2018, Oct 1). Auricular Acupuncture for Chronic Pain and Insomnia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Med Acupunct, 30(5), 262-272. https://doi.org/10.1089/acu.2018.1294

Gaspersz, R., Nawijn, L., Lamers, F., & Penninx, B. W. (2018). Patients with anxious depression: overview of prevalence, pathophysiology and impact on course and treatment outcome. Current opinion in psychiatry, 31(1), 17-25.

Gwee, K.-A., Ghoshal, U. C., Gonlachanvit, S., Chua, A. S. B., Myung, S.-J., Rajindrajith, S., Patcharatrakul, T., Choi, M.-G., Wu, J. C., & Chen, M.-H. (2013). Primary care management of chronic constipation in Asia: the ANMA chronic constipation tool. Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility, 19(2), 149.

He, W., Wang, X., Shi, H., Shang, H., Li, L., Jing, X., & Zhu, B. (2012). Auricular acupuncture and vagal regulation. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012.

Ji, L., Fan, Y., Li, L., Bai, H., Weng, L., & Zhao, P. (2020). Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal compound in the treatment of functional constipation: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine, 99(39).

Jildeh, T. R., Okoroha, K. R., Kuhlmann, N., Cross, A., Abbas, M. J., & Moutzouros, V. (2021, Mar 10). Multimodal Nonopioid Pain Protocol Provides Equivalent Pain Versus Opioid Control Following Meniscus Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial. Arthroscopy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.02.043

Kaushal, V., Amoozgar, B., Garala, P., Bayanzay, K., & Sen, S. (2020). Spontaneous Recurrent Pneumoperitoneum due to Opioid-Induced Constipation: A Case Report. Cureus, 12(5).

Kharasch, E. D., & Greenblatt, D. J. (2019). Methadone disposition: implementing lessons learned. Journal of clinical pharmacology, 59(8), 1044.

Kraut, R. (2018). The quality of life: Aristotle revised. Oxford University Press.

Li, M., Lee, T. D., & Suen, K. L. (2014). Complementary effects of auricular acupressure in relieving constipation symptoms and promoting disease-specific health-related quality of life: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 22(2), 266-277.

Li, M. K., Lee, T. F., & Suen, K. P. (2014, Apr). Complementary effects of auricular acupressure in relieving constipation symptoms and promoting disease-specific health-related quality of life: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med, 22(2), 266-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2014.01.010

Lim, N. (2016). Cultural differences in emotion: differences in emotional arousal level between the East and the West. Integrative medicine research, 5(2), 105-109.

Lin, C., Wong, B. Y., Lo, M. T., Chiu, Y. C., & Lin, Y. H. (2020, Jan). Development of an addiction index and delineation 15-year trends of illicit drugs from the Taiwan national drug enhancement database. J Psychiatr Res, 120, 131-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.10.016

Marinescu, I. A., Bajenaru, L., & Dobre, C. (2018). Conceptual approaches in quality of life assessment for the elderly. 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC),

Mitchell, A. J., Baker‐Glenn, E. A., Granger, L., & Symonds, P. (2010). Can the Distress Thermometer be improved by additional mood domains? Part I. Initial validation of the Emotion Thermometers tool. Psycho‐Oncology: Journal of the Psychological, Social and Behavioral Dimensions of Cancer, 19(2), 125-133.

Mokhtare, M., Ghafoori, S. M., Soltani-Kermanshahi, M., Boghratian, A. H., Agah, S., & Sheikhvatan, M. (2017, Fall). Reliability and validity of the Persian version of patient assessment of constipation- quality of life (PAC-QOL) questionnaire. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench, 10(4), 289-294.

Moura, C. C., Chaves, E. C. L., Cardoso, A., Nogueira, D. A., Azevedo, C., & Chianca, T. C. M. (2019, Aug 19). Auricular acupuncture for chronic back pain in adults: a systematic review and metanalysis. Rev Esc Enferm USP, 53, e03461. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1980-220x2018021703461 (Acupuntura auricular para dor crônica nas costas em adultos: revisão sistemática e metanálise.)

Nag, A., Martin, S. A., Mladsi, D., Olayinka-Amao, O., Purser, M., & Vekaria, R. M. (2020). The humanistic and economic burden of chronic idiopathic constipation in the USA: a systematic literature review. Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, 13, 255.

Neri, L., Conway, P. M., & Basilisco, G. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM) among patients with chronic constipation. Quality of Life Research, 24(7), 1597-1605.

Ng, M.-H., Chen, V. C.-H., Ting, H., Lin, T.-Y., Chang, S.-H., & Gossop, M. (2019). Macrocytosis among patients with heroin use disorder. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 15, 2293.

Paley, C. A., Johnson, M. I., Tashani, O. A., & Bagnall, A. M. (2015, Oct 15). Acupuncture for cancer pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2015(10), Cd007753. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007753.pub3

Schmidt, F. M. Q., & de Gouveia Santos, V. L. C. (2014). Prevalence of Constipation in the General Adult Population: An Integrative Review. Journal of Wound Ostomy & Continence Nursing, 41(1), 70-76. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.WON.0000438019.21229.b7

Shirinbayan, P., Rafiey, H., Roshan, A. V., Narenjiha, H., & Farhoudian, A. (2010). Predictors of retention in methadone maintenance therapy: a prospective multi-center study. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(21), 3231-3236.

Zhang, F., Shen, Y., Fu, H., Zhou, H., & Wang, C. (2020, Jan). Auricular acupuncture for migraine: A systematic review protocol. Medicine (Baltimore), 99(5), e18900. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000018900

Bharucha, A. E., & Lacy, B. E. (2020, Apr). Mechanisms, Evaluation, and Management of Chronic Constipation. Gastroenterology, 158(5), 1232-1249.e1233. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.034

Blake, M., Raker, J., & Whelan, K. (2016). Validity and reliability of the Bristol Stool Form Scale in healthy adults and patients with diarrhoea‐predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 44(7), 693-703.

Camilleri, M., Ford, A. C., Mawe, G. M., Dinning, P. G., Rao, S. S., Chey, W. D., Simrén, M., Lembo, A., Young-Fadok, T. M., & Chang, L. (2017). Chronic constipation. Nature reviews Disease primers, 3(1), 1-19.

Cha, N. H., & Sok, S. R. (2016, Sep). Effects of Auricular Acupressure Therapy on Primary Dysmenorrhea for Female High School Students in South Korea. J Nurs Scholarsh, 48(5), 508-516. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12238

Digesu, G. A., Panayi, D., Kundi, N., Tekkis, P., Fernando, R., & Khullar, V. (2010). Validity of the Rome III Criteria in assessing constipation in women. International urogynecology journal, 21(10), 1185-1193.

Forootan, M., Bagheri, N., & Darvishi, M. (2018). Chronic constipation: A review of literature. Medicine, 97(20).

Garner, B. K., Hopkinson, S. G., Ketz, A. K., Landis, C. A., & Trego, L. L. (2018, Oct 1). Auricular Acupuncture for Chronic Pain and Insomnia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Med Acupunct, 30(5), 262-272. https://doi.org/10.1089/acu.2018.1294

Gaspersz, R., Nawijn, L., Lamers, F., & Penninx, B. W. (2018). Patients with anxious depression: overview of prevalence, pathophysiology and impact on course and treatment outcome. Current opinion in psychiatry, 31(1), 17-25.

Gwee, K.-A., Ghoshal, U. C., Gonlachanvit, S., Chua, A. S. B., Myung, S.-J., Rajindrajith, S., Patcharatrakul, T., Choi, M.-G., Wu, J. C., & Chen, M.-H. (2013). Primary care management of chronic constipation in Asia: the ANMA chronic constipation tool. Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility, 19(2), 149.

He, W., Wang, X., Shi, H., Shang, H., Li, L., Jing, X., & Zhu, B. (2012). Auricular acupuncture and vagal regulation. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012.

Ji, L., Fan, Y., Li, L., Bai, H., Weng, L., & Zhao, P. (2020). Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal compound in the treatment of functional constipation: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine, 99(39).

Jildeh, T. R., Okoroha, K. R., Kuhlmann, N., Cross, A., Abbas, M. J., & Moutzouros, V. (2021, Mar 10). Multimodal Nonopioid Pain Protocol Provides Equivalent Pain Versus Opioid Control Following Meniscus Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial. Arthroscopy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.02.043

Kaushal, V., Amoozgar, B., Garala, P., Bayanzay, K., & Sen, S. (2020). Spontaneous Recurrent Pneumoperitoneum due to Opioid-Induced Constipation: A Case Report. Cureus, 12(5).

Kharasch, E. D., & Greenblatt, D. J. (2019). Methadone disposition: implementing lessons learned. Journal of clinical pharmacology, 59(8), 1044.

Kraut, R. (2018). The quality of life: Aristotle revised. Oxford University Press.

Li, M., Lee, T. D., & Suen, K. L. (2014). Complementary effects of auricular acupressure in relieving constipation symptoms and promoting disease-specific health-related quality of life: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 22(2), 266-277.

Li, M. K., Lee, T. F., & Suen, K. P. (2014, Apr). Complementary effects of auricular acupressure in relieving constipation symptoms and promoting disease-specific health-related quality of life: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med, 22(2), 266-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2014.01.010

Lim, N. (2016). Cultural differences in emotion: differences in emotional arousal level between the East and the West. Integrative medicine research, 5(2), 105-109.

Lin, C., Wong, B. Y., Lo, M. T., Chiu, Y. C., & Lin, Y. H. (2020, Jan). Development of an addiction index and delineation 15-year trends of illicit drugs from the Taiwan national drug enhancement database. J Psychiatr Res, 120, 131-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.10.016

Marinescu, I. A., Bajenaru, L., & Dobre, C. (2018). Conceptual approaches in quality of life assessment for the elderly. 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC),

Mitchell, A. J., Baker‐Glenn, E. A., Granger, L., & Symonds, P. (2010). Can the Distress Thermometer be improved by additional mood domains? Part I. Initial validation of the Emotion Thermometers tool. Psycho‐Oncology: Journal of the Psychological, Social and Behavioral Dimensions of Cancer, 19(2), 125-133.

Mokhtare, M., Ghafoori, S. M., Soltani-Kermanshahi, M., Boghratian, A. H., Agah, S., & Sheikhvatan, M. (2017, Fall). Reliability and validity of the Persian version of patient assessment of constipation- quality of life (PAC-QOL) questionnaire. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench, 10(4), 289-294.

Moura, C. C., Chaves, E. C. L., Cardoso, A., Nogueira, D. A., Azevedo, C., & Chianca, T. C. M. (2019, Aug 19). Auricular acupuncture for chronic back pain in adults: a systematic review and metanalysis. Rev Esc Enferm USP, 53, e03461. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1980-220x2018021703461 (Acupuntura auricular para dor crônica nas costas em adultos: revisão sistemática e metanálise.)

Nag, A., Martin, S. A., Mladsi, D., Olayinka-Amao, O., Purser, M., & Vekaria, R. M. (2020). The humanistic and economic burden of chronic idiopathic constipation in the USA: a systematic literature review. Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, 13, 255.

Neri, L., Conway, P. M., & Basilisco, G. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM) among patients with chronic constipation. Quality of Life Research, 24(7), 1597-1605.

Ng, M.-H., Chen, V. C.-H., Ting, H., Lin, T.-Y., Chang, S.-H., & Gossop, M. (2019). Macrocytosis among patients with heroin use disorder. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 15, 2293.

Paley, C. A., Johnson, M. I., Tashani, O. A., & Bagnall, A. M. (2015, Oct 15). Acupuncture for cancer pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2015(10), Cd007753. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007753.pub3

Schmidt, F. M. Q., & de Gouveia Santos, V. L. C. (2014). Prevalence of Constipation in the General Adult Population: An Integrative Review. Journal of Wound Ostomy & Continence Nursing, 41(1), 70-76. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.WON.0000438019.21229.b7

Shirinbayan, P., Rafiey, H., Roshan, A. V., Narenjiha, H., & Farhoudian, A. (2010). Predictors of retention in methadone maintenance therapy: a prospective multi-center study. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(21), 3231-3236.

Zhang, F., Shen, Y., Fu, H., Zhou, H., & Wang, C. (2020, Jan). Auricular acupuncture for migraine: A systematic review protocol. Medicine (Baltimore), 99(5), e18900. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000018900


電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20280611)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊