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研究生(外文):Zong-Yen Tu
論文名稱:地區與季節的溫度對仔魚期的不同影響: 以臺灣珊瑚礁魚為例
論文名稱(外文):Temperature effects on larval durations vary between regions and seasons: based on reef fishes in Taiwan
指導教授(外文):Hui-Yu WangJen-Chieh Shiao
口試委員(外文):Sheng-Feng Shen
外文關鍵詞:reef fishrecruitmentpelagic larval durationtemperaturephylogenetic generalized least square
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早期生活史特徵的變異對族群的動態有深遠的影響。例如在環境和生物因子的影響下,仔魚期會產生變異,進而影響物種的成長和存活。然而,因為很少有研究比較環境和生物因子對仔魚期的相對影響,目前仍不清楚何者為影響仔魚期變異的重要因子。在這裡,我們進行了台灣北部和南部海岸潮間帶中6種小型底棲魚類的採樣並從耳石估計個體仔魚期,探討1) 溫度對種間和種內的仔魚期影響,並同時考慮台灣南北區域、孵化季節、體型大小的影響;2) 溫度與系統發育對仔魚期的影響。由於研究區域的緯度和季節包含大範圍的溫度梯度 (15.4-30.7°C ),我們認為溫度對種內仔魚期的影響會因為區域和孵化季節而不同: 即溫度對種內仔魚期的影響在南部與北部 (或暖季與涼季) 會有不同的趨勢。在考慮溫度的影響下,體型和親緣關係也會影響仔魚期: 即較小的物種會擁有較短的仔魚期,且親緣關係影響物種間仔魚期的相似性。本研究發現溫度對6種珊瑚礁魚 (Abudefduf sordidus, Bathygobius fuscus, Bathygobius cocosensis, Istiblennius edentulous, Istiblennius lineatus, Praealticus striatus ) 的種內仔魚期影響均一致,但溫度升高的效應在南部或暖季為延長仔魚期 (南部斜率為0.001 (暖季為0.01 天/°C));而升溫的效應在北部或涼季為縮短仔魚期 (北部斜率為 -0.005 (涼季為 -0.002 天/°C))。此外,在考慮溫度影響下,體型大小和親緣關係並不能進一步解釋物種間的仔魚期變異。這些結果表明環境與季節的溫度變異對仔魚期有不同影響,特別在暖季時的升溫會導致仔魚期有較大程度的延長,此不同的季節升溫影響是否產生不同的族群動態需要進一步評估。本研究透過了解仔魚期對溫度變化的敏感性,將可提升預測海洋暖化對珊瑚礁魚的影響。
Variation in early life-history traits has profound effects on population dynamics. For example, pelagic larval durations (PLDs), which change under the environmental and biological influences, determine growth and survival of fish. However, as few studies compare the effects of environmental and biological factors on PLDs, it remains unclear the relative effects of these factors on variability of PLDs. Here, we surveyed 6 small benthic fish (Abudefduf sordidus, Bathygobius fuscus, Bathygobius cocosensis, Istiblennius edentulous, Istiblennius lineatus, Praealticus striatus) in the intertidal zone of the northern and southern coasts of Taiwan (ST and NT), estimating PLDs of individual fish based on otoliths. We explored: 1) the effects of temperature on interspecific and intraspecific PLDs, accounting for the effects of regions, hatching seasons, and body size; 2) the effects of temperature and phylogeny on PLDs. Since the latitudes and seasons of our study design encompass a broad range of temperature (15.4-30.7°C), we hypothesize that the effects of temperature on intraspecific PLDs vary between regions and hatching seasons: that is, the effect of temperature on intraspecific PLDs vary between ST vs. NT (or warm vs. cool season). Body size and phylogeny may also affect PLDs when temperature is considered: i.e., smaller species have shorter PLDs, and that similarity of PLDs may resemble the phylogenetic relationships among species. Our analysis shows a consistent effect of temperature on the intraspecific PLDs of the 6 species . However, the effect of increasing temperature on PLDs was positive in ST (or warm season) (slope of ST was 0.001 (0.01 in the warm season days/°C)) but negative in NT (or cool season) (slope of NT was -0.005 (cool season was -0.002 days/°C)). In addition, body size and phylogeny did not further explain variation of PLDs among species when accounting for temperature. These results indicate that rising temperature in the warm season may lead to prolonged PLDs for our study fishes. Whether such differential temperature effects lead to different population dynamics between seasons require to be assessed. Through investigating the sensitivity of PLDs to temperature, our research will advance forecasting of the impact of ocean warming on coral reef fish.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
前言 1
魚類早期生活史的重要性 1
溫度變化對仔魚期的影響 1
不同物種仔魚期的變化 2
利用物種親緣關係來量化物種間的差異 2
台灣沿岸的環境和珊瑚礁魚類 3
研究目的與假設 4
材料與方法 5
採樣地點和魚類採集 5
魚種鑑定 5
生物特徵和耳石測量 6
溫度資料 8
統計分析 8
系統發育廣義最小二乘法模型 9
結果 11
潮池魚種孵化季節與溫度變化 11
潮池魚種的仔魚期空間與季節的變化 11
溫度對潮池魚種的仔魚期的影響 12
潮池魚種間仔魚期的變異與沉降體長的關係 12
親緣關係對物種仔魚期的影響 12
討論 14
物種內仔魚期季節和空間的變化 14
溫度在季節與空間的改變下對珊瑚礁魚種內仔魚期的影響 15
沉降體長和親緣關係對珊瑚礁魚種間仔魚期的影響 15
結論 16
參考文獻 17
圖 24
表格 38
附錄 46
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