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研究生:柯斯安
研究生(外文):Christian Schmidt
論文名稱:漢語中的西源和製漢語: 學術評析與辭典資料建置
論文名稱(外文):Western Origins of Japanese Loanwords in Chinese: Academic Evaluation and Lexical Resource Construction
指導教授:謝舒凱謝舒凱引用關係呂佳蓉呂佳蓉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Kai HsiehChia-Rung Lu
口試委員:江文瑜張麗麗林智凱陳瑋芬
口試委員(外文):Wen-Yu ChiangLi-Li ChangChih-Kai LinWei-Fen Chen
口試日期:2023-07-07
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
論文頁數:1120
中文關鍵詞:漢語中的和製漢語漢語新詞東西知識交流數位人文詞彙資源建置
外文關鍵詞:Japanese loanwords in ChineseChinese neologismsknowledge transfer between the West and Asiadigital humanitieslexical resource construction
DOI:10.6342/NTU202302287
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本研究深入探討近代漢語中西源和製漢語的可能性,研究涉及三個層面:學術、系統和詞語層面。在學術層面上,我們整合了21篇現代學術論文(1958-2020)以及7篇早期(1903-1944)的日語借詞研究資料,並針對每一份研究的個別分類方案進行分析,並且建立統一分類系統,使得我們能夠對於超過3,000個經常被討論的和製漢語,進行客觀地描述、衡量學術界對於和製漢語的狀態並量化其所謂的學術共識。通過比較當代學術與早期學術研究和現代術語,我們識別出約1,200個當前研究似乎忽略的潛在日語借詞。利用我們自主開發的資料庫 —— 漢語新詞資料庫(由中研院近史所近代數位資料庫團隊所維護和管理),包含了超過3,700個歷史語料,我們能夠量化日語借詞分類與實際歷史語料的一致程度。在系統層面上,我們發現,雖然當代學術僅認為大約10%的和製漢語具有西方來源,但我們的分析顯示,次數大約爲25%,亦即說在漢語中,至少由五位學者所討論的日語借詞,確實首次的書證出現在於1600年至1920年間由西方作者用中文寫的文本或雙語詞典中。我們在詞語層面上將我們的發現總結為《和製漢語年代列表》,按照來源類型排序:西方、詞典、中文和日語。此外,我們還編制了一本包含超過3,200個詞語的《和製漢語詞典》,每一條目都提供詳細的學術資訊,包括借詞路徑、語義變化以及現代和歷史同義詞。
This study conducts an in-depth exploration into the possible Western origins of Japanese loanwords in Modern Chinese across three aspects: scholarship, system level, and word level. At the level of scholarship, we have consolidated data from 21 modern (1958-2020) and 7 earlier (1903-1944) loanword studies, aligning various individual classification schemes under a single meta-classification system. This enables us to present an objective measurement of loanword status and measure the extent of academic agreement regarding the loanword classification of over 3,000 frequently discussed potential loanwords. By comparing contemporary scholarship with earlier academic contributions and present-day terminologies, we identify an additional set of approximately 1,200 potential Japanese loanwords that current studies seem to have overlooked. By utilizing our self-developed database, the Database of Neologisms in Modern Chinese (maintained and managed by the Academia Sinica Institute of Modern History Database team), which encompasses more than 3,700 historical sources, we are able to quantify the degree to which the classification of Japanese loanwords aligns with actual historical data. On the system level, we find that while contemporary scholarship acknowledges only approximately 10% of Japanese loanwords as having Western origins, our analysis reveals that about 25% of the Japanese loanwords in Chinese — currently discussed by at least five scholars — indeed first surface between 1600 and 1920 in texts or bilingual dictionaries written by Western authors in Chinese. We summarize our findings at the word level in a Chronological List of Japanese Loanwords in Chinese, ordered by source types: Western, dictionaries, Chinese, and Japanese. Furthermore, we have compiled a Dictionary of Japanese Loanwords in Chinese that includes more than 3,200 words. Each entry offers detailed academic information, including borrowing pathways, semantic changes, and modern and historical synonyms.
1 Research Background, Aim and Questions 1
1.1 Aim 3
1.2 Research questions 5
1.3 Preliminary study 7
2 Loanword Definitions and Categories 11
2.1 Western Loanword Definitions 11
2.2 Chinese Loanword Definitions 18
2.2.1 Western-Influence: Strict Definition 19
2.2.2 Chinese Reaction: Relaxed Definition 24
2.2.3 Response: Graphic Loan Theory 29
2.3 Loanword Categories 31
2.3.1 Shared Categories between Western and Chinese Loan word Frameworks 32
2.3.2 Divergent Categories between Western and Chinese Loanword Frameworks 36
2.4 Standard Japanese Loanword Classification System 46
2.4.1 Analytical Aspects 49
2.4.2 Variables 51
2.4.3 Common Configurations Expressed in the Metasystem 56
2.4.4 Overview of All Configurations of the Standard Japanese Loanword Classification System 63
2.4.5 Typology of Japanese loanwords in Chinese 65
2.5 Summary 66
3 Building an Academic List of Japanese Loanwords 69
3.1 Early Studies on Japanese Loanwords 70
3.1.1 Xinerya by Wang Rongbao and Ye Lan (1903) 72
3.1.2 New explanation of words by Liang Qichao (1904) 76
3.1.3 Blind men blind horses - New terms by Peng Wenzu (1915) 80
3.1.4 Etymology of new terms by Zhou Shangfu (1917) 82
3.1.5 Etymology of Japanese words by Liu Zihe (1919) 85
3.1.6 Development of terminology translated from Japanese by Yu Yousun (1935) 88
3.1.7 Sources of new terms by Wang Yunwu (1944) 90
3.2 Summary 91
3.2.1 Intermediate Result I: List of Japanese Loanwords in Earlier Studies 96
3.3 Modern Studies on Japanese Loanwords 97
3.3.1 The Chinese Loanword Dictionary by Cen Qixiang (1984) 99
3.3.2 List of Hezhihanyu by Sato Takeyoshi (1996) 101
3.3.3 Nurturing Esthetics by Zhou Shenglai (2016) 102
3.3.4 A Study of Japanese Loanwords from the Late Qing Dynasty to the Early Republic of China and the Reform and Opening Up and Their Sinicization by Qu Zirui (2016) 103
3.3.5 Intertwined Cultural History – Manuscripts of Early Missionary Sinology Studies by Zhang Xiping (2017) 104
3.3.6 Modern Etymological Dictionary by Huang Heqing (2020) 106
3.3.7 Modern Chinese loanword research by Gao and Liu (1958) 109
3.3.8 Words Borrowed from Japanese in Modern Chinese by Wang Lida (1958) 110
3.3.9 Chronicles of Foreign Students in China by Saneto Keishu (1981) 111
3.3.10 The Chinese Loanword Dictionary by Liu, Gao, Mai and Shi (1984) 113
3.3.11 Translingual Practice by Liu He (1995) 116
3.3.12 The Etymological Dictionary of Modern Chinese Neologisms (2001) 119
3.3.13 Conceptual History Research by Jin and Liu (2010) 122
3.3.14 Research on the vocabulary of Beijing Mandarin textbooks during the Meiji period in Japan by Chen Ming’e (2014) 123
3.3.15 The study of Japanese loanwords in Xiandai hanyu cidian by Morita Satoshi (2016) 124
3.3.16 The History of Loanwords in Ming-Qing Chinese by Zhao Ming (2016) 125
3.3.17 Xinhua Loanword Dictionary by Shi Youwei (2019) 128
3.3.18 Research on Modern Chinese 2-character words (2019a), Research on Yan Fu’s translations (2019b), History of Sino-Japanese linguistic exchanges (2020) by Shen Guowei 131
3.3.19 Lexical Studies During the End of the Qing and Beginning of the Republican Era by Zhang Ye (2019) 134
3.3.20 From East to East — Lexical concept between China and Japan in Modern Times by Chen Liwei (2019) 136
3.3.21 The Trajectory of Vocabulary Exchange between China and Japan in Modern Times by Zhu Jingwei (2020) 139
3.4 Summary 141
3.4.1 Intermediate Result II: List of Japanese Loanwords in Modern Studies 141
4 Methodology 145
4.1 Judging Western and Japanese Origins of Japanese loanwords in Chinese 145
4.1.1 Determining Loanword Status 149
4.1.2 Intermediate Result III: List of Japanese Loanwords (acknowledged words) 153
4.2 Measuring Academic Agreement 154
4.2.1 Step by Step Calculation With Examples 156
4.2.2 Interpreting the Academic Agreement Value 161
4.2.3 Intermediate Result IV: List of Japanese Loanwords (academic agreement) 165
4.3 List of Modern Terminology 166
4.3.1 Intermediate Result V: Balanced List of Japanese Loanwords 168
4.4 Auxiliary methods of judging loanwordness 170
4.4.1 Qualitative Approach: Semantics 172
4.4.2 Quantitative Approach: Timeline of Borrowing 180
4.4.3 Quantitative Approach: Steps of Borrowing 189
4.4.4 Quantitative Approach: Pathways of Borrowing 192
4.5 Database 200
4.5.1 Academic data 201
4.5.2 Historical data 203
4.5.3 Database functions 205
4.6 Limitations and future development 212
5 Results and Conclusion 217
5.1 Steps of Borrowing 219
5.2 Pathways of Borrowing 225
5.3 Chronological List and Dictionary 229
5.3.1 Final Results I: Chronological Earliest Record List of Japanese Loanwords 229
5.3.2 Final Results II: Dictionary of Japanese loanwords in Chinese 242
5.4 Conclusion 243
6 Summary 249
Bibliography 267
Appendices 271
A Single variable categorization systems 271
A.1 Japanese Loanwords in Chinese Loanword Dictionary by Cen Qixiang (1984) 271
A.2 Hezhihanyu in Hezhihanyu overview modern by Sato Takeyoshi (1996) 271
A.3 Japanese loanwords in Nurturing Esthetics by Zhou (2016) 272
A.4 Loanwords discussed in Qu (2016) 274
A.5 Missionary loanwords in Zhang (2017) 277
A.6 Japanese loanwords in Huang (2020) 278
B Multi-variable categorization systems 305
B.1 Japanese loanwords in the Modern Chinese loanword research (1958) 305
B.2 Japanese loanwords in the Words Borrowed from Japanese in Modern Chinese (1958) 307
B.3 Japanese loanwords in Chronicles of Foreign Students in China (1981) 309
B.4 Japanese loanwords in the Chinese Loanword Dictionary (1984) 312
B.5 Japanese loanwords in Translingual Practice (1995) 314
B.6 Loanwords in the Etymological Dictionary of Modern Chinese Neologisms (2001) 317
B.7 Loanwords in Conceptual History Research Jin et al. (2010) 327
B.8 All words listed in Mandarin textbooks by Chen (2014) 327
B.9 Japanese loanwords in The study of Japanese loanwords in “Xiandai hanyu cidian” by Morita Satoshi (2016) 329
B.10 Loanwords in The History of Loanwords in Ming-Qing Chinese by Zhao (2016) 332
B.11 Japanese loanwords in Xinhua Loanword Dictionary by Shi (2019) 334
B.12 Loanwords in Research on Modern Chinese 2-character words (2019) 343
B.13 Loanwords in Research on Yan Fu’s translations (2019) 358
B.14 Loanwords in History of Sino-Japanese linguistic exchange (2020) 360
B.15 Loanwords in Lexical Studies During the End of the Qing and the Beginning of the Republican Era by Zhang (2019) 361
B.16 Loanwords in From East to East by Chen (2019) 364
B.17 Loanwords in Trajectory of Vocabulary Exchange between China and Japan in Modern Times by Zhu (2020) 370
C Intermediate Results I – V 379
C.1 Intermediate Result I: List of Japanese Loanwords in Earlier Studies 379
C.2 Intermediate Result II: List of Japanese Loanwords in Modern Studies 393
C.3 Intermediate Result III: List of Japanese Loanwords (acknowledged words) 421
C.4 Intermediate Result IV: List of Japanese Loanwords (academic agreement) 429
C.5 Intermediate Result V: Balanced List of Japanese Loanwords in Chinese Terminologies 443
D Modern Terminologies 451
Index 456
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