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研究生:龔柏龍
研究生(外文):KUNG, BO-LUNG
論文名稱:先買後付(BNPL)監理與法制之研究
論文名稱(外文):Regulatory and Supervisory Framework for Buy Now Pay Later
指導教授:林育廷林育廷引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIN, YU-TING
口試委員:陳肇鴻楊岳平
口試委員(外文):CHEN, CHAO-HUNGYANG, YUEH-PING
口試日期:2023-06-02
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:法律學系
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:先買後付無卡分期消費者信用支付金融監理
外文關鍵詞:Buy Now Pay LaterBNPLConsumer CreditPaymentFinancial TechnologyFinancial Supervision
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:815
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在全球新冠疫情爆發下,一般大眾日常消費模式發生改變,為降低傳染風險,除追求無接觸之消費方式,消費者亦更加審慎控制或調整手頭資金流出之規模及時間而傾向延後付款之支付方式,先買後付在此背景下蓬勃發展,消費者無須在購物時立即支付全額價金,其可選擇推遲價金給付或分期付款。先買後付通常具有短期零利率、使用上便利、無須嚴格信用審核之特色,然而其通常不受法規特別監理,因此所伴隨之隱憂受到各界所關注,例如交易資訊揭露、廣告與促銷、信用審核制度、消費爭議與申訴機制,以及消費者債務積累等。又在我國現行法下,先買後付並非特許業務而不受特別法規監理,諸多產業皆得承作,正因其不受特別監理,先買後付僅得適用一般性法規或以私法契約解釋及處理當事人法律關係,且業者與主管機關對於先買後付在法律上定位呈現意見分歧之局面。

本文分析先買後付在我國現行法上面臨之問題,先買後付在法制監理上面臨相關法規適用上之分散與不足、公司資金貸與限制過苛之現象。又先買後付無疑是一種支付方式,然其內涵則不僅於此,釐清先買後付之內涵有其重要性,始得在法制監理中制定合宜之計。因此,本文研析先買後付之本質,認為先買後付屬於消費者信用產品,在此脈絡下借鏡外國立法例及政策,包含英國、美國、澳洲及新加坡,並檢視我國先買後付法制與監理上可資運用之手段。本文以為我國應制定一般性消費者信用法規,劃定消費者信用產品之監理範圍,並依產品之風險水平定其監理密度,是以,本文最後嘗試在此框架下對先買後付之法制建構及各項監理議題方向提出建議以為結論。

The outbreak of the global COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered the general public's daily consumption patterns. To reduce the risk of contagion, consumers have embraced contactless payment and have become more cautious in controlling their financial outflows, thereby favoring deferred payment methods. Accordingly, Buy Now Pay Later (hereinafter BNPL) has emerged. Consumers are not required to make immediate full payments at the time of purchase but can choose to delay payment or opt for installment payments while paying with BNPL. However, many potential risks associated with BNPL have caught the attention from different sectors.

Under the current legal framework in Taiwan, BNPL does not fall under any specialized business regulations and is open to various industries to engage in BNPL business. As a result, its legal treatment is subject to general laws or private contracts, leading to ambiguity and divergence of opinions among consumers, businesses, and regulatory authorities. BNPL is undoubtedly a payment instrument, but much more than just payment. It is important to understand BNPL, and appropriate regulatory and supervisory framework can be established.

This thesis examines the challenges faced by BNPL in our country's current legal framework, focusing on the unsatisfying application of relevant regulations and laws. This thesis also analyzes the essence of BNPL, identifying it as a form of consumer credit product. Drawing insights from foreign legislative examples and policies, including those from the UK, US, Australia, and Singapore, this thesis explores potential approaches for the legal framework and supervision of BNPL in Taiwan. The paper argues that we should establish comprehensive consumer credit regulations and proposes recommendations for the legal construction of BNPL and various regulatory issues within this framework.

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 6
第三節 研究方法 7
第四節 研究架構 7
第二章 BNPL之概述 8
第一節 BNPL之意義與市場現況 8
第一項 BNPL之意義 8
第二項 BNPL之演進 10
第二節 BNPL之商業模式 11
第一項 交易之設計 11
第二項 業者獲利來源 14
第三節 商業趨勢與挑戰 15
第三章 BNPL之監理與規範 17
第一節 BNPL監理議題 17
第一項 消費者理解不一 17
第二項 推介與消費者偏誤 17
第三項 信用審查制度不周 18
第四項 消費者債務積累 18
第五項 交易透明度之欠缺 19
第六項 紛爭處理機制不足 20
第二節 我國現行法規範之檢視 20
第一項 BNPL相關之規範 20
第二項 現行相關規範之問題 22
第三項 小結 28
第三節 BNPL本質之探討 28
第一項 BNPL之信用內涵 28
第二項 與其他信用產品之區別 34
第三項 小結 36
第四章 外國立法例及政策 38
第一節 英國 38
第一項 法制背景及監理發展 38
第二項 監理範圍之劃定 39
第三項 BNPL監理措施 41
第二節 美國 47
第一項 法制背景及監理發展 47
第二項 BNPL監理問題 49
第三項 預計監理規劃 52
第三節 澳洲 53
第一項 法制背景及監理發展 53
第二項 業者自我監理措施 54
第三項 財政部BNPL監理諮詢 61
第四項 預計監理方向 63
第四節 新加坡 64
第一項 法制背景及監理發展 64
第二項 業者自我監理措施 65
第五節 小結 69
第五章 我國BNPL監理之建構 71
第一節 當事人法律關係之重塑 71
第一項 現行實務運作 71
第二項 分析與檢討 73
第二節 監理手段之選擇 81
第一項 業者自我監理 81
第二項 契約內容之控制 84
第三項 重啟融資公司法 85
第四項 本文見解 86
第三節 監理方向之建議 89
第一項 監理範圍之劃定 89
第二項 市場准入 91
第三項 資訊揭露義務 92
第四項 廣告與促銷 95
第五項 信用審核制度 96
第六項 消費者債務積累 99
第七項 消費爭議處理 100
第六章 結論 102
參考文獻 104


一、中文文獻

(一)專書

1.王文宇、林育廷,票據法與支付工具規範,元照,初版,2008年。
2.王志誠,現代金融法,新學林,三版,2017年。
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(二)期刊論文

1.吳淑如,論無卡分期之法律性質及其衍生問題,財金法學研究第3卷2期,頁1-27,2020年9月。
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3.吳馥秀,金融科技發展路徑圖-聯徵中心之個人信用評分資料便捷轉交機制,金融聯合徵信雜誌第40期,頁3-7,2022年6月。
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5.林育廷,從法律觀點談信用卡系統之成本與效益-以澳洲信用卡制度改革為例,科技法學評論第3卷1期,頁203-247,2006年4月。
6.林育廷,新金融爭端的有效解決-替代性金融爭端解決機制之過去、現在與未來,月旦法學雜誌第199期,頁26-40,2011年11月。
7.林育廷,電子支付法律關係之研究之評論人講評及研究,司法新聲第122期,頁66-79,2017年4月。
8.林信宏,論信用資料交換法制之基礎,金融聯合徵信雙月刊第3期,頁 26-41,2008年10月。
9.林殷如,「先買後付」支付方式崛起,創新的軟體與商業模式能申請專利保護嗎?,科學月刊第488 期,頁8-11,2022年8月。
10.林益山,分期付款買賣與消費者保護之研究,軍法專刊第38卷1期,頁26-29,1992年1月。
11.廖義男,公平交易法規範之事業概念:第二條之詮釋,公平交易季刊第1卷2期,頁1-33,1993年4月。
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(三)計畫報告或研究意見

1.2018年公司法修正--公司法全盤修正修法委員會修法建議,公司法全盤修正修法委員會,2016年。
2.林國全,融資公司法草案與日本融資三法之比較研究,國立政治大學法律學系,國科會研究計劃,2005年。
3.金融監督管理委員會,金融科技發展路徑圖報告書,2020年。
4.彭文暉,先買後付服務所涉議題之法制研析,立法院法制局第10屆議題研析及專題研究,2023年。

(四)法院判決

1.臺中簡易庭110年度中小字第4047號民事判決。
2.臺灣臺中地方法院111年度小上字第77號民事判決。
3.臺灣高等法院 108 年度重上字第 324 號民事判決。

(五)網路資料及其他

1.ETtoday新聞雲,蘋果確定出「先買後付」Apple Pay Later服務!分期付款條件曝, https://www.ettoday.net/news/20220607/2267295.htm(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
2.Fasney會員服務條款,https://www.fasney.com/services(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
3.工商時報,無卡分期再爆詐騙 立委要求顧立雄加強監管, https://ctee.com.tw/news/policy/176037.html(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
4.工商時報,融資公司歸誰管 政院今指定, https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20170302000162-260205?chdtv(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
5.中租零卡分期服務條款,https://www.chailease.com.tw/0card/Ecommerce/TermsOfService(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
6.自由時報,「蝦拚晚點付」涉借貸恐違法? 經部:應屬分期付款模式, https://ec.ltn.com.tw/article/breakingnews/3374100(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
7.自由時報,賴中強:中資蝦皮掌大量個資與金流 已危國安,https://ec.ltn.com.tw/article/breakingnews/3571967(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
8.風傳媒,連蘋果都搶進的秘密武器:先買後付到底是什麼?為何它能讓消費者多花50%?,https://www.storm.mg/lifestyle/4401355?mode=whole(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
9.香港01,金管局提醒Buy Now Pay Later與私貸無異 銀行今須落實七措施, https://www.hk01.com/sns/article/810806?utm_source=01articlecopy&utm_medium=referral(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
10.香港經濟日報,【BNPL】BNLP公司與借貸有何分別?其運作模式等同「伊斯蘭金融」?, https://wealth.hket.com/article/3276987/%E3%80%90BNPL%E3%80%91BNLP%E5%85%AC%E5%8F%B8%E8%88%87%E5%80%9F%E8%B2%B8%E6%9C%89%E4%BD%95%E5%88%86%E5%88%A5%EF%BC%9F%E3%80%80%E5%85%B6%E9%81%8B%E4%BD%9C%E6%A8%A1%E5%BC%8F%E7%AD%89%E5%90%8C%E3%80%8C%E4%BC%8A%E6%96%AF%E8%98%AD%E9%87%91%E8%9E%8D%E3%80%8D%EF%BC%9F?mtc=b0024&lcc=aw(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
11.普匯金融科技,金融科技顯學—BNPL(Buy Now Pay Later) 先買後付,一種顛覆你我想像的數位金融革命, https://www.influxfin.com/articlepage?q=knowledge-8329(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
12.經濟日報,後支付土洋大戰 搶市場大餅,https://money.udn.com/money/story/122229/6419648(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
13.鉅亨網,〈金管會備詢〉蝦拼晚點付恐讓卡債風暴再起 金管會緊盯合作銀行,https://news.cnyes.com/news/id/4547972(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
14.慢點付服務條款,https://www.pay-later.com.tw/Public/MemberCenter/ServiceDocGet(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
15.數位時代,廿一總座接手拍付!Pi拍錢包整合慢點付,如何打造PChome營收新動能?, https://www.bnext.com.tw/article/70251/pchome-pi-bnpl(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
16.樂分期服務條款,https://www.happyfan7.com/Public/Support/ServiceRules (最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
17.數位時代,瑞典 FinTech獨角獸 Klarna估值飆破 300億美元,首創「先買後付」有何魅力?為何 Nike、 H&M都愛它?, https://www.bnext.com.tw/article/62758/klarna-bnpl(最後瀏覽日 2023年 2月 25日)。
18.SHOPLINE,你聽過或使用過 BNPL 先買後付嗎?經營電商不可不知的新型態支付方式,https://stories.shopline.tw/what-is-bnpl/(最後瀏覽日 2023年 2月 25日)。
19.自由時報,中租搶攻東協消金市場 零卡分期更名「zingala銀角零卡」,https://ec.ltn.com.tw/article/breakingnews/3930448(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
20.數位時代,先買後付品牌AFTEE母公司日本掛牌上市!執行長:接地氣是成功關鍵,https://www.bnext.com.tw/article/66804/nphd-ipo(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
21.Atome,Atome用戶服務條款,https://www.atome.tw/zh-tw/terms-of-service (最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
22.慢點付,服務條款,https://www.pay-later.com.tw/Public/MemberCenter/ServiceDocGet(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
23.Fula付啦,中國信託資融股份有限公司(Fula 付啦)服務條款,https://www.fulafula.com/terms(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
24.fasney,會員服務條款,https://www.fasney.com/services(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
25.zingala銀角零卡,zingala銀角零卡支付全攻略!,https://www.zingala.com/blog/lazyguide/Raiders(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
26.AFTEE,服務條款,https://aftee.tw/terms/(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
27.中租零卡分期服務條款,https://www.chailease.com.tw/0card/Ecommerce/TermsOfService(最後瀏覽日:2022年9月20日)。
28.關鍵評論,疫情加速推動新消費模式,「BNPL先買後付」的運作模式、優勢與風險有哪些?,https://www.thenewslens.com/article/172125(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
29.今周刊,不需繳利息受青睞、「先買後付」鎖定700萬無卡族 中租搶下灘頭堡,這家日商如何殺出血路?,https://www.businesstoday.com.tw/article/category/183015/post/202203020026/(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
30.自由時報,年輕人瘋BNPL 恐成無保貸款黑數,https://ec.ltn.com.tw/article/paper/1559127(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
31.TVBS新聞網,分期付款最大化!BNPL潮席捲台灣 各國監理法各異,https://news.tvbs.com.tw/world/1940697(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
32.遠見,美國嚴盯BNPL、怕年輕人負債!為何「先買後付」在台灣卻被追捧?,https://www.gvm.com.tw/article/86635(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
33.三立新聞網,搶攻無卡族!Pi拍錢包「慢點付」登場 最高5萬支付上限,https://www.setn.com/News.aspx?NewsID=1136924(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
34.FINDIT,【名家專欄-吳孟道】從Klarna興衰看BNPL退潮,褲子還在不在?,https://findit.org.tw/researchPageV2.aspx?pageId=2092(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
35.VOCUS,【曾經紅極一時的「先買後付」業者為什麼如今四面楚歌?】,https://vocus.cc/article/62a0569ffd897800013a242b(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
36.銀行局,金管會對國內先買後付(BNPL)業務之建議,https://www.banking.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=169&parentpath=0%2C2&mcustomize=multimessage_view.jsp&dataserno=202301120003&aplistdn=ou%3Dnews%2Cou%3Dmultisite%2Cou%3Dchinese%2Cou%3Dap_root%2Co%3Dfsc%2Cc%3Dtw&dtable=News&fbclid=IwAR3p0e47Tu5XZS4RMO1AMKpdOFtKarDw-nQA11qPCdbC53CTAKWxKKTugVM(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
37.工商時報,先買後付BNPL恐掀風暴 黃天牧緊盯,https://ctee.com.tw/news/consume/747608.html(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
38.工商時報,先買後付恐引爆新風險?黃天牧:已示警,https://ctee.com.tw/news/finance/769015.html(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
39.自由時報,避免「先買後付」釀雙卡風暴 金管會2方向管理,https://ec.ltn.com.tw/article/breakingnews/4148105?fbclid=IwAR30SS32vVPpFeNLVYHhbJdWdeUjeprNXHHKiJf8L0sfi3IutOzylxcxsO0(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
40.中時新聞網,無卡分期再爆詐騙 顧立雄:不能像保護Baby一樣保護成年人,https://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20191118002462-260410?chdtv (最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
41.財團法人聯合信用卡處理中心,支付卡發展史, https://www.nccc.com.tw/wps/wcm/connect/zh/home/KnowledgeSharing/PaymentCardKnowledge(最後瀏覽日:2023年2月25日)。
42.工商時報,臺北市租賃商業同業公會理事長陳鳳龍:台灣租賃業 太多緊箍咒,https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20160406000059-260202?chdtv (最後瀏覽日:2023年3月30日)。
43.聯合新聞網,爭議風險高...疫情後民眾資金需求增 民營融資公司無法管,https://udn.com/news/story/7238/6814006?fbclid=IwAR335-HYYe2khXoFR8XlucdYU4hufftFGt4VIj2bEIvc11QK4dizvAFDxWI(最後瀏覽日:2023年3月30日)。
44.民視新聞網,異言堂/立委呼籲制定「公司融資法」規範借貸亂象,https://www.ftvnews.com.tw/news/detail/2023213W0132(最後瀏覽日:2023年3月30日)。
45.MoneyDJ理財網,《DJ社論》Apple Pay Later都要來了,融資公司法該睡醒啦,https://www.moneydj.com/kmdj/editorial/editorialviewer.aspx?a=4bfbe6ce-5696-4f94-938a-6c98991bec43(最後瀏覽日:2023年3月30日)。
46.中時新聞網,租賃業申請聯徵信用報告 鬆綁,https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20150728000149-260511?chdtv(最後瀏覽日:2023年3月30日)。
47.金融監督管理委員會,「金融科技業者應用金融聯合徵信中心資料作業」服務之辦理近況,https://www.fsc.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=96&parentpath=0&mcustomize=news_view.jsp&dataserno=202208030001&dtable=News(最後瀏覽日:2023年3月30日)。
48.金融監督管理委員會,民眾將個人信用評分資料從聯徵中心轉交予金融科技業者將更方便更安全了,https://www.fsc.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=96&parentpath=0&mcustomize=news_view.jsp&dataserno=202201250002&dtable=News(最後瀏覽日:2023年3月30日)。
49.財團法人金融聯合徵信中心,【聯徵中心「金融科技業者應用金融聯合徵信中心資料作業」服務,即日起正式開放金融科技業者申請 】,https://www.jcic.org.tw/main_ch/docDetail.aspx?uid=69&pid=69&docid=11476(最後瀏覽日:2023年3月30日)。
50.經濟日報,「先買後付」恐衍生雙卡風暴要納管? 金管會:法制上會思考,https://money.udn.com/money/story/5613/6820873(最後瀏覽日:2023年3月30日)。


二、英文文獻

(一)專書

1.CALDER, LENDOL, FINANCING THE AMERICAN DREAM: A CULTURAL HISTORY OF CONSUMER CREDIT, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS, NEW JERSEY, U.S.A. (1999).
2.COLE, ROBERT H., CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL CREDIT MANAGEMENT, IRWIN, ILLINOIS, U.S.A. (1988).
3.COLE, ROBERT H., CONSUMER AND BUSINESS CREDIT MANAGEMENT, IRWIN/MCGRAW-HILL, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A. (1998).
4.FINLAY, STEVEN, CONSUMER CREDIT FUNDAMENTALS, PALGRAVE MACMILLAN, LONDON, UK (2009).
5.FINLAY, STEVEN, THE MANAGEMENT OF CONSUMER CREDIT: THEORY AND PRACTICE, PALGRAVE MACMILLAN, LONDON, UK (2010).
6.HUBBARD, GLENN, eds., FINANCIAL MARKETS AND FINANCIAL CRISES, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, Chicago, U.S.A. (1991).
7.THOMAS DURKIN ET AL., CONSUMER CREDIT AND THE AMERICAN ECONOMY, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, NEW YORK, U.S.A. (2014).

(二)期刊論文

1.Akerlof, George A., The Market for “Lemons”: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism, THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, VOL. 84, NO. 3, 488–500 (1970).
2.Black, Julia, Decentring Regulation: Understanding the Role of Regulation and Self-Regulation in a ‘Post-Regulatory’ World, 54 CURRENT LEGAL PROBLEMS 103, 103-146 (2001).
3.Burlingame, Laurie A., Getting To The Truth Of The Matter: Revising The TILA Credit Card Disclosure Scheme To Better Protect Consumers, 61 CONSUMER FIN. L.Q. REP. 308, 308-341 (2007).
4.Camerer, Colin, et al., Regulation For Conservatives: Behavioral Economics And The Case For “Asymmetric Paternalism”, 151 U. PA. L. REV. 1211, 1211-1254 (2003).
5.Edwards, Benjamin P., The Dark Side of Self-regulation, 85 U. CIN. L. REV. 573, 573-622 (2017).
6.Edwards, Matthew A., Empirical And Behavioral Critiques Of Mandatory Disclosure: Socio-economics And The Quest For Truth In Lending, 14 CORNELL J.L. & PUB. POL'Y 199, 199-248 (2005).
7.Edwards, Matthew A., The Virtue Of Mandatory Disclosure, 28 NOTRE DAME J.L. ETHICS & PUB. POL'Y 47, 47-77 (2014).
8.Glen, Patrick J., Law As Asymmetric Information: Theory, Application, And Results In The Context Of Foreign Direct Investment In Real Estate, 8 BERKELEY BUS. L.J. 116, 116-151 (2011).
9.Hawkins, Jim, Exploiting Advertising, 80 LAW & CONTEMP. PROBS. 43, 43-71 (2017).
10.Ho, Daniel E., Fudging The Nudge: Information Disclosure And Restaurant Grading, 122 YALE L.J. 574, 574-677 (2012).
11.Kronman, Anthony T., & Jackson, Thomas H., Secured Financing and Priorities Among Creditors, 88 YALE L. J. 1143, 1143-1182 (1979).
12.Livermore, Michael A., & Revesz, Richard L., Regulatory Review, Capture, And Agency Inaction, 101 GEO. L.J. 1337-1392 (2013).
13.Mann, Ronald J., Explaining the Pattern of Secured Credit, 110 HARV. L. REV. 625, 625-683 (1997).
14.Michael, Douglas C., Federal Agency Use of Audited Self-regulation As A Regulatory Technique, 47 ADMIN. L. REV. 171, 171-253 (1995).
15.Peterson, Christopher L., Truth, Understanding, And High-cost Consumer Credit: The Historical Context Of The Truth In Lending Act, 55 FLA. L. REV. 807, 807-903 (2003).
16.Pitofsky, Robert, Beyond Nader: Consumer Protection And The Regulation Of Advertising, 90 HARV. L. REV. 661, 661-701 (1977).
17.Reicin, Eric D., & Adams, Abby, Self-regulation Is a Tool to Mitigate Litigation, 10/14/2021 ACC DOCKET 1, 1-5 (2021).
18.Renuart, Elizabeth, & Thompson, Diane E., The Truth, The Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Truth: Fulfilling the Promise of Truth in Lending, 25 YALE J. ON REG.181, 181-245 (2008).
19.Rohner, Ralph J., & Landers, Jonathan M., A Functional Analysis of Truth in Lending, 26 U.C.L.A. L. REV. 711, 711-752 (1979).
20.Schwartzd, Alan, & Wilde, Louis L., Intervening In Markets On The Basis Of Imperfect Information: A Legal And Economic Analysis, 127 U. PA. L. REV. 630, 630-682 (1979).
21.Shay, Robert P., Uniform Consumer Credit Code an Economist’s View, 54 CORNELL L. REV. 491, 491-523 (1969).
22.Smith, David, & Stevens, Gregg, The Impact Of TILA On The Debtor-creditor Relationship, 61 CONSUMER FIN. L.Q. REP. 296, 296-307 (2007).


(三)Working Paper & Research Paper

1.Aggarwal, Nikita, et al., #Fintok and Financial Regulation (54 Arizona State Law Journal 333, 2023), available at SSRN: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4216952#.
2.Johnson, Di, et al., Analyzing the Impacts of Financial Services Regulation to Make the Case That Buy-Now-Pay-Later Regulation Is Failing 1-19 (2021), available at MDPI: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/4/1992.
3.Lux, Marshall, & Epps, Bryan, Grow Now, Regulate Later? Regulation urgently needed to support transparency and sustainable growth for Buy-Now, Pay-Later 1-21 (M-RCBG Associate Working Paper No. 182, 2022), available at: https://www.hks.harvard.edu/centers/mrcbg/publications/awp/awp182.
4.Martin, Nathalie, & Pizzonia, Lydia, Shadow Credit and the Devolution of Consumer Credit Regulation 1-43 (UNM School of Law Research Paper No.2020-10, 2020), available at SSRN: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3691969.
5.Milanesi, Diana, Buy Now, Pay Later (“BNPL”) Under Regulatory Scrutiny – The Evolving Regulatory Landscape for BNPL in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe 1-102 (TTLF Working Papers, 2022), available at: https://law.stanford.edu/publications/no-89-buy-now-pay-later-bnpl-under-regulatory-scrunity-the-evolving-regulatory-landscape-for-bnpl-in-the-united-states-the-united-kingdom-and-europe/.
6.Pearl, Joanna, & Shearer, Brian, Credit by any Other Name: How Federal Consumer Financial Law Governs Income Share Agreements 1-30 (Student Borrower Protection Center Emerging Risk Series, 2020), available at SSRN: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3661989.
7.Sng, Allen, & Tan, Christy, Buy Now Pay Later in Singapore: Regulatory Gaps and Reform 1-26 (National University of Singapore, Center for Banking & Finance Law working paper, 2022), available at SSRN: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3819058.

(四)法院判決
1.Boerner v. Colwell Co., 21 Cal.3d 37 (1978).
2.Customs and Excise Commissioners v. Diners Club Ltd and Anor, 1 WLR 1196 (1989).
3.Glaire v. La Lanne-Paris Health Spa, Inc., 12 Cal.3d 915 (1974).
4.Milana v. Credit Discount Co., 27 Cal.2d 335 (1945).
5.West Pico Furniture Co. v. Pacific Finance Loans, 2 Cal.3d 594 (1970).

(五)官方文件與報告

1.Australian Securities & Investments Commission (2018), Review of buy now pay later arrangements.
2.Australian Securities & Investments Commission (2020), Buy now pay later: An industry update.
3.Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (2021), The Consumer Credit Card Market Report.
4.Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (2022), Buy Now, Pay Later: Market trends and consumer impacts.
5.Department of Business Oversight (2019), In Re Sezzle, Inc., Statement of Issues (CFL FILE NO. 60DBO-104155).
6.Department of Business Oversight (2019), Re: Deferred Payment Products(FILE NO: OP 7667).
7.Financial Conduct Authority (2021), The Woolard Review - A review of change and innovation in the unsecured credit market.
8.HM Treasury (2021), Regulation of Buy-Now Pay-Later Consultation.
9.HM Treasury (2022), Reforming the Consumer Credit Act 1974 Consultation.
10.HM Treasury (2022), Regulation of Buy-Now Pay-Later Response to consultation.
11.HM Treasury (2023), Regulation of Buy-Now Pay Later Consultation on draft legislation.
12.Treasury.gov.au (2022), Regulating Buy Now, Pay Later in Australia.

(六)網路資料及其他

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2.Precedence Research, Buy Now Pay Later Market, available at https://www.precedenceresearch.com/buy-now-pay-later-market (last visited Sep. 20, 2022).
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4.The Guardian, A third of UK ‘buy now, pay later’ users say they can’t handle payments, available at https://www.theguardian.com/business/2022/jun/23/buy-now-pay-later-uk-research(last visited Sep. 20, 2022).
5.The Guardian, Two in five buy now, pay later shoppers borrow funds to clear the debt, available at https://www.theguardian.com/business/2022/jun/08/two-in-five-buy-now-pay-later-shoppers-borrow-funds-to-clear-the-debt(last visited Sep. 20, 2022).
6.FinTech Futures, State of play: BNPL, available at https://www.fintechfutures.com/2022/08/state-of-play-bnpl/(last visited Sep. 20, 2022).
7.Payments Journal, Sezzle Sizzles: California Lending License Rejected, available at https://www.paymentsjournal.com/sezzle-sizzles-california-lending-license-rejected/(last visited Sep. 20, 2022).
8.Department of Financial Protection and Innovation, Point-of-Sale Lender Sezzle Agrees to Cease Illegal Loans, Pay Refunds in Settlement with the California Department of Business Oversight, available at https://dfpi.ca.gov/2020/01/16/point-of-sale-lender-sezzle-agrees-to-cease-illegal-loans-pay-refunds-in-settlement-with-the-california-department-of-business-oversight/ (last visited Sep. 20, 2022).
9.The Fintech Times, Spotlight: UK Government Announces Regulatory Crackdown on Buy Now Pay Later Services, available at https://thefintechtimes.com/spotlight-uk-government-announces-regulatory-crackdown-on-buy-now-pay-later-services/(last visited Sep. 20, 2022).
10.The Straits Times, $440m of 'buy now, pay later' transactions in 2021; code of conduct to be rolled out later this year, available at https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/politics/440-million-of-buy-now-pay-later-transactions-in-2021-code-of-conduct-to-be-rolled-out-later-this-year(last visited Sep. 20, 2022).
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12.Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Notice and Request for Comment Regarding the CFPB’s Inquiry Into Buy-Now-Pay-Later (BNPL) Providers, available at https://www.consumerfinance.gov/rules-policy/notice-opportunities-comment/open-notices/notice-and-request-for-comment-regarding-cfpbs-inquiry-into-bnpl-providers/(last visited Sep. 20, 2022).
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14.New York Times, Delayed Gratification, available at https://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/30/magazine/30wwln-consumed-t.html(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
15.Zip, How to Modernize Your Layaway Program for Today’s Consumers, available at https://zip.co/us/merchant-hub/retail-insights/modernize-layaway-program-buy-now-pay-later(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
16.Investopedia, Buy Now, Pay Later vs. Layaway, available at https://www.investopedia.com/buy-now-pay-later-vs-layaway-5187822(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
17.Corporate Finance Institute, BNPL (Buy Now, Pay Later), available at https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/commercial-lending/bnpl-buy-now-pay-later/(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
18.CNBC, What is a point-of-sale loan and are they worth it?, available at https://www.cnbc.com/select/what-is-a-point-of-sale-loan/(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
19.Fintech Business Weekly, Buy Now, Pay Later vs POS Lending, a Crash Course, available at https://fintechbusinessweekly.substack.com/p/buy-now-pay-later-vs-pos-lending(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
20.Skeps, POS Lending vs. BNPL: An Introduction to Retail Financing, available at https://www.skeps.com/blog/pos-lending-vs-bnpl-an-introduction-to-retail-financing-skp(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
21.Forbes, What Is Point-Of-Sale Financing?, available at https://www.forbes.com/advisor/personal-loans/point-of-sale-financing/(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
22.Retail Brew, The evolution of buy now, pay later, available at https://www.retailbrew.com/stories/2021/12/27/the-evolution-of-buy-now-pay-later(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
23.Fintech Finance News, Zip Accelerates BNPL Adoption with Arrival of Zip Card, available at https://ffnews.com/newsarticle/zip-accelerates-bnpl-adoption-with-arrival-of-zip-card/(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
24.PYMNTS, BNPL Firm Klarna Brings ‘Klarna Card’ to US, available at https://www.pymnts.com/buy-now-pay-later/2022/bnpl-firm-klarna-brings-klarna-card-to-us/(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
25.Mondaq, United States: Core Considerations For Out-of-Network BNPL Payments, available at https://www.mondaq.com/Article/1277998(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
26.CNET, Best BNPL Apps, available at https://www.cnet.com/personal-finance/loans/best-buy-now-pay-later-apps/(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
27.Affirm, Pay with Affirm, in-store or online, just about anywhere, available at https://www.affirm.com/shopping/virtual-card(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
28.Afterpay, Afterpay Empowers the In-Store Shopping Experience with Apple Pay and Google Pay, available at https://www.afterpay.com/en-US/for-retailers/access/operations/afterpay-empowers-the-in-store-shopping-experience-with-apple-pay-and-google-pay-teln9(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
29.Regulations.gov, Notice and Request for Comment Regarding the CFPB’s Inquiry into Buy-Now-Pay-Later (BNPL) Providers, available at https://www.regulations.gov/docket/CFPB-2022-0002/comments(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
30.Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, Buy Now, Pay Later and Credit Reporting, available at https://www.consumerfinance.gov/about-us/blog/by-now-pay-later-and-credit-reporting/(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
31.DebtHammer, Survey: Buy Now Pay Later Plans Fuel Debt Struggles, available at https://debthammer.org/buy-now-pay-later-survey/(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
32.Insider Intelligence, Buy Now Pay Later Report: Market trends in the ecommerce financing, consumer credit, and BNPL industry, available at https://www.insiderintelligence.com/insights/buy-now-pay-later-ecommerce-financing-consumer-credit/(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
33.C+R Research, BUY NOW, PAY LATER STATISTICS AND USER HABITS
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35.PYMNTS, BNPL Regulation May Be a Win-Win for Providers and Consumers, Consumer Reports Says, available at https://www.pymnts.com/bnpl/2022/bnpl-regulation-may-be-a-win-win-for-providers-and-consumers-consumer-reports-says/amp/(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
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38.Economic Times, What is 'Balloon Payment', https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/balloon-payment(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
39.Adam Levitin, What Is "Credit"? Afterpay, Earnin', and ISAs, Credit Slips, available at https://www.creditslips.org/creditslips/2019/07/what-is-credit-afterpay-earnin-and-isas.html#more (last visited Sep. 20, 2022).
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41.Congress.gov, The Task Force on Financial Technology: Buy Now, Pay More Later? Investigating Risks and Benefits of BNPL and Other Emerging Fintech Cash Flow Products, available at https://www.congress.gov/event/117th-congress/house-event/114211?s=1&r=70(last visited Feb. 25, 2023).
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48.Research and Markets, Singapore Buy Now Pay Later Business and Investment Opportunities Databook - 75+ KPIs on BNPL Market Size, End-Use Sectors, Market Share, Product Analysis, Business Model, Demographics - Q1 2023 Update, available at https://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/5304986/singapore-buy-now-pay-later-business-and?utm_source=CI&utm_medium=PressRelease&utm_code=2xk2x3&utm_campaign=1821766+-+Singapore+Buy+Now+Pay+Later+Market+Report+2023%3a+BNPL+Payments+are+Expected+to+Grow+by+20.6%25+to+Reach+%241%2c270.4+Million+in+2023+-+Forecast+to+2028&utm_exec=chdo54prd-buy-now?w=5(last visited Mar. 30, 2023).
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50.Australian Finance Industry Association, Code Compliance Committee (CCC) Powers, available at https://afia.asn.au/BNPL-CCC-Powers (last visited Mar. 30, 2023).
51.UKTN, Reporting BNPL data to credit agencies is flawed, says Zilch boss, available at https://www.uktech.news/fintech/credit-agencies-bnpl-data-zilch-20220926(last visited Mar. 30, 2023).
52.CardRates.com, Clearing The Confusion About Buy Now, Pay Later & Credit Reporting, available at https://www.cardrates.com/advice/buy-now-pay-later-and-credit-reporting/(last visited Mar. 30, 2023).

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