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研究生:Muhammad Rizal Zulmi
研究生(外文):MUHAMMAD RIZAL ZULMI
論文名稱:狂歡、幻想、儀式:當代電影中的主題 Mise-en-scène
論文名稱(外文):Carnival, Fantasy, Ritual: The Thematic Mise-en-scène in Contemporary Cinema
指導教授:賈元鵬
指導教授(外文):EARL JACKSON, JR.
口試委員:陳英輝狄亞倫賈元鵬
口試委員(外文):CHEN, YING-HUEIAARON DEVESONEARL JACKSON, JR.
口試日期:2023-07-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:亞洲大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:111
語文別:英文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:Mise-en-scène電影研究狂歡節幻想儀式
外文關鍵詞:Mise-en-scèneCinema StudiesCarnivalFantasyRitual
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字面上意味著「放置在場景中」的mise-en-scène最初是一個戲劇術語,指的是舞台上的擺放,現在已經演變為指電影鏡頭或一系列密切相關鏡頭中可見元素的組織。這種安排不僅可以傳達關於電影世界的信息,還可以表達主題、氛圍以及心理狀態甚至對現實的哲學態度。本研究將最具體類型的mise-en-scène之後稱為「主題性的」,以描述它們與所研究的電影中極端體驗的特定關係:狂歡、幻想和儀式。
本研究將對六部電影進行三個比較和對比用mise-en-scène的分析,這六部電影根據上述三個類別進行了組織:對於狂歡,有Joseph H. Lewis的《Gun Crazy》(1950年)和Edmund Goulding的1947年版《Nightmare Alley》以及Guillermo del Toro的2021年版;對於幻想,有James Bidgood的《Pink Narcissus》(1971年)和Yasuzo Masumura的《Blind Beast》(1969年);對於儀式,有Ari Aster的《Hereditary》(2018年)和同一導演的《Midsommar》(2019年)。在對mise-en-scène的概念進行介紹時,將包括早期電影的例子,這些電影推動了mise-en-scène的能力,本研究將重點關注在這些電影中的視覺和意義的特定集中,反映了它們所處時代的世界觀。

Literally meaning “placing in the scene”, mise-en-scène was originally a theatrical term referring to placement on stage which has come to mean the organization of visible elements within a shot or a series of closely related shots in a film. The arrangement can convey not only information about the world of the film but also the theme, the atmosphere as well as psychological states or even philosophical attitudes to reality. The present thesis examines very specific types of mise-en-scène, which I will call “thematic”, to describe their particular relations to extreme experiences central to the films under scrutiny: carnival; fantasy; and ritual.
This thesis will engage in three comparative and contrastive analyses of the mise-en-scène in six filmsorganized under the three categories listed above: for carnival, Joseph H. Lewis’ Gun Crazy (1950) and Nightmare Alley - Edmund Goulding’s 1947 version and Guillermo del Toro’s 2021 version; for fantasy: James Bidgood’s Pink Narcissus (1971) and Yasuzo Masumura’s Blind Beast (1969); and for ritual: Ari Aster’s Hereditary (2018) and the same director’s Midsommar (2019). After an introduction of the concept that will include examples from early cinema that advanced the capacity of mise-en-scène, the thesis will focus on the specific concentration of vision and meaning in the films that reflect the respective worldviews of the era of their production.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
TABLE OF FIGURES vii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT x
INTRODUCTION 1
Mise-en-scène 1
Mise-en-scène in Early Cinema. 2
A Trip to the Moon (Georges Méliès, 1902) 3
L’Inferno (Francesco Bertolini, Adolfo Padovan, Giuseppe De Liguoro, 1911) 6
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Robert Wiene, 1920) 12
Statements of the Problem 17
CHAPTER I Carnival 19
Carnival 19
Gun Crazy (Joseph H. Lewis, 1950) 19
Nightmare Alley (Edmund Goulding, 1947) 31
Nightmare Alley (Guillermo del Toro, 2021) 41
Carnivalesque 47
CHAPTER II Fantasy 49
Fantasy 49
Pink Narcissus (James Bidgood, 1971) 50
Blind Beast (Yasuzo Masumura, 1969) 66
Comparison 74
Construction of Fantasy 74
CHAPTER III Ritual 76
Ritual 76
Hereditary (Ari Aster, 2018) 76
Midsommar (Ari Aster, 2019) 101
Scale 111
Symbols 112
Visual 113
CONCLUSION 115
WORK CITED 121
APPENDIX 126
List of Films 126

TABLE OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 THE MISE-EN-SCÈNE FROM EARLY CINEMA.....................................................................4
FIGURE 2 THE DEPICTIONS OF INDIVIDUALS SUFFERING IN A HELLISH REALM. .....................7
FIGURE 3 DORÉ ILLUSTRATION GLUTTONS. CANTO VI., LINES 49-52 ...........................................8
FIGURE 4 THE POWERFUL AND INTIMIDATING PLUTO ....................................................................9
FIGURE 5 PLUTUS. CANTO VII., LINES 8, 9. .........................................................................................10
FIGURE 6 LUCIFER, THE GIANT AND GROTESQUE CREATURE .....................................................11
FIGURE 7 THE VISION OF HELL. CANTO XXXIV., LINES 20, 21.......................................................12
FIGURE 8 CONRAD VEIDT'S DISTINCTIVE MOVEMENTS AND GESTURES..................................14
FIGURE 9 CESARE APPROACHING HIS VICTIM..................................................................................14
FIGURE 10 CESARE'S EXPLOSIVE AND AGGRESSIVE MOVEMENTS.............................................16
FIGURE 11 THE DEPICTION OF CITYSCAPE IN THE CABINET OF DR. CALIGARI.......................16
FIGURE 1.1 LAURIE IN HER COWBOY SUIT.........................................................................................21
FIGURE 1.2 BART LEANS FORWARD IN HIS SEAT. ............................................................................22
FIGURE 1.3 LAURIE'S HIP-SWIVELING SHOOTING EXHIBITIONISM. ............................................23
FIGURE 1.4 PACKET, BART, AND LAURIE............................................................................................24
FIGURE 1.5 THE CAMERA ATTEMPTS TO RESTORE MASCULINE DOMINACE IN THE
RELATIVE SIZES OF THE FIGURES. .............................................................................................26
FIGURE 1.6 EVEN IN THE REVERSE, THE CAMERA ATTEMPTS TO RESTORE MASCULINE
DOMINANCE. ....................................................................................................................................27
FIGURE 1.7 A TASTE OF THE LIFE THAT CAN NEVER BE THEIRS. ................................................28

FIGURE 1.8 EYES TO EYES, MOUTH TO MOUTH. THEIR FACES SUBSUME THE MISE-EN-
SCÈNE.................................................................................................................................................29

FIGURE 1.9 A WORLD WITHOUT SOLID OUTLINES...........................................................................30
FIGURE 1.10 OPENING SEQUENCE OF NIGHTMARE ALLEY (1947) ................................................33
FIGURE 1.11 STAN AND ZEENA AT THE BACKSTAGE OF HER SHOW ..........................................34
FIGURE 1.12 STAN IN LILITH'S OFFICE.................................................................................................36
FIGURE 1.13 THE DESOLATION OF THE CARNIVAL..........................................................................37
FIGURE 1.14 MOLLY IN HER TURN-OF-THE-CENTURY GARB AND PARASOL............................38
FIGURE 1.15 STAN’S FATE.......................................................................................................................39
FIGURE 1.16 STAN GOES BERSERK. ......................................................................................................40
FIGURE 1.17 THE USE OF CIRCLES IN THE FUN HOUSE SEQUENCE..............................................42
FIGURE 1.18 THE CARNIVAL AS PANOPTICON ..................................................................................42
FIGURE 1.19 THE USE OF MIRROR IN BATHTUB SCENE ..................................................................43
FIGURE 1.20 THE USE OF MIRROR AND LIGHTING IN MOLLY'S MAKE-UP DESK SCENE ........44
FIGURE 1.21 LILITH'S OFFICE .................................................................................................................45
FIGURE 1.22 LOBBY WITH TELEPHONE BOOTHS ..............................................................................46
FIGURE 1.23 STAN RUNNING TO HIS FATE, THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE CARNIVALESQUE.
.............................................................................................................................................................48
FIGURE 2.1 THE BOY CONTEMPLATES HIMSELF IN FRONT OF HIS MIRRORS. ..........................54
FIGURE 2.2 THE BOY 'S SELF-PORTRAITS IN ORNATE, FRAMES....................................................55
FIGURE 2.3 WALL FIGURES SUGGESTING PENISES. .........................................................................56
FIGURE 2.4 THE BOY IS BULLFIGHTING WITH A BIKER. .................................................................57
FIGURE 2.5 THE BOY IN ECSTASY.........................................................................................................58
FIGURE 2.6 BUTTERFLY ON THE BOY'S PENIS ...................................................................................59
FIGURE 2.7 THE BOY AS A ROMAN KING ............................................................................................61
FIGURE 2.8 THE KING IS REACHING OUT TO THE SLAVE. ..............................................................63
FIGURE 2.9 MICHELANGELO'S THE CREATION OF ADAM ..............................................................63
FIGURE 2.10 THE WAITER FANTASY ....................................................................................................64
FIGURE 2.11 URBAN NIGHTSCAPE. .......................................................................................................65
FIGURE 2.12 THE ART GALLERY............................................................................................................68
FIGURE 2.13 AKI WHO WAS CORNERED IN FRONT OF THE STATUES OF EYE...........................71
FIGURE 2.14 AKI LOST ON TOP A GIGANTIC FEMALE FORM..........................................................72
FIGURE 2.15 THE CLIMACTIC SCENE OF BLIND BEAST IS THE DEATH DRIVE ACTED OUT...73
FIGURE 3.1 THE OPENING SHOT OF HEREDITARY FEATURING THE MINIATURE.....................77
FIGURE 3.2 THE TREEHOUSE..................................................................................................................78
FIGURE 3.3 A BEDROOM IN THE MINIATURE OF THE GRAHAM HOUSE. ....................................79
FIGURE 3.4 THE MINIATURE IS TRANSFORMED INTO THE REAL ROOM. ...................................80
FIGURE 3.5 THE FIRST IMAGE OF THE FILM, ANNOUNCEMENT OF A RITUAL. .........................83
FIGURE 3.6 ONE OF THE MANY “STRANGERS” AT THE FUNERAL................................................84
FIGURE 3.7 A CULTIST PERFORMS A SECRET RITUAL WITHIN THE PUBLIC ONE. ...................84
FIGURE 3.8 ANNIE AT THE ENTRANCE OF HER MOTHER'S BEDROOM........................................85
FIGURE 3.9 ANNIE VISITS GRIEF COUNSELING GROUP...................................................................86
FIGURE 3.10 PRINCIPAL CULTIST JOAN IS ON THE EXTREME LEFT.............................................88
FIGURE 3.11 THE MISE-EN-SCÈNE IS CONTAMINATED....................................................................89
FIGURE 3.12 THE NATURE OF JOAN’S WORLD IS SUGGESTED IN THE WAY ANNIE’S
ENTRANCE IS FRAMED. .................................................................................................................90
FIGURE 3.13 JOAN’S APARTMENT IS GIVEN OVER TO THE CODES OF THE RITUAL. ...............91
FIGURE 3.14 THE RITUAL ABSORBS REALITY INTO ITS TERRIBLE MISE-EN-SCÈNE. ..............92
FIGURE 3.15 INTERIOR SHOT OF PETER SMOKING. ..........................................................................94
FIGURE 3.16 EXTERIOR SHOT OF PETER SMOKING ..........................................................................95
FIGURE 3.17 WIDE SHOT OF THE GRAHAM HOUSE THAT LOOKS LIKE A MINIATURE............96
FIGURE 3.18 WIDE SHOT OF THE GRAHAM HOUSE THAT LOOKS LIKE A MINIATURE............96
FIGURE 3.19 JOAN'S REFLECTION SEEN IN THE MIRROR. ...............................................................97
FIGURE 3.20 THE POSSESSED PETER'S REFLECTION SEEN IN THE MIRROR...............................98
FIGURE 3.21 REFLECTION OF PETER WHO IS ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE ROOM. .................99
FIGURE 3.22 MURAL THAT DEPICTS THE ENTIRE STORY OF MIDSOMMAR............................ 102
FIGURE 3.23 THE HOUSE IN WHICH HORROR AND VIOLENCE OCCURRED............................. 103
FIGURE 3.24 TWO EVENTS SHOWN AT THE SAME TIME. ............................................................. 104
FIGURE 3.25 LUNCH SCENE.................................................................................................................. 105
FIGURE 3.26 ANTHROPOLOGICAL MISE-EN-SCÈNE....................................................................... 107
FIGURE 3.27 APPARITIONS INSIDE THE SACRED HOUSE ............................................................. 109
FIGURE 3.28 CHRISTIAN IN A BEAR SKIN IS BEING IMMOLATED.............................................. 109
FIGURE 3.29 THE FINAL ACT OF MIDSOMMAR............................................................................... 110
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