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研究生:林博文
論文名稱:十九世紀中期普魯士農奴解放後的社會與城鄉流動
論文名稱(外文):Social Mobility and Migrations of the Emancipated Serfs in the Mid-Nineteenth-Century Prussia
指導教授:郭秀鈴郭秀鈴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiu-ling Kuo
口試委員:劉巧楣陳致宏郭秀鈴
口試委員(外文):LIU, CHIAO-MEICHEN, CHIH-HUNGKUO, HSIU-LING
口試日期:2024-01-08
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:歷史系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2024
畢業學年度:112
語文別:中文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:德國現代化農奴解放社會階級流動城鄉移動海外移民
外文關鍵詞:Emancipation of SerfsIndustrial Revolution in GermanyClass MobilityInternational MigrationUrban Migration
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  農奴解放(Bauernbefreiung)可謂對歐洲後續的整個十九世紀,乃至於現代歐洲文化對內與對外的總體發展,影響至鉅。值得探討的是,此制度的改革與執行並非在一朝一夕之間即可實現,以普魯士為例,藉由法令與實質措施,歷經數位君主的努力始能將延續數百年的農奴制度徹底廢除,革除領主與農民間的封建從屬關係。在取而代之的資本主義市場的生產、雇傭、消費關係中,許多農民進而獲得土地的私有產權和自由人的身份。從農奴解放的結果來說,表面上農民似乎獲得了人身自由與龐大的利益,然而實際上在新時代社會與經濟結構,反而使農民的生存境況更為艱困。
在農奴解放的過程中,不光是在普魯士區域,整個德語諸邦都出現了對內與對外的大量人口移動(移民)潮。首先,在德語區域工業化尚未完全成熟之時,出現了規模不小的前往美洲新大陸國際移民潮流以及相對應新興職業,如移民仲介、跨大西洋移民船運公司、移民資訊出版公司…等。而之後蓬勃發展的工業化趨勢,更使得大批農民在國內,如往柏林、漢堡、慕尼黑、魯爾工業區…等城市或都會區域,的城鄉移動現象中成為此時代變革的主角。這些農民在這過程中的個人興衰、際遇、與掙扎,構成了本研究的核心篇章。而在農村留下來的人們,他們又如何面對並回應此遍及社會、家庭、與個人生活面向的重大變革?本研究將以農民在空間上的橫向移動為切入點,以普魯士為核心,探討德國的農奴解放及其對農民生活所造成的實質影響,並進一步剖析十九世紀中期以農民為主體的(跨大西洋德裔)國際移民潮、在德語諸邦境內的城鄉移動、以及留在農村的農民等不同方向發展所衍生的境況。
  The emancipation of the serfs (Bauernbefreiung) has a significant influence on the 19th-century Europe, as well as the impacts of the modern European culture both on the Continent and overseas. Noteworthily, the reform and implementation of the emancipation of the serfs did not take place overnight. Take Prussia for example, only through countless efforts (proclaiming various laws and enacting countless measures) made by Friedrich II and his subsequent successors, could the feudal system, which had existed for hundreds of years, be abolished; and the feudal bondage between the landlord and the serfs be dissolved. In the production, employment, and consumption relationships of the capitalist market, which replaced the feudal society, some peasants gained private property ownerships of land and the status as a free person. Judging from the results of the liberation of serfs, on the surface it seemed that peasants have gained personal freedom and huge benefits. However, in reality, the social and economic structure of the new era has made living conditions of peasants more strenuous and difficult.
During the process of emancipation of the serfs, not just in Prussian, but also in the entire region of the German-speaking states, a large number of domestic and international migrations have taken place. Firstly, when the industrialization of the German-speaking areas was not yet fully mature, there was a large-scale international migration trend for emigration to the American New World and corresponding emerging new professions, such as immigration agencies, transatlantic immigration shipping companies, immigration information publishing companies, etc.. And the subsequently flourished industrialization in Germany then made a large number of peasants the main characters of the urban-rural migration phenomenon within the country, such as from rural areas to cities or metropolitan areas such as Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Ruhr Industrial area, etc. The personal rise and fall, encounters, and struggles of these farmers in this process constitute the major content of this research. And how did the peasants who stayed in the rural region process and respond to this major change that affects society, family, and personal life? This thesis will use Prussia as the core case and take the migration of peasants as the main investigation point, to explore the substantial impact of the emancipation of serfs in Germany on peasants’ lives in the rural region and the areas they migrated to. Furthermore, taking the peasants as the main body of research, this thesis will analyze the conditions under which German peasants were experiencing in the trans-Atlantic international migration, in the urban and rural movements, and in the countryside for those who chose to stay from the mid-19th century onwards.

誌謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
壹、 緒論 1
一、 研究動機與研究問題 1
(一) 研究動機 1
(二) 研究問題 6
二、 研究回顧與探討 9
(一) 德意志區域農奴制解放之前 12
(二) 普魯士農奴解放 14
1. 農奴解放的過程 14
2. 解放後農民的政治參與 17
(三) 普魯士農民的海外移動 18
(四) 十九世紀中後葉德語各邦農民的城鄉移動 22
(五) 留在農村的農業無產階級與富農 24
三、 研究方法/重要史料 27
四、 章節架構 31
貳、 普魯士農奴制度的流變與廢除 34
一、 德意志區域農奴制在十六世紀至十八世紀的流變 34
二、 普魯士十八世紀晚期農奴制根基的動搖 38
三、 普魯士十九世紀農奴制的解體過程 44
四、 德意志區域農奴制廢止的結果 52
參、 農村危機與農民的國內外移動 58
一、 德裔移民的國際移動 58
二、 普魯士大規模工業化與農村危機 70
三、 普魯士農民工的誕生與移動 78
肆、 留下來的人們-極貧的多數與極富的少數 86
一、 新式農業工人的生活境況 86
二、 農村的上層階級與階級躍升 93
三、 農人的經濟訴求與政治認同 99
伍、 結論 108
陸、 引用文獻 118
史料 118
出版書籍 120
期刊論文 127
學位論文 135
工作論文 135
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學位論文
Boyd, James. An investigation into the structural causes of German-American mass migration in the nineteenth century. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University, 2013.
Howell, Michael F. Rooted in the dark of the earth: Bavaria's peasant-farmers and the profit of a manufactured paradise, Master of Arts Thesis, University of Georgia, 2008.
工作論文
Pfister, Ulrich Pfister. “Urban population in Germany, 1500 – 1850.” CQE Working Papers 9020, Center for Quantitative Economics, University of Muenster, 2020.
Kopsidis, Michael and Ulrich Pfister. “Agricultural development during early industrialization in a low-wage economy: Saxony, c. 1790-1830.” Ehes Working Papers in Economic History, no. 39, 2003.

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